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It must be remembered, that if the grammar be the first book put into the learner's 
hands it should also be the last to leave them. Pref. to Buttmann's Greek Grammar. 

This Edition is adopted by the University at Cambridge^Mass., and is recommended 
to the use of those who are preparing for that Seminary. 






Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1866, by 


hi the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States , in and for the District 
of Massachusetts. 


The experience of twenty-six years, and the united ap- 
probation of the most judicious instructers in our country, 
give ample testimony to the excellence of Adam's Latin 
Grammar. And it is worthy of remark, that, amidst the 
changes of almost every thing connected with education, 
this work has maintained its popularity throughout the 
country since the year 1799, when it was recommended by 
the University at Cambridge. But several typographical 
errors, which were adopted from that Edinburgh edition, 
from which the first American edition was copied, have been 
transmitted through subsequent editions to the present time 
with such scrupulous exactness, that they have now become 
canonized, and are received as authority. Besides these, 
other errors have been creeping in, till a thorough revision of 
the work has become necessary. 

At the time this book was first compiled, the state of ed- 
ucation in Scotland may have been such as to render the 
connexion of the Latin with the English necessary, in the 
manner they were blended by Dr. Adam ; but that neces- 
sity does not exist in this country, where English grammar 
is separately taught from the more complete systems of 
Lowth and Murray. For this reason, and because what is 
not used in a manual becomes a hindrance, the portion per- 
taining exclusively to English grammar has been omitted in 
this edition ; and some few additions and alterations have 
been made which were deemed important. But in all cases 
where it was practicable, the words of the original grammar 
have been preserved. 

The following are some of the principal alterations in 
the present edition. The powers and sounds of the letters 
are explained — a few concise rules are given for the right 


Pronunciation of Latin — the quantity of the penultimate 
vowel is marked in every word throughout the book, where 
it is not determined by being placed before another vowel, 
a double consonant, or two single ones. The rules for 
pronunciation are founded on the system of Walker ; and 
are agreeable to the usage of the University at Cambridge. 
They are general, and perhaps may admit of some excep 
tions. But it is hoped they will do something towards 
bringing about a greater uniformity of pronunciation ; an 
object greatly to be desired. For the vicious pronuncia- 
tion, arising from an entire neglect of the subject in some 
schools, and from the whimsical peculiarities of others, af- 
fords no little trouble and vexation to the tutor, when all 
the varieties of it are brought together in collegiate recita- 
tions. Besides, it is all-important that a correct pronunci- 
ation should be adopted from the beginning. So strong is 
the force of habit, that it has been found almost impossi- 
ble to correct the pronunciation of boys who have been 
allowed to pronounce incorrectly in the commencement of 
their studies. This is of much more importance than most 
persons imagine. All parents are not sensible, when they 
allow their children to learn their Latin grammar first at 
home, without attention to this subject, or to commence the 
study of Latin with persons avowedly unfit to carry them 
through the course proposed, that they are preparing years 
of labour for the instructer to whom they are ultimately des- 
tined. But it is nevertheless true, that years have been spent 
in correcting habits of corrupt pronunciation formed in a few 
months ; and sometimes it has been found impossible to cor- 
rect them altogether. 

The article on Gender, which was very incomplete in 
the original, has been written anew, and remarks on it, 
which were scattered in different places, have been brought 
together. The English has been added to the Nouns and 
Verbs used as paradigms. A greater variety of Nouns of 
the third declension are declined as paradigms ; and 
several defective, irregular, and compound words have 
also been declined. The lists of Defective Nouns have 
been carefully revised and corrected. In declining the 
Adjectives, all unnecessary repetition has been avoided, 


and an example in ns added. The table of Numeral Adjec 
tives has been somewhat enlarged by the addition of the 
higher numerical letters. A few additional observations on 
the Pronouns have been subjoined. A paradigm has been 
given, in each of the four congregations, of a Verb displayed 
in all its parts, and with the corresponding English annex- 
ed to all. An example of a Verb in io, of the third conju- 
gation, has been added to the paradigms. In giving the 
English, a little more precision has been attempted than 
js observed in the original ; particularly in the imperfect 
and future of the Indicative. A Synopsis of all the Modes 
and Tenses is subjoined to each Voice. The Formation 
of the tenses, it is hoped, will be found more intelligible 
and practically useful than before. Some slight alterations 
have been made in the subsequent matter, in order to render 
more prominent certain portions which were thought con- 
fused and indistinct. To the Prosody has been added a 
Metrical Key, or explanation of the various metres and com- 
binations of metres used by Horace, with an Index (after 
the plan of Dr. Carey) to all the Odes. The remarks, 
which stood at the end, upon English Versification, with 
the Latin rules of Prosody from Ruddiman, have been 
omitted as useless in that place. Instead of these are sub- 
stituted a List of Latin Authors, arranged according to the 
golden, silver, and brazen ages of Roman literature ; also 
Tables exhibiting the value of the Coins, Weights, and 
Measures, used by the Romans ; with some Remarks on 
the method of computing Sesterces, and on the grammatical 
solution of expressions relating to them, which are drawn 
from the best treatises on these difficult subjects, and may 
assist young students to gain a more exact knowledge of 
them, than is to be derived from any other book in com- 
mon use ; and, lastly, Lyne's Rules for Construction, and for 

The editor hopes that this excellent compendium wJl be 
found to have derived some additional value, in a practical 
point of view, from the changes above-mentioned. The 
more he has examined the work, and compared it with 
other Latin Grammars, the higher it has risen in his esti- 
mation. There is contained in this little manual almost 


every thing that is necessary for the student at school or at 
college ; while at the same time the volume is so small as to 
be convenient for use, even where an abridgment would be 
sufficient. This is an important consideration ; for no abridg- 
ment or compend should ever be put into the hands of a 
scholar, who is afterwards to use the original work. The 
Ibrce of first impressions, and of local associations, renders 
it almost impossible to use a different Grammar from that 
first learned, with the same readiness. The page, the situa- 
tion on the page, the type, and other circumstances con- 
nected with it in the memory, all contribute to facilitate the 
turning to any rule or observation desired. And no small 
loss of time is occasioned by that confusion which results 
from having learned two or three Grammars of the same lan- 
guage. Even a different paging in different editions of the 
same Grammar should be carefully avoided, unless there be 
some good reason for the change. 




Pronunciation of Latin . . 9 
Rules for the Accent and Sound of the 
Vowels 10 


Orthography, which treats of 
Letters 11 

Diphthongs 13 

Syllables 13 


Etymolo-gy, which treats of 
Words 14 

Division of Words,or Parts of Speech 14 
I. Noun or Substantive . .15 

Latin Nouns 16 

Declension of Nouns ... 16 
Gender jf Nouns .... 17 
First Declension .... 20 
Second Declension .... 26 
Third Declension .... 35 
Fourth Declension .... 53 

Fifth Declension 56 

Irregular Nouns 56 

Division of Nouns, according to . 
their Signification and Deri- 
vation 64 

Adjective . 66 

Numeral Adjectives . . . 74 
Comparison of Adjectives . . 78 

II. Pronoun 80 

1. Simple Pronouns ... 80 

2. Compound Pronouns . . 83 

III Verb 86 

Conjugations of Verbs ... 88 
First Conjugation .... 93 
Second Conjugation ... 98 
Third Conjugation .... 103 
Fourth Conjugation . . . Ill 
Formation of the different Parts 

of Verbs 116 

Formation of the Tenses . . 117 
Signification of the different 

Tenses 118 

V'wbs of the First Conjugation 121 

Verbs of the Second Conjugation 125 

Third Conjugation 12d 

Fourth Conjugation 138 

Deponent and Common Verbs 139 

Irregular Verbs 143 

Defective Verbs 149 

Impersonal Verbs ... 150 
Redundant Verbs .... 151 
Obsolete Conjugation . . . 153 
Derivation and Composition of 
Verbs 153 

IV. Participle 155 

V. Adverb 157 

VI. Preposition 161 

VII. Interjection 162 

VIII. Conjunction 163 


Syntax, or Construction, which 

treats of Sentences . . . 165 
Division of Sentences into Simple 

and Compound 165 

I. Simple Sentences .... 166 
Concord or Agreement of Words 

in Simple Sentences . . 166 
Government of Words in Sim- 
ple Sentences 170 

I. Government of Substantives 170 

II. Government of Adjectives 172 
in. Government of Verbs . 178 

1. Verbs governing One Case 178 

2. Verbs govern ingTvvoCases 184 

Construction of Passive Verbs 188 

Impersonal Verbs 189 

Construction of the Infinitive 191 
Construction of Participles, &c. 192 

Gerunds . . 193 

Supines . . 195 

Adverbs . 195 

Government of Adverbs . 197 
Construction of Prepositions . 198 

Interjections . 203 

=— Circumstances 204 

1. Pric« 204 

2. Mariner and Cause . . 204 



3 Place .... 

4 Measure and Distance 
5. Time 




II Compound Se itences . . . 209 
Sentences are compounded by 

Relatives and Conjunctions 209 
Construction of Relatives . . 209 

Conjunctions . 212 

Comparatives . 216 

The Ablative Absolute . .217 



I. Various Signification and Con- 
struction of Verbs . .^ . 220 

11. Figurative Construction, or Fi- 
gures of Syntax .... 239 

III. Analysis and Translation . . 240 

IV. Different Kinds of Style . . 244 
V. Figures of Rhetoric . . . 245 

1. Figures of Words, or Tropes 245 

2. Repetition of Words . . 249 

3. Figures of Thought ... 250 


Prosody, which treats of the 
Quantity of Syllables, of Ac- 
cent, and Verse .... 253 

Quantity of Syllables . . . .254 

1. Quantity of First and Middle 

Syllable 256 

2. Quantity of Final Syllables 261 
Quantity of Derivatives and 

Compounds .... 265 

Verse 26: 

The Measuring of Verses by Feet, or 

Scanning 26S 

Different Kinds of Verse . . . 268 

The Oesura 269 

Figures in Scanning 272 

Figures of Diction 275 

Different Kinds of Poems . . . 275 
Combination of Verses in Poems . 276 
Different Kinds of Verse in Horace, 

and their Combinations . . 277 
Index to the Odes of Horace . . 280 


Punctuation, Capitals, &c. . . . 282 
Division of the Roman Months . 284 
Different Ages of Roman Literature 286 

Roman Coins 289 

Computation of Money by Sesterces 289 

Roman Measures 290 

Weights 291 

Additional Remarks on Roman Mo- 
ney 291 

General Rules of Construction . . 294 
Position of Words in Latin Compo- 
sition ... .297 



It must be kept in mind, whilst applying the rules which 
follow, that Accent and Quantity are wholly distinct from 
each other, and must not be confounded ; and also, that the 
quantity of the vowels in Latin is not supposed to be ex- 
pressed by the long or the short sounds we give them in 
English. It or, in that case, we should make short all vow- 
els long by position ; as we uniformly give the short sound to 
the first syllable of such words as the following; vannus, pig- 
nus, penna, longus, Sic. In other words we give the long sound 
to vowels that are short in quantity; as in the first syllable of 
fero, tiili, datum, &c. all of which are short in quantity. Indeed, 
the sound of a vowel depends very much upon its situation in 
a word, and the place of the accent, as may be seen in the 
following words, and many others ; decus, rego, eques ; in each 
of which we give the long sound to the first vowel, though 
short in quantity, but the short sound to the same vowels when 
the words become trisyllables; as, decoris, regere, equitis ;* 
notwithstanding they remain short as before. 

For these seeming inconsistencies we can only answer by 
saying, we know not how the Romans sounded these vowels 
under like circumstances; and as we probably never shall 
know, it seems most rational to give vowels in Latin the 
same sound we should give them in our own language when 
similarly situated. If we take, then, the analogy of the English 
for our guide, the way is plain, and leads, perhaps, to a re- 
sult as satisfactory as could be obtained by a more intricate 

* This illustrates a pretty general rule, with respect to the sound of 
vowels, viz. that in words of two syllables, the first, being always accent- 
ed, has the long sound before a single consonant ; whereas in trisyllables, 
nrhen the first is accented, it is generally pronounced with the short 
sound ; as, C&sar, Ccesdris. 



I. In all words of two syllables, the first is accented, with* 
out regard to quantity; as, homo, bellum, erat. 

II. In words of more than two syllables, if the penult c« 
long in quantity, it is accented ; if short, the antepenult is 
accented ; as, radicis, amicus; temporis, consults. 

Obs. In prose, when the penult is common, the antepenult receives the 
accent; but in poetry it is placed where the verse requires it. 


I. Every vowel has either the long or the shor„ sound 
which it has in English, except a in the end of a word of 
more than one syllable ; where it is sounded broad, like ah 
in Ramah; as, Jama, penna. 

The diphthongs ce & or, ending a syllable with the accent on it, are 
pronounced like the long English e; as, Cmsar, (Eta, as if written Cee- 
sar, Eta ; and like short e, when they are followed by a consonant in the 
same syllable ; as, Dceddlus, (Edlpus, as if written Deddalus, Eddipus. 

II. In monosyllables, when the vowel is the final letter, 
it has the long sound ; as, da, me, si, do, tu ; but otherwise 
the short sound ; as, ac, sed, in, oh, hue. 

Obs. All terminations in es, and plural cases in os, both in monosylla- 
bles and polysyllables, are in England and in this country usually pro- 
nounced long; as, es,pes, hamines ; nos, hos, populos. 

III. If the penult be accented, its vowel before another 
vowel, or a single consonant, is long in its sound ; but before 
two consonants or the double consonant x, it has the short 
sound ; as, mater, fides, pietdtis ; which are long : tan- 
dem, lo7igus, mundus, respondens, buxus ; which have the 
short sound. 

IV. If the antepenult be accented, its vowel has the short 
sound ; as, at avis, edite, regibus, temporibus. 

Exc. 1. When u comes before a single consonant, and 
when any accented vowel comes before another vowel, it has 
the long sound; as, judices, consulibus ; ocednus, parietes, 

Exc. 2. When the vowel of the penult is e or i before 
another vowel, the antepenultimate vowel, except i, has the 
long sound; as, doceo, aggredior, paldtium. 

V. An accented vowel before a mute and a liquid has 
usually the long sound; as, sacra, muliebribus, patria 





Grammar is the art of speaking and writing correctly. 

Latin Grammar is the art of speaking and writing the Latin 
language correctly. 

The Rudiments of Grammar are plain and easy instruc- 
tions, teaching beginners the first principles and rules of 

Grammar treats of sentences, and the several parts of which 
they are compounded. 

Sentences consist of words; words consist of one or more 
syllables ; syllables of one or more letters. So that Letters, 
Syllables, Words, and Sentences, make up the whole subject 
of Grammar. 


A letter is the mark of a sound, or of an articulation of 

That part of Grammar, which treats of letters, is called 

The letters in Latin are twenty-five : A, a ; B, b; C, c ; 
D, d; E, e; F, f; G, g; H, h; I, i; J, j; K, k; L, 1; M, 
m; N, n; 0, o; P, p; Q, q; R, r; S, s; T, t; U, u; V, 
v; X, x; Y, y; Z, z* 

Letters are divided into Vowels and Consonants. 

Six are vowels; a, c, t, o, w, y. All the rest are conso- 

* In English there is one letter more, viz. W. 


A vowel mak?s a f l sou id by itself; as, d, e. 
A consonant canno. make; a peifect sound without a vowt* 
as, 6, d. 

A vowel is properly called a simple sound; and the sounds 
p ormed by the concourse of vowels and consonants, articulate 

Consonants are divided into Mutes, Semi-voivels, and Double 

A mute is so called, because it entirely stops the passage 
of the voice; as, p in ap. 

The mutes are, p, b ; t, d; c, k, q, and g; but b, d, and g, 
perhaps may more properly be termed Semi-mutes; because 
their sounds may be continued, whereas the sound of p, t, and 
h, cannot be prolonged. 

A semi-vowel, or half vowel, does not entirely stop the 
passage of the voice; thus, al. 

The semi- vowels are I, m, n, r> s, f. The first four of 
these are called Liquids, particularly / and r; because they 
flow softly and easily after a mute in the same syllable; as, 
bla, sir a. 

The mutes and semi-vowels may be thus distinguished. In 
naming the mutes, the vowel is put after them; as, pe, be, &c 
but in naming the semi-vowels, the vowel is put before them, 
as, el, em, &c. 

The double consonants are, x, z, and, according to some 
grammarians, j. -Yis made up of cs, Jcs, or gs. 

c, before a, o, u, is sounded hard like k: before c, i, y, oz, ce f 
soft like s. 

g, before a, o, u, is sounded hard, as in the English words 
gave, gone; before e, i, and y, or another g followed bye, soft 
like j ; as in gemma, gigno, agger. 

In Latin, z, and likewise k and y, are found only in words 
derived from the Greek. 

ch have the power of k. 

h, by some, is not accounted a letter, but only a breathing. 

ti, before a vowel, and unaccented, have the sound of si or 
ci; as in ratio, prudential 

Except in Greek words ; as asphaltion ; and when preceded by s or % 
as, istlus, mixtio ; or in the beginning of words, as, tiara; or in infinitives 
formed by paragoge, a,sflectier, mittier. 

Pronounced ra-she-o, pru-den-she-a. 



A diph r hong is two vowels joined in one sound. 

If the sound of both vowels be distinctly heard, it is called 
a Proper Diphthong; if not, an Improper Diphthong. 

The proper diphthongs in Latin are commonly reckoned 
three; aw, eu, ei; as in aurum, Eurus, omneis. To these 
some, not improperly, add other three; namely, ai, as in 
JWaia; oi, as in Troia; and ui, as in Harpuia, or in cm, and 
huic, pronounced as mo osyllables. 

The improper diphthongs in Latin are two; ae, or when 
the vowels are written together, oz; as, aetas, or cetas, oe or 
ce; as, poena, or pozna; in both of which the sound of the e 
only is heard. The ancients commonly wrote the vowels 
separately; thus, aetas, poena. 


A syllable is the sound of one letter, or of several let- 
ters, pronounced by one impulse of the voice; as, a, ad, 

In Latin there are as many syllables in a word, as there are 
vowels or diphthongs in it; unless when u with any other 
vowel comes after g, q, or s; as in lingua, qui, suadeo; 
where the two vowels are not reckoned a diphthong, because 
the sound of the u vanishes, or is little heard. 

Words consisting of one syllable are called Monosyllables; 
of two, Dissyllables; and of more than two, Polysyllables. 
But all words of more than one syllable are commonly called 

In dividing words into syllables, we are chiefly to be di- 
rected by the ear. Compound words should be divided into 
the parts of which they are made up; as, db-utor, in-ops> 
propter-ea, et-enim, vel-ut, &c. 

Observe, a long syllable is marked with a horizontal line, 
[— ]; as in amare; or with a circumflex accent, [*]; as in 
amdris. A short syllable is marked with a curved line, [ w ] ; 
as in omnibus. 

What pertains to the quantity of syllables and to verse wilJ 
be treated of hereafter. 



Words are articulate sounds, significant of thought. 

That part of Grammar which treats of words is called Eb 
ymology or Analogy,* 

All words whatever are either simple or compound, primi* 
tive or derivative. 

The division of words into simple and compound is called 
their Figure; into primitive and derivative, their Species, or 

A simple w T ord is that which is not made up of more than 
one; as, pius, pious; ego, I; doceo, I teach. 

A compound word is that which is made up of two 01 
more words ; or of one word and some syllable added; as, 
impius, impious; dedoceo, I unteach; egomet, I myself. 

A primitive word is that which comes from no other; as, 
pius, pious; disco, I learn; doceo, I teach. 

A derivative word is that which comes from another word, 
as, pietas, piety; doctrina, learning. 

The different classes into which we divide words are called 
Parts of Speech. 


The pam of speech in Latin are eight; viz. 

1. Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Participle; declined: 

2. Adverb, Preposition, Interjection, and Conjunction; 

* All words may be divided into three kinds; namely, 1. such as mark 
the names of things ; 2. such as denote what is affirmed concerning 
things ; and 3. such as are significant only in conjunction with other 
words , or what are called Substantives, Attributives, and Connectives 
Thus in the following sentence, " The diligent boy reads the lesson care- 
fully in the school, and at home," the words boy, lesson, school, home, are 
the names we give to the things spoken of; diligent, reads, carefully, ex 
press what is affirmed concerning the boy ; the, in, and, at, are only sig- 
nificant when joined with the other words of the sentence. 

t Those words or parts of speech are said to be declined, which receive 
different changes, particularly on the end, which is called the Termination 
•f wor 


A noun is either substantive or adjective.* 


A Substantive, or noun, is the name of any person, place, 
or thing; as, boy. school, book. 

Substantives are of two sorts; proper and common names. 

Proper names are the names appropriated to individu- 
als: as the names of persons and places; such are Cozsar, 

Common names stand for whole kinds, containing several 
sorts; or for sorts, containing many individuals under them; 
as. animal, man, beast, fish, fowl, &c. 

Every particular being should have its own proper name ; 
but this is impossible, on account of their innumerable mult- 
tude; men have therefore been obliged to give the same com- 
mon name to such things as agree together in certain respects. 
These form what is called a genus, or kind; a species, or scrt. 

A proper name may be used for a common, and then in 
English it has the article joined to it; as, when we say of 
some great conqueror, " He is an Alexander; 55 or, "the Al- 
exander of his age. 55 

To proper and common names maybe added a third class 
of nouns, which mark the names of qualities, and are called 
abstract nouns; as, hardness, goodness, whiteness, virtue, jus- 
tice, piety, Sec. 

When we speak of things, we consider them as one or more. 
This is what we call Number. When one thing is spoken of, 
a noun is said to be of the singular number; when two or 
more, of the plural. 

The changes made upon words are by grammarians called Accidents. 

Of old, all words, which admit of different terminations, were said to be 
declined. But Declension is now applied only to nouns. The changes 
made upon the verb are called Conjugation. 

* The adjective seems to be improperly called noun : it is only a word 
added to a substantive or noun, expressive of its quality; and therefore 
should be considered as a different part of speech. But as the substantive 
and adjective together express but one object, and in Latin are declined 
after the same manner, they have both been comprehended under the same 
general name. 



A Latin noun is declined by Genders, Cases, and Num- 

There are three genders ; Masculine, Feminine, and 

The cases are six; Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accu* 
alive, Vocative, and Jlblative* 

There are two numbers; Singular and Plural. 

There are five different ways of varying or declining 
nouns, called the first, second, third, fourth,, and fifth declen- 

The different declensions m;iy be distinguished froiE 
one another by the termination of the genitive singular. The 
first declension has m diphthong; the second has i; the 
third has is; the fourth has us; and the i\l\h has ei, in the 

Although Latin nouns be said to have six cases, yet none 
of them have that number of different terminations, both in 
the singular and plural. 


1. Nouns of the neuter gender have the Accusative and 

Vocative like the Nominative, in both numbers; and these 
Cases in the plural end always in a. 

2. The Dative '<md Ablative plural end always alike. 

3. The Vocative, for the most part in the singular, and 
always in the plural, is the same with the Nominative, r 

* Various methods are used, in different Languages, to expr< ss the dif- 
ferent connexions or relations of one thing to another. En the English, 
and in most, modern languages, this is done by prepositions, or particles 
placed before the substantive; in Latin by declension, or by different ca- 
ses; that is, by changing the termination of the noun ; as, r«c, a king, un 
the kin^r; regis, of a king, wof the lung. 

Cases are certain changes made upon the termination of" nouns, to ex- 
press the relation of one thing to another. 

They an; so called, from C&do, to i';ill ; because they fall, as it were, froin 

the nominative ; which is therefore named e&susrectus, the straight case \ 
and the other cases, edsus obllqui, the oblique cases. 

f Greek nouns in $ generally lose * in the Vocative; as, Thomas, Tint- 
rrui ; Anehlses, Anchlse ; Vans, Pari; Pa/nthus, Panthu; I 'a 1 1 as, antis, 

Palla. names of men. But nouns in es of the third declension oftener re* 

tain the #; as, 6 Achilles, rarely -e ; Socr&tes, seldom -6; and sometime! 

nouns in is and as; as, Thais, Mijsls, Pallas, -adis, the ^oddesa Mi 
nerva &c. 



4. Proper names for the most part want the plural: 
Unless several of the same name be spoken of; as, duode^ 
cim Ccesares, the twelve Caesars. 

The cases of Latin nouns are thus expressed in English; 
1 . With the indefinite article, a. 

a king) 
a king, 
a king) 
a kins;. 



Gen. of 
D/U. to or for 
Voc. O 
Ab! .with) front) in, fcj/, a king. 

2. With the definite article, the. 
Gen. of 
Dat. to or for 
Voc. O 


Nom. kings. 

Gen. o/ kings, 

Dat. Jo or /or kings, 

Ace. kings, 

Voc. 6 kings, 
Abl. with) from, in, by, kings. 

the king) 
the king) 
the king) 
the king) 

Abl. with from )iU)by)the king. 

Gen. of 
Dat. fo -or for 


£/ie kings, 
the kings, 
the kings, 
the kings, 



Things considered according to their kinds are either male, 
or female, or neither of the two; and on this distinction of 
the sexes did gender originally depend. Males were said to 
be of the masculine gender; females of the feminine gender; 
and all other things of neuter gender; or, as the word implies, 
of neither gender. 

But in Latin, although males are masculine, and females 
feminine, there are many nouns having no sex, which are 
said to be of different genders, chiefly from being joined with 
an adjective of one termination and not of another Thus 
penna, a pen, is said to be feminine, because it is always join- 
ed with an adjective of that termination which is applied to 
females; as, bona penna, a good pen, and not bonus penna. 
The gender of these nouns depends on their termination and 
different declension. 

The gender, as depending on the sex, has been called natu- 
ral gender; on termination and declension, grammatical gender 

irammarians distinguish the genders by the pronoun hie, to 
u it the masculine; hcec, the feminine; and hoc, the neuter 



Nouns which are used to signify either the male or the fe- 
male are said to be of the common gender; that is, are either 
masculine or feminine, according to the sense. Such nouns 
as are not found uniformly of the same grammatical gender, 
but sometimes of one gender and sometimes of another, are 
said to be of the doubtful gender. 

The common gender differs from the doubtful in this, thai , as 
the signification of the noun includes the two sexes, it is al- 
ways put in the masculine when applied to a male, and in the 
feminine when applied to a female; as, hie conjux, a husband, 
hcec conjux, a wife; and is confined to the masculine and femi- 
nine gender. Whereas a noun of the doubtful gender, being 
so only by usage, and not in sense, may be either masculine 
or feminine; as, hie finis, or hcec finis ; feminine or neuter; as, 
hcec Prceneste, or hoc Prceneste; or may be either masculine, 
feminine, or neuter; as, penus, pecus, and others. 

General Rules concerning Gender. 

1. Names of males are masculine; as, Homerus, Homer; 
pater, a father; poeta, a poet. 

2. Names of females are feminine; as, Helena, Helen; 
mulier, a woman; uxor, a wife* mater, a mother; soror. a 
sister; Tellus, the goddess of the earth. 

3. Nouns which signify either the male or female, are of 
the common gender; that is, with reference to the sex, either 
masculine or feminine; as, hie bos, an ox; hcec bos, a cow; 
hie parens, a father; hcec parens, a mother. * 

4. Nouns which are sometimes found in one gender and 
sometimes in another, without reference to the sense, are of 
the doubtful gender; as, dies, a day, either masculine or fem- 
inine; vulgus, the rabble, either masculine or neuter. 

* The following list comprehends most nouns 
Adolescens. ) a V 0Un S Comes, a companion, 


► man or 
J woman. 
Afiinis, a relation by 

Antistes, a prelate. 
Au",tor, an author. 
Augur, a soothsayer. 
Canis, a dog or bitch. 
Civis. a citizen. 
Olieus, a client. 

Conjux, a husband or 

Conviva, a guest. 
Gustos, a keeper. 
Dux, a leader. 
Hseres, an heir. 
Hostis, an enemy. 
Infans, an infant. 
Interpres, an interpreter, 
Judex, a judge. 

of the common gender 
Martyr, a martyr. 
Miles, a soldier. 
Municeps, a burgess. 
Nemo, nobody. 
Obses, a hostage. 
Patruelis, a cousin ^€&- 
vum, by the father's 
Praes, a surety. 
. Prince ps, a princt as 



Obs. 1 The names cf brute animals commonly follow the 
gender of their termination. 

Such are the names of wild beasts, birds, fishes, and insects, 
in which the distinction of sex is either not easily discerned, 
or seldom attended to. Thus passer, a sparrow, either male 
or female, is masculine, because nouns in er are masculine; 
so aqulla, an eagle, either male or female, is feminine, because 
nouns in a of the first declension are feminine. These are 
called epicene, or promiscuous nouns. When any particular 
sex is marked, we usually add the word mas or fcemtna; as, 
mas passer, a male sparrow; fazmina passer, a female sparrow 

Obs. 2. A proper name, for the most part, follows the gender 
of the general name under which it is comprehended. 

Thus, the names of months, winds, rivers, and mountains, 
are masculine; because mensis, ventus, mons, and Jluvius, are 
masculine; as, hie Aprllis , April; hie Jlquilo, the north wind; 
hie Jifrlcus, the south-west wind; hie Tzberis, the river Tiber; 
hie Othrys, a hill in Thessaly. But many of these follow the 
gender of their termination; as, haze Matrona, the river Marne 
in France; hozc JEtna, a mountain in Sicily; hoc Soracte, a 
hill in Italy. 

Sacerdos, a priest or Sus, a swine. Vates, a prophet. 

priestess. Testis, a icitness. Vindex, an avenger* 

But antistes, cliens, and hospes, also change their termination to ex 
press the feminine ; thus, antistita, clienta, hospita : in the same manner 
with leo, a lion ; leceno,, a lioness; equus, equa ; mulus,mula ; and many 

There are several nouns, which, though applicable to both sexes, admit 
:>nly a masculine adjective ; as, advena, a stranger ; agrxcola, a hus- 
bandman ; assecla, an attendant; acedia , a neighbour; exul, an exile; 
latro, a robber ; fur, a thief; oplfex, a mechanic ; &c. There are others, 
which, though applied to persons, are, on account of their termination 
ilways neuter; as, scortum, a courtezan; mandpium, servitium, a slave, 

In like manner, opera, slaves, or day labourers ; vigllice, excubi^ 
watches ; noxai, guilty persons ; though applied to men, are always fem 

* Conjux, atque parens, infans, patruelis, et hares, 
Jiffinis, vindex, juutx.dux, miles, et hostis, 
Augur, et antistes, juvenis, conviva, sacerdos, 
Muniqueceps, vates, adolescens, civis, et auctor, 
Custos, nemo, comes, testis, sus, bosque, canisqae, 
Interpresque, cliens , prince-ps , prais, martyr, et obses. 


In like manner, the names of countries, towns, trees, and 
ships, are feminine, because terra or regio, urbs, arbor, and 
navis, are feminine; as h&c Egyptus, Egypt; Sdmos, an is'' 
and of that name; Corinfhus, the city Corinth; pomus, an ap- 
ple-tree; Ceidaurus, the name of a ship. Thus also the names 
of poems, hcec Mas, -ados, and Odyssea, the two poems of 
Homer; haze JEneis, -idos, a poem of Virgil; hcec Eunuchus, 
ane of Terence's comedies. 

The gender, however, of many of these depends on the 
termination; thus, hie Pontus, a country of that name; hie 
Sulmo, -onis ; Pesstnus, -untis ; Hydrus, -unfis, names of towns; 
hmc Persis, -Idis, the kingdom of Persia; Carthago, -inis, the 
city Carthage; hoc Albion, Britain: hoc Cazre, Reate, Prozneste, 
Tlbur, Ilium, names of towns. But some of these are also 
found in the feminine; as, Gelidci Praineste. Juvenal, iii. 190; 
Ma Won. Ovid. Met. xiv. 466. 

The following names of trees are masculine, oleaster, oleas 
iri, a wild olive-tree; rhamnus, the white bramble. 

The following are masculine or feminine; cytisus, a kind of 
shrub; rubus, the bramble-bush; larix, the larch-tree; lotus, 
the lote-tree; cupressus, the cypress-tree. The first two, how- 
ever, are oftener masculine; the rest oftener feminine. 

Those in urn are neuter; as, buxum, the bush, or box-tree; 
ligustrum, a privet; so likewise are suber, -eris, the cork-tree; 
siler, -eris, the osier; robur, -oris, oak of the hardest kind; 
deer, -eris, the maple-tree. 

The place where trees or shrubs grow is commonly neuter; 
as, arbustum, quercetum, esculetum, sdlictum, fruticetum, &c. a 
place where trees, oaks, beeches, willows, shrubs, &c. grow; 
also the names of fruits and timber; as, pbmum or malum, an 
apple; pirum, a pear; ebenum, ebony, &c. But from this 
rule there are various exceptions. 


Nouns of the first declension end in a, e, as, es. 
Latin nouns end only in a, and are of the feminine gender: 
{the rest are Greek.) 

Singular. Plural. 

JNom. ) n Nom. ) „ 

Voc. J a ' Voc. { * 

Gen. > Gen. arum, 

Dat. ) m ' Ace. as. 

Ace. am. Dat. > . 

Abl. d. Abl. 5 w 



Penna, a pen, fern. 



N. penna, 
G. pennae, 
D. pennae, 
A pennam, 
V penna, 
A. penna, 

a pen ; 
of a pen ; 
to a pen ; 

a pen ; 

O pen ; 
with a pen. 

N. pennae, 
G. pennarum, 
D. pennis, 
A. pennas, 
V. pennae, 
A. pennis, 

pens ; 
of pens ; 
to pens , 

pens , 

O pens , 

with pens. 

In like manner decline, 

Acerra, a censer 

Acta, the shore. 

iEra, a period of time. 

iErumna, toil. 

Agricola, a husbandman. 

Ala, a wing. 

Alapa, a blow. 

Alauda, a lark. 

Alga, sea-weed. 

Aluta tanned leather. 

Ambrosia, the food of 
the gods. 

Amita, an aunt, the fa- 
ther's sister. 

Amphora, a cask. 

Ampulla, a jug, plural, 

Amurca, the lees of oil. 

Ancilla, a handmaid. 

Anchora, an anchor. 

Anguilla, an eel. 

Ansa, a handle. 

Antenna, a sail-yard 

Antlia, a pump. 

Aqua, water. 

Aqulla, an eagle. 

Ara, an altar. 

Aranea, a spider. 

Area, a chest. 

Ardea, & -eola, a heron. 

Area, in open place. 

Arena., sand. 

ArgiLa, potters' earth. 

Arista, an car of corn. 

Arrha, an earnest penny. 

Ar vlna, fat 

Ascia, an axe. 

Athleta, m. a wrestler. 
Aula, a hall. 
Aura, a breeze. 
Auriga, m. a charioteer. 
A via, a grandmother. 
Axilla, the arm-pit. 
Balaena, a whale. 
Barb a, a beard. 
Bellua, any large beast. 
Bestia, a beast. 
Beta, beet, an herb. 
Bibliopola, a bookseller. 
Bibliotheca, a library. 
Blatta, a moth. 
Bractea, a thin leaf of 

Brassica, caulifloicer. 
Bruma, winter solstice. 
Bucca, the hollow of the 

Bulla, a bubble, a ball, or 

Bjrsa, an ox-hide. 
Caliga, a kind of shoe set 

zoith nails. 
Caltha, marigold. 
Ca.lva, and calvaria, a 

Calumnia, slander. 
Camena, a muse, a song. 
Camera, a vault. 
Campana, a bell. 
Canna, a cane or reed. 
Candela, a d ndle. 
Capra, a she-goat. 
Capsa, a coffer. 
Carina, the keel of a shw. 

Casa, a cottage 

Castanea, a chestnut. 

Catapulta, an engine to 
cast darts. 

Catena, a chain. 

Caterva, a body of men. 

Cathedra, a chair, a pul- 

Cauda, the tail. 

Caula, a sheep-cote. 

Causa, a cause. 

Caverna, a cavern. 

Caviila, a banter. 

Cella, a cell. 

Cera, wax. 

Ceremonia, a ceremony 

Cervisia, ale, beer. 

Cerussdi, white lead. paint 

Cetra, a square target. 

Charta, paper. 

Chorda, a string. 

Cicada, a kind of insect 

Ciconia, a stork. 

Cicuta, hemlock. 

Cinara, an artichoke. 

Cista, a chest. 

Cisterna, a cistern. 

Cithara, a harp. 

Clava, a club. 

Clepsydra, an nou 

Cloaca, a sink. 

Cochlea, a snail. 

Coena, a supper. 

Columba, a pigeon. 

Coma, the hair. 

Comoedia a comedy. 



Concha, a shell. 

Copia, plenty. 

Copula, a bond. 

Corrigia, a shoe-latchet. 

Corona, a crown, a cir- 

Cortina, a cauldron. 

Costa, a rib. 

Coxa, the haunch. 

Crapula, a surfeit. 

Cratera, a cup. 

Craticula, a gridiron. 

Crena, a notch. 

Crepida, a slipper. 

Creta, chalk. 

Crista, a crest. 

Crumena, a purse. 

Crusta, & -um, a morsel. 

Culcita. a cushion. 

Culina, a kitchen. 

Culpa, a fault. 

Cu nigra, a corn-basket. 

Cupa, a tun, 

Cura, care. 

Curia, a senate-house. 

Curruca, a hedge-spar- 

Cyrnba, a boat. 

Decempeda, a pole of ten 

Diaeta, diet, food. 

Dolabra, an axe. 

Drachma, a drachm, a 
weight, or coin. 

Epistola, a letter. 

Esca, a bait. 

Faba, a bean. 

Fabula, a fable. 

Fama, fame. 

Farina, meal. 

Fascia, a bandage. 

Favilla, embers. 

Fenestra, a window. 

Fera, a icild beast. 

Ferula, a rod. 

Festuca, the shoot of a 

Fibra, a fibre. 

Fibula, a clasp. 

Fidelia, an earthen ves- 

Fimbria, a fringe. 

Fiscina, a bag or basket. 

Fistuca, a rammer. 
Vistula, a pipe* 

Flamma, aflame. 
Faemlna, a woman. 
Forma, a form. 
Formica, an ant 
Fossa, a ditch. 
FoVea, a pit. 
Frame a, a short spear. 
Full c a, a sea-foicl. 
Fun da, a sling. 
Furca, a fork. 
Fusclna, a trident. 
Galea, an helmet. 
Gallina, a lien. 
Gangrasna, an 
Gaza, a treiusure. 
Gemma, a gem. 
Gena, the cheek. 
Genista, broom. 
Gingiva, the gum. 
Glare a, gravel. 
Gieba, a clod. 
Gula, the gullet. 
Gutta, a drop. 
Habena, a rein. 
Hara, a hog-sty. 
Haruga, a sacrifice, 
Hasta, a spear. 
Hedera, ivy. 
Herba, an herb. 

Ira, anger. 

Juba, the mane 

Lacerna, a ridi tg-coai 

Lacerta, a lizard. 

Laclnia, a fringe. 

L aery ma, a tear. 

Lactuca, lettuce. 

Lacuna, a ditch. 

Lagena, a flagon. 

Lama, a ditch. 

Lamia, a sorceress. 

Lamina, a plate, 
[zdcer. Lana, wool, 
eating Lancea, a lance or spear 

Lanista, m. a fencing- 

Larva, a mask. 

Laterna, a lantern. 

Latrlna, a house of office. 

Lectlca. a sedan or chair. 

Lena, a bawd. 

Lepra, the leprosy. 

Libra, a pound. 

Ligula, a latchet. 

Lima, afile. 

Linea, a line. 

Lingua, the tongue. 

Lira, a ridge or furrow. 

Lltera, a letter. 

Herma, v. -es, m. a stat- Locusta, a locust. 

ue of Mercury. Lucerna, a light. 

Hernia, a rupture. Luna, the moon. 

Hilla, a sausage. Luscinia, a nig] ding ale. 

Hora, an hour. Lympha, icater. 

Hostia, a victim. Lym.? a lyre. 

Hydria, a ivater-pot. Machina, a machine. 

Jactura, loss. Mactra, a kneading 

Janua, agate. trough. 

Idea, a form, an idea. Macula, a stain. 
Idiota, m. an illiterate Mala, the cheek-bone 

person. Malacia, a calm. 

Ignuminia, an affront. Malva, a mallow. 
lflecebra, an allure- Mamma, a pap. 

ment. Manica, a sleeve. 

Impensa, expense. Mantica, a icallet. 

Indlgena, m. a native. Mappa, a naj>kin. 
Inedia, hunger. Margarita, a pearl. 

Infula, a mitre. 
Injuria, a wrong. 
Inopia, want. 
InstTta, a fringe. 
Insula, an island. 
Inula, elecampane, 

Invidia, envy. 

Marra, a mattock. 
Massa, a lump. 
Materia, matter, stuffs 

Matertera, the mother's 
an sister. 

Matta, a mat or mattress 
Matula, a chamber-pot 


MSdulla, marrow. Palinodia, a recantation 

Membrana, a thin skin, a Palla, a large gown. 

film, parchment. 
Meinoria, memory. 
Mensa, a table. 
Mensura, a measure. 
Merda, dung. 
Merga, a pitchfork. 
Morula, a blackbird. 
Meta, a goal. 
Metaphora, a trope. 
Mica, a crumb. 
Mitra, a mitre. 
Mola, a mill. 
Munedula, a jacicdaic 
Moneta. money. 
Mora, a delay. 

Pal ma, the palm 
Palpebra, the eye-lid. 
Papilla, tJte nipple. 
Papula, a pimple. 
Parabola, comparing 

things together. 
Parma, a shield. 
Parr a, a jay. 
Patera, a goblet. 
Pausa, a stop or pause. 
Pedica, a fetter. 
Penula, a mantle. 
Penuria. want. 
Pera, a purse. 
Perca, a perch 

Mulcta, or Multa, a fim. Perfuga, m. a deserter 

Muraena, a lamprey. 
Muria, pickle, brine, 
Mosa, a muse. 
Musca, a fly. 
Mustela, a weasel. 
Myrrha, myrrh. 
Myrlca, a tamarisk. 

Pergamena, sc. charta. 

Pern a, ft gammon of ba- 

Persona, a mask. 

Pertlca, a pole. 

Petra, a rack. 

Mysta, or -es, m. a priest. Phalarica, a long spear. 

Nassa, a net 
Nausea, sea-sickness. 
Nauta, m. a mariner. 
NTtedula, a field-mouse. 
M oenia, a funeral-song. 
Norma, a rule. 
Nuvaciila, a razor. 
Noverca, a step-mother. 
Nympha, a nymph. 
Occa, an harrow. 
Ocrea, a boot. 

Offa, a morsel. 
Olea, an olive. 
Olla, a pot. 
Ora, a coast. 
Orbita, a path. 
Orca, ajar. 

Pharetra, a quiver. 
Phasiana, sc. avis, a 

Phiala, a vial. 
Philomela, a nightingale 
Phil ra, the linden tree 

a leaf of paper. 
Phoca, a sea calf. 
Plea, a magpie. 
Pila, a ball. 
Plla, a pillar, 
an ode or Pincerna, m. a butler. 
Pinna, a fin, a wing. 

Plrata, m. a pirate. 
Piscina, a fish-pond. 
Pitulta, phlegm. 
Placenta, a cake. 
Plaga, a climate. 
Plaga,a blow. 

Orchestra, the stage, or Planta, a plant, 
the place next it, where Platea, or Platea, 
the nobles sat. broad street. 

Ostrea, an oyster. Pluma, a feather. 

Paenula, a riding-coat. Pluvia, rain. 

Pagina, a page. Podagra, the gout. 

Pala, a shovel Poena, a punishment 

Palaestra, a wrestling, or Poeta, m. a poet, 
place for it. Poetria, a poetess. 

Palea, chaff. Polenta, malt. 

Polltia, (/policy. 
Pompa, a procession. 
Popa, m. a priest wha 

Uew the sacrifice 
Poplna, j ,.amrn. 
Porta, a gate. 
Praeda, plunder. 
Prserogativa, sc. tribus* 
or centuria, ilvat vottA 
Procella, a storm. 
Prora, the prow. 
Fyosti, prose. 
Prosapia, a race. 
Prulna, hoarfrost. 
Pruna, a burning coal. 
Psaltria, a, music girl. 
Puella,ft girl. 
Pugna, a battle. 
Pulpa, the pulp. 
Pupula, tlie apple of th4 

Purpura, purple. 
Pustula, a blister. 
Pyra, a funeral pile. 
Quadra, & -um,a square, 
Rabula, m. a wrangler. 
Rana, a frog. 
Repulsa, a refusal. 
Reslna, resin. 
Rheda, a chariot 

Rima, a chink. 

Rip a, a bank. 

Rlxa, a scold. 

Rosa, a rose. 

Rota, a wheel. 

Ruga, a wrinkle. 

Rulna, a downfall. 

Runclna, a saw or plant. 

Ruta, rue. 

Saburra, ballast. 

Saga, a sorceress. 

Saglna, cramming. 

Sagitta, an arrow. 

Salebra, a rugged way. 

Saliunca, lavender. 

Saliva, spittle. 

Salpa, stock-fish. 

Sambuca, an harp } oi 
engine of war. 

Sanctimonia, devotion. 

Sandaplla, a bier 

Sanna, a scoff. 

Sarclna, a burden. 

Sarissa, a long ,/*ar 



Satira, a satire. 

Satr&pa, or -es, m. a Per- 
sian governor. 

Sea la, a Udder. 

Scandula, a lath to cover 

Scapha, a boat. 

Scapula, the shoulder. 

Scena, a stage. 

Scheda, a sheet or scroll. 

Schola, a school. 

Scintilla, a spark. 

Scriblita, a tart or wafer. 

Scrofula, the kings evil. 

Scurra, m. a buffoon. 

Scutica, a scourge. 

Scytala,a kind of serpent, 
or a round staff. 

Selibra, half a pound. 

Semihora, half an hour. 

Semita, a path. 

Sententia, an opinion. 

Sentlna, a sink. 

Sera, a lock. 

Serra, a saw. 

Sesquihora, an hour and 
a half . 

Seta, a bristle. 

Sibylla, a prophetess. 

Sica, a dagger. 

Siliqua, a husk. 

Silva, a wood. 

Slmia, an ape. 

Simila, flour. 

Sltula, a bucket. 

Sdcordia, sloth. 

Solea, a shoe. 

Sophista, & -es, m. a 

Specula, a watch-tmoer . 

Spelunca, a cave. 

Sphaera, a sphere. 

Splca, an ear of corn. 

Spina, the back bone. 

Splra, a wreath. 

Sponda, a bedstead. 

Spongia, a sponge. 

Sponsa, a bride. 

S porta, a basket. 

SpUma, /#«?«. 

Squama, a scale. 

Squilla, a prawn, or 

Statera, a balance. 
Statua, a statue. 
Stella, a star. 
Stipula, stubble. 
Stiria, an icicle. 
Stlva, the plough tail. 
Stola, a gown. 
Stranguria, the making 

of water with great 

Strena, a new year's 


Struma, a botch. 

Stupa, tow. 

Sublica, a pile. 

Subucula, a shirt. 

Subula, an awl. 

Succldia, a flicth of ba- 

Summa, a sum, the 

Superbia,, pride. 

Sura, the calf of the leg. 

Sutrlna, sc. taberna, a 
shoemaker's shop. 

Sutura, a seam. 

Sycophanta, m. a sharp- 

Syllaba, a syllable. 

Symbola, a club, a share 
of a reckoning. 

Symphonia, harmony. 

Syngrapha, a bill or 

Taberna, a shop. 

Tabula, a table. 

Tasda, a torch. 

Taenia, a ribbon. 

Techna ; a trick or wile. 

Tegula, a tile. 

Tela, a web. 

Terebra, a wimble. 

Terra, the earth. 

Tessera, a dye. 

Testa, an earthen pot. 

Textrina, a weavers 

Theca, a case. 

Tibia, a pipe, the leg. 

Tlha, the linden tree. 

Tinea, a moth. 

Tonstrina, a barber s 

Tragcedia, a tragedy. 
Tragi?].?., a javelin with a 

barbed head. 
Trahea, a sledge or dray. 
Trama, the woof. 
Trochlea, a pulley. 
Trulla, a trowel. 
Trutina, a balance 
Tuba, a trumpet. 
Tunica, a waistcoat. 
Turba, a crowd. 
Turma, a troop. 
Ulna, an ell. 
Ulula, an owl. 
Ulva, sedge. 
Umbra, a shade. 
Unda, a wave. 
Ungula, a nail, the hoof. 
Upupa, the houpoo % 

Urlna, urine. 
Urna, an urn. 
Urtlca, a nettle. 
Vacca, a cow. 
Vagina, a scabbard. 
Vappa, palled wine, « 

Vena, a vein. 
Venia, leave. 
Verna, m. an home-bar* 

Verruca, a wart. 
Vesica, the bladder 
Vespa, a. wasp 
Via, a way. 
Vicia, a vetch or tare, 
Victima, a victim. 
Victoria, a conquest. 
Villa, a country seat. 
Vindemia, vintage. 
Vindicta, vengeance : a 

rod laid on the head of 

slaves ichen freed. 
Viola, a violet. 
Vlpera, a viper. 
Virga, a rod. 
Vita, life 
Vitta, a filet. 
Viverra, a ferret. 
Vol a, the palm of i'kd 

Zona, a girdle, a zona 



Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine: Hadria, the 
Hadriatic sea; cometa, a comet; planeta, a planet; and some- 
times, talpa, a mole; and ddma, a fallow-deer. Pascha, t/ie 
passover, is neuter. 

Exc. c 2. The ancient Latins sometimes formed the genitive 
singular in ai; thus, aula, a hall, gen. aulai: and sometimes 
likewise in as, which form tiie compounds of fdmilia usually 
retain; as mater-fdmilias , the mistress of a family; genit. 
matris-familias ; nom. plur. matres-famiUas, or matres-famili- 

Exc. 3. The following nouns, have more frequently dbus in 
the dative and ablative plural, to distinguish them in these 
cases from masculines in us, of the second declension: 

Anima, the soul, the life. Filia, &, Nata, a daughter. 
Dea, a goddess. I Tberta, a freed woman. 

Equa, a mare. Mula, a she-mule. 

Famula, a female servant. 
Thus dedbus, jilidbus, rather tYnxn filiis , &c. 


Nouns in as, es, and e, of the first declension, are Greek- 
Nouns in as and es, are masculine; nouns in e are feminine. 
Nouns in as are declined like penna ; only they have am or 
an in the accusative; as, JEneas, iEiieas, the name of a man; 
gen. JEnece, dat. -oj, ace. -am, or -an, voc. -a, abl. a. So 
Boreas, -ece, the north wind; tiaras, -az, a turban. In prose 
they have commonly am, but in poetry oftener an, in the ac- 
cusative. Greek nouns in a have sometimes also an in the 
ace in poetry; as Ossa, ace. -am or -an, the name of a moun- 

Nouns in es and e are thus declined: 

Anchises, Anchises, the name of a man. 
Nom. Anchises, Ace. Anchisen, 

Gen. Anchisse, Voc. Anchise, or -a 

Dat. Anchisae, Ml. Anchise, or a. 

Penelope, Penelope, the name of -a woman. 


Nom. Penelope, Ace. Penelopen, 

Gen. Peneldpes. Voc. Penelope, 

Dat. Penelope, Abl. Penelope. 

These nouns, being proper names, want the plural, unless 



when several of the same name are spoken of, and then they 
are declined like the plural of penna* 

The Latins frequently turn Greek nouns in es and e into a ; as, Atnda^ 
for Atrldes ; Persa, for Perses, a Persian ; geometra, for -tres, a geometri- 
cian ; Circa, for Circe ; epitoma, for -me, an abridgement ; grammattca, for 
«, grammar ; rhUorica, for -ce, oratory. So Clinia, for Clinias, &c 


Nouns of the second declension end in er, ir, wr, us, t*m, 
e«, on. (os and on are Greek terminations.) 

Nouns in um and on are neuter ; the rest are masculine* 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. er. ir. ur. us. um ; os. on. Nom. ) • 

Gen.i. Voc. \ l0Ta - 

Dat. ) Gen. drum. 

Abl. 5 °' Dat.) . 

Ace. um, or like the nom. Abl. 5 lS ' 

Voc e, or like the nom. Ace. os, or a. 

Gener, a son-in-law, masc. 

Nom. gener, a son-in-law. 

Gen. generi, of a son-in-law, 

Dat. genero, to a son-in-law, 

Jlcc. generum, a son-in-law, 

Voc. gener, O son-in-law* 

Abl. genero, with, from, or by a son-in-law. 


Nom. generi, 


Gen. generorum, 



Dat. generis, 



Ace. generos, 


Voc. generi, 


Abl. generis, with, 

from, or 



* Th accusative of nouns in es and e is found sometimes in em. W« 
sometin es find the genit. plural contracted ; as, Callcdlum, for Ccduo- 
Idrum - fEneddum., for -drum. 



Ailei the same manner decline, socer, -eri, a father-in-law t 
l>uer, -eri, a boy: So fwcifer, a villain; Isucijer, the morn- 
ing star; adulter, an adulterer; armiger, an armour-bearer; 
presbyter, an elder; Mulciber, a name of the god Vulcan; 
vesper, the evening; and Iber, -eri, a Spaniard, the only noun 
in er which has the gen. long, and its compound Celtiber, -eri: 
Also, vir, viri, a man, the only noun in ir ; and its compounds, 
levir, a brother-in-law; semivir, duumvir, triumvir, &lc. And 
likewise satur, -uri, full, (of old, saturus,) an adjective. 

But most nouns in er lose the e in the genitive; as, 

A^er, a field, masc. 




ager, afield. 



fie Ids, 


agri, '/ afield, 



, of fields, 


agio, *3 afield, 



to fields, 


agrum, a field, 





ager, field, 





agro, t0&/i afield. 



with fields. 

In like manner decline, 

A per, a wi)l J o**t Caper, a he-goat. Faber, a workman. 

Arbiter, & -tra, an arbi- Coluber, & -bra, a ser- Magister, a master, 
traior or judge. pent. Minister, a servant. 

xAuster, the south wind. C alter, the coulter of a Onager, a wild ass 
Cancer, a crab fish. plough, a knife. Scalper, a lancet. 

Also, liber, the bark of a tree, or a book, which has libri, 
but liber, free, an adjective, and Liber, a name of Bacchus, 
the god of wine, have liberi. So likewise proper names, 
Alexander, Evander, Periander, Menander , Teucer, Meledger 
&,c gen. Jllexandri, Evandri, &c. 

Dommus, a lord, masc. 











a lord, 




of a lord, 



of lords, 

to a lord, 



to lords 

a lord, 


don iinos, 






with a lord 



with lords. 


In like manner decline, 

Abacus, a table or desk. 
Acervus, a heap 
Aculeus, a sting. 
Agnus, a lamb. 
Alnus, f. an alder tree. 
Alveus, the channel of a 

Angiilus, a corner. 
Animus, the mind. 
Annus, a year. 
Annul us, a ring. 
Anas, a circle. 
Archltectus, a master- 
Argentarius, a banker. 
Annus, the shoulder of 

a beast; also of a 

Asilus, a gad bee. 
Asinus, &.-a, an ass. 
Autumnus, the autumn. 
Avunculus, the mother's 

Avus, a grandfather, 
Bajulus, a porter. 
Barrus, an elephant. 
Bolus, a morsel. 
Bombus, a buzz. 
Caballus, a pack-horse. 
Cacabus, a kettle. 
CachinnuSj&ted laugh. 
Caduceus, a wand. 
Cadus, a cask. 
Calamus, a reed. 
Calathus, a basket. 
Calceus, a shoe. 
Callus, & -um, hard 

Caminus, a zhimney. 
Campus, a plain. 
Cantharus, a cup or jug. 
Carduus. a thistle. 
Carpus, the wrist. 
Car r us, &. -um, a cart. 
Caseus, cheese. 
Catalogus, a roll. 
Catlnus, a platter. 
Caurus, a west wind. 
Cedrus, f. a cedar tree. 
Cervus, a stag. 
Cetus, a whale j pi. cete, 

n. indecl. 
Chlrurgus, a surgeon. 

Chorus, a choir. 

Clbus, meat. 

Cincinnus, a curl. 

Cinnus, a medley. 

Cippus, a grave stone. 

Circinus, a pair of com- 
passes, [circle. 

Circus, & circulus, a 

Cirrus, a tuft or curl. 

Citrus, f. a citron tree. 

Clathrus, a grate. 

Clavus, a nail. 

Cllbanus, a portable 

Cllvus, a hill. 

Clypeus, a round shield. 

Coccus, or -um, scarlet. 

Colaphus, a box on the 

Condus, a butler. 

Condylus, the knuckle. 

Congius, a gallon. 

Consobrinus, a cousin- 
german by the mother's 

Contus, a long pole. 

Conus, a cane. 

Cophmus, a basket. 

Coquus, a cock. 

Cornus, f. the cornel tree. 

Corvus, a raven. 

Corylus, f. a hazel tree. 

Corymbus, a bunch of 
ivy berries. 

Coryphaeus, a ring- 
leader, (case. 

Corytus, or -os, a bow- 

Cothurnus, a buskin. 

Cubitus, a cubit. 

Cucullus, a hood. 

Cucullus, 07' cuculus, a 

Culeus, a leathern bag. 

Culrnus, a stalk. 

Culullus, a pet or jug. 

Cumulus, an heap. 

Cuneus, a wedge. 

Cunlculus, a rabbit. 

Cyathus, a cup or glass. 

Cygnus, a swan. 

Oyhndrus, a roller. 

Dialogus, a discourse be- 
tween two or more 

Digitus, a finger. 
Discus, a quoit, 
Dlvus, a god. 
Dolus, deceit. 
Dumus, a bush. 
Echinus, an urchin. 
Elegus, an elegy, 
Ephebus, a youth. 
Epilogus, a coticlusioTt 
Episcopus, an overseer, 

a bishop. 
Equuleus, an instrument 

of toi hire. 
Equus, an horse. 
Erebus, hell. 
Eur us, the east icind 
Fagus, f. a beech tree 
Famulus, a man-servant. 
Favonius, the ivest wind. 
Favus, an honeycomb. 
Figulus, a potter. 
Fiscus, the exchequer. 
Floccus, a lock of wool 
Fluvius, a river. 
Focus, an hearth. 
Fraxinus, f. an ash tree 
Fritillus, a dice-box. 
Fucus, a drone be*. 

Fumus, smoke. 
Funambulus, a rope 

Fundus, a farm. 
Fungus, a mushroom,. 
Furnus, an oven. 
Fusus, a spindle. 
Gallus, a cock. 
Gerulus, a porter. 
Gibbus, a swelling. 
Gladius, a sword. 
Globus, a globe. 
Grabatus, a couch. 
Graculus, a jackdaw. 
Grumus, a hillock. 
Guttus, a cruet or vial 
Gyrus, a circle. 
Hsedus, a kid. 
Hamus, a hook. 
Hariolus, a diviner. 
Herus, a master. 
Hesperus, the evening. 
Hinnuleus, a young hin& 

or fawn. 



Hinniis, a mule. 

Hircus, a goat. 

Hortus, a garden. 

Humerus, a shoulder. 

Hydrus, a water -serpent. 

Intern untius, a go-be- 

Isthmus, a neck of land 
between two seas. 

June us, a bulrush. 

Juvencus, a bullock. 

Labyrinthus, a raaze 

Lacertus, the arm. 

Lanius, a butcher. 

La que us, a noose. 

Lectus, a couch. 

Legatus, an ambassador. 

Leguleius, an ignorant 
lawyer, a pettifogger. 

Lethargus, the lethargy. 

Limb us, a selvedge. 

Llmus, slime. 

Lituus, a crooked staff. 

Lucus, a sacred grove. 

Lumbricus, an earth- 

Lumbus, the loin. 

Lupus, a wolf. 

Lychnus, a lamp. 

Magus, a magician. 

Malleus, a mallet. 

Malus, the mast of a 

Malus, f. an apple tree. 

M annus, a little horse. 

Mathematicus, a mathe- 
matician, [drudge. 

Mediastinus, a slave, a 

Medicus, a physician. 

Mendicus, a beggar. 

Mergus, a cormorant. 

Milvus, a kite. 

Mimus, a mimic. 

Modius, a bushel. 

Modus, a manner 

Mcechus, an adulterer. 

Morus, f. a mulberry 

Mucus, the filth of the 
nose, snot. 

Mullus, a mullet fish. 

IViUlus, & -a, a mule. 

Munis, a wall. 

Muscus, moss. 

Myrtus, f. a myrtle-tree. 


Neb v us, a s]wt. 

Nanus, a dwarf 

Nasus, the nose. 

Nervus, a string. 

Nidus, a nest. 

JNimbus, a cloud. 

Nodus, a knot. 

Nothus, a bastard. 

Notus, the south land. 

Nucleus, a kernel. 

Numerus, a number. 

Nummus, a piece of mo- 

N untius. a messenger. 

Obolus, a farthing. 

Ocean us, the ocean. 

Oculus, the eye. 

Orcus, hell. 

Ornus. f. a icild ash. 

Ostracismus, a voting 
with shells. 

Psedagogus, ft servant 
who attended boys. 

Pagus, a canton or vil- 

Pal us, a stake. 

Pan n us, cloth. 

Parasitus, a flatterer. 

Pardus, a panther. 

Parochus, an entertain- 

Patruus, the father's 

Patronus, a patron. 

Pedictilus, a louse. 

Pessulus, a bolt. 

P etas us, a broad brim- 
med hat. 

Pharus, or -os, a watch- 

Phllosophus, a lover of 

Phoebus, (poet.) the sun. 

Physicus, an inquirer 
into nature. 

Plcus, a wood-pecker. 

Pileus, a hat. 

Pilus, a hair. 

Pirus, f. a pear tree. 

Plagiarius, a plagiary, 
a man stealer ; or one 
who steals from others 

Planus, a vagrant, a 

Phlteus, a pent-house, a 

press for books. 
Polus, the pole, heaven. 
Pontus, the sea. 
Populus, a people. 
Populus, f. a pop] />r tree 
Porcus, a hog. 
Porrus, a leek. 
PrimI pilus, the chief cm' 

tar ion. 
Prlvignus, a step-son, 
Procus, a suitor. 
Promus, a butler. 
PrunuS; f. a plum-tree 
Psittacus, a parrot. 
Pugnus, the fist. 
Pull us, a chicken. 
Pulvinus, a pillow. 
Pupillus, an orphan. 
Pupus, a young child, a 

Puteus, a well. 
Qualus & quasillus, a 

Racemus, a cluster of 

Radius, a ray. 
Ramus, a branch. 
Remus, an oar. 
Rhombus, a turbot. 
Rhoncus, a snoriing. 
Rhythm us, metre, 

Riscus, a trunk. 
Rlvus, a rivulet. 
Rogus, a funeral pile. 
Saccus, a sack. 
Sarcophagus, a stone in 

which dead bodies were 

Satyrus, a satyr, a kind 

of demi-god. 
Scalmus, a boat; apiece 

of wood where the oars 

hung. [or shank. 

Seapus, a stalk, a shaft 
Scarus, the scar, a fish. 
Scirpus, a rush. 
Sciurus, a squirrel. 
Scopulus, a rock. 
Scopus, a mark. 
Scrupulus, a doubly Of 

Scrupus, a little stone 
Scyphus, a bowl. 



Servus, a slave. 
Sestertius, two pounds 

and a half; a sesterce, 

a Roman coin. 
Slcarius, an assassin. 
Simius, & -a, an ape. 
Slrius, the dog-star. 
Soccus, a kind of shoe. 
Somnus, sleep. 
Sonus, a sound. 
Spar us, a spear. 
Sponsus, a bridegroom. 
Stimulus, a sting, a 

Stomachus, the stomach. 
Strupus, a thong, a 

Stylus, a style, or iron 

pen to write with on 

waxen tables. 
Subulcus, a swineherd. 
Succus, juice. 
Sulcus, a furrow. 
Surculus, a young twig. 
Susurrus, a whisper. 

Talus, the ankle, a die. 
Taurus, a bull. 
Taxus. f. the yew tree. 
Terminus, a bound. 
Thalamus, a marriage 

Theologus, a divine. 
Thesaurus, a treasure. 
Tholus, the roof of a 

Thronus, a royal seat. 
Thyasus, a chorus in 

honour of Bacchus. 
Thyrsus, a spear wrapt 

with ivy. 
Titulus, a title. 
Tomus, a volume. 
Tonus, a note in music. 
Tophus, a gravel stone. 
Tornus, a turner's 

Torus, a couch. 
Tribulus, a thistle. 
Triumphus, a triumph. 
Trochus, a top. 

Truncus, the trunk. 
Tubus, a tube or pipe 
Tumulus, a hillock. 
Tutfius, a thrush. 
Typus, a figure or type 
Tyrannus, a tyrant. 
Ulmus, f. an elm tree, 
Umbilicus, the navel. 
Uncus, a hook. 
Urceus, a pitcher. 
Ursus, a bear. 
Urus, a buffalo. 
Uterus, the womb. 
V alius, a stake. 
Venef icus, a sorcerer. 
Ventus, the wind. 
Vicus, a village, a street 
Villicus, & -a, an ovei* 

seer of a farm. 
Villus, shaggy hair 
Vitellus, the yolk of an 

, e gg- 

Vitricus, a step-father. 
Vitulus, a calf. 
Zephyrus, the west wind 

Regnum, a kingdom, neut. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. regnum, 
G-. regni, 
D. regno, 
A. regnum, 
V. regnum, 
A. regno, 

a kingdom, N. regna, 
of a kingdom, G. regndrum, 

to a kingdom 

a kingdom, 


with a kingdom. 

D. regnis, 
A. regna, 
V. regna, 
A. regnis, 

In like manner decline, 

of kingdoms 
to kingdoms 


O kingdoms 

with kingdoms 

Acetum, vinegar. Argentum, silver. 

Aconltum, wolf's bane, Armentum, a herd. 

a poisonous plant. Arvum, & -us, afield. 

Adagium, a proverb. Astrum, a star. 
Admimculum, a prop. Asylum, a sanctuary. 
Adytum, the most secret Atrium, a court or hall. 

part of a temple. 
Album, a register. 
Allium, garlick. 
Amentum, a thong. 
Amuletum, a charm. 
Anethum, anise. 
Antlcum, a fore-door. 
Antrum, a cave. 
Apiurn, parsley. 

Auleeum, tapestry. 
Aurum, gold. 
Auxilium, assistance. 
Aviarium, a cage. 
Balsamum, balm. 
Barathrum, an abyss. 
Basium, a kiss. 
Be Hum, war. 
Blduum, two days. 

Biennium, two years 
Brachium, an arm. 
Butyrum, butter. 
Caelum, a gracing tool. 
Casmentum, materials 

for building. 
Canistrum, a basket. 
Capistrum, a halter of 

Castrum, a castle. 
Centrum, the centre. 
Cerebrum, the brain. 
Chlrographum, a hand 

Cilium, the ey 



Citrum, citron-wood. 

Classicum, a trumpet. 

Caelum, pi. -i, heaven. 

Ccenum, mire, dirt. 

Colloquium, a confer- 

Collum, the neck. 

Commodum, advantage. 

Conflnium, a bound or 

Congiarium, a largess. 

Convlcium, a reproach. 

Corium, a hide, 

Costum, spikenard. 

Cremium, a dry stick. 

Crepusculum, the twi- 

Cribrum, a sieve. 

Cubiculum, a bed-cham- 

Cumlnum, cumin, an 

Cymbalum, a cymbal. 

Damnum, loss. 

Deiubrum, a temple. 

Demensum, an allow- 
ance of meat. 

Detrimentum, damage. 

Diarium, a day's wages. 

Diluculum, the dawning 
of day. 

Dium, (poet.) the open 

Dolium, a cask. 

Domicilium, an abode. 

Donum, a gift. 

Dorsum, the back. 

Effugium, an escape. 

Electrum, amber. 

Elementum, an element, 
a letter. 

Elogium, a brief saying, 
a testimonial in one's 

Emolumentum, profit. 

Emplastrum, a plaster. 

Emporium, a mart or 

Ephippium, a saddle. 

Epitaphium, an inscrip- 
tion on a tomb. 

Ergastulum, a work- 

hrvum, zuches. 

Essedum, a chariot. 

Everriculum, a drag- 

Exemplum, an example. 

Exitium, destruction. 

Exordium, a beginning. 

Fanum, a temple. 

Fascinum, witchcraft. 

Fastigium, the top. 

Ferciilum, a dish of 

Ferrum, iron. 

Fllum, a thread. 

Flabellum, a fan. 

Flagrum & Flagellum, 
a whip. 

Flammeum, a veil. 

Foenum, hay. 

Folium, a leaf. 

Forum, a market-place. 

Fragum, a strawberry. 

Fretum, a -narrow sea. 

FrQmentum, corn. 

Frustum, a bit or piece. 

Fulcrum, a prop. 

Furtum, theft. 

Granarium, a granary. 

Granum, a grain. 

Graphium, a pencil 

Gremium, the bosom. 

Gymnasium, a place of 

Gynseceum, the women's 

Gypsum, -plaster. 

Haustrum, a bucket. 

Helleborum, & -us, hel- 
lebore, a plant. 

Horologium, any thing 
that tells the hours. 

Idolum, an image, [em. 

Idyllium, a pastoral po- 

Imperium, command. 

Inceptum, an enterprise. 

Indicium, a discovery 

Indusium, a shirt. 

Ingenium, wit, genius. 

Inltium, a beginning. 

Inter vallum, distance be- 

Judicium, judgment 

Jugulum, the throat. 

Jugum, a yoke, the 
ridge of a hill. 

Jurgium, a quarrel. 

Jussum, an order 

Justitium, a vacation. 
Labium, the lip. 
Lardum, bacon. 
Lasanum, a chamber 

Llbum, a, sweet cake. 
Llcium, the woof. 
Lignum, toood. 
Lllium, a lily. 
Linteum, a sheet. 
Llnum, lint. 
Lorurn, a ikong. 
Lucrum, gain. 
LudibriunA, a laughing- 
Lustrum "jey. 

Luteum,c; u\\im,woad s 

the yolk of an egg. 
Lutum, clay. 
Macellum, the shambles 
Manubrium, a hilt or 

Mausolaeum, any sump- 
tuous monument. 
Membium, a member. 
Mendac'um, a lie. 
Mentum, the chin. 
Metallum, metal, a mint. 
Milium, millet, a kind 

of grain. 
Minium, ver million 
Momentum, weight, im 

Monopolium, the sole 

right of selling any 

Monstrum, a monster^ 

any thing against the 

common course of na 

Mortarium, a mortar. 
Museum, a study or li 

Mustum, new wine. 
Mysterium, a mysPe~y, n 

thing not easily com 

pr eh ended. 
Nasturtium, cresses. 
Naulum, freight. 
Naufragium, shipwieck. 
Negotium, a thing, busi 

Nitrum, nitre. 
Obsequium, compliance 


Odium, hatred. Prejudicium, a fore- Salinum, a salt-cellar. 

Omasum, the paunch. judging. Salsamentum, salt meal 

Omentum, the caul, or Preelium, a battle. Salum, the sea. 

skin ivliich covers the Praemium, a reward. Sandalium, a slipper. 

bowels. Presidium, a defence, a Sarculum, a xoeeding- 

Oppldum, a town. garrison. hook, a spade. 

Opprobrium, a reproach. Prandium, a dinner. Sarmentum, a twig. 
Opsonium, fish or any Pratum, a meadow. Satisdatum, a bond of 

thing eaten with bread. Prelum, a press. security. 

Organum, any instru- Pretium, a price. Saxum, a large stone. 

ment. Prlmordium, > a begin- Scalprum, dim. Seal 

Osculum, a kiss; pi. the Principium, ) ning. pellum, a knife. 

Ups. Prlvilegium, a private Seamnum, dim. Scabel- 

Ostium, the door. laic or special right. lum, a bench or form. 

O strum, purple. Probrum, a disgrace. Sceptrum, a sceptre, a 

Otium, repose. Prodlgium, a prodigy, mace. 

Ovum, an egg. any thing preternatu- Scltum, a decree. 

Pabulum, fodder. ral. Scortum, a harlot. 

Pactum, an agreement. Promissum, a promise. Serinium, a coffer. 
Palatium, a palace. Propositum, purpose. Scriptum, a writing. 

Palatum, the palate. Propugnaculum, a but- ScrUpulum, a scruple, a 

Pallium, a cloak. wark. certain weight. 

Paludamentum, a gene- Proverbium, an old say- Scutum, a shield. 

raVs robe. ing. Seculum, an age. 

Panarium, «* bread-bas- Pulpitum, a pulpit. Semmarium, a nursery. 

ket. Ramentum, a chip or Senaculum, a senate- 

Patibulum, a gibbet. shaving. [rake, house. 

Pensum, a task. Rastrum, pi. -i & -a, a Senatus consultum, ade 

Peplum, a woman's Ref ugium, a shelter. cree of the senate. 

robe. Remedium, a cure. Sericum, silk. 

Perjurium, perjury, tak- Remulcum, a tow- Servltium, slavery. 

ing a false oath. barge. Serpyllum, wild thyme 

Perpendiculum, a Repagulum, a bar. Sertum, a garland. 

straight line upwards Repudium, a divorce. Serum, whey. 

or downwards. Responsum, an answer. Sestertium, a thousand 

Petoritum, a waggon. Retinaculum, a cable. sestertii. 

Pllentum, a chariot. Rostrum, the bill of a Sgvum, tallow. 

Pllum, a javelin. bird, the beak of a Signum, a sign, a stand- 

Pistillum, the pestle of a ship. ard. 

mortar. Rudimentum, pi. -a, the Sigillum, a seal. 

Plsum, pease. first principles of any Silicernium, a funeral 

Plaustrum, a waggon. art. supper, an old man. 

Plectrum, a quill or Rutrum, a pick-axe. Slnum, a milk-pail. 

boio to play with on a Sabbatum, the sabbath. Sistrum, a timbrel. 

musical instrument. Sabulum, gravel. Sodalitium, a company 

Plumbum, lead. Saccharum, sugar. a corporation. 

Pomarium, an orchard. Sacellum, a chapel. Solarium, a sun-dial. 

Pomoerium, a void space Sacerdotium, the priest- Solatium, comfort. 

on each side of a town hood. [ry oath. Solium, a throne. 

wall. Sacramentum, a milita- Solum, the ground. 

Pomum, an apple. Sacrif icium, a sacrifice. Somnium, a dream. 

Postlcum, a back door. Sacrilggium, stealing Spatium, a space. 
Postliminium, a return sacred things. Spectaculum,, a show 

to one's own country. £agum, soldier's cl/tak Spectrum, a pfiantam d 
Prelum, a farm. Salarium, a salary. apparition. 



Speculum, a looking- 

Spelamm, a den. 

Splcllegium, a gleaning. 

Splculum, a dart. 

Spiraculum, a breathing 

Spolium, spoil. 

Sputum, spittle. 

Stabulum, a stable. 

Stadium, a furlong. 

Stagnum, a pond. 

Stannum, tin. 

Sterquilinium, a dung- 

Stlpendium, pay. 

Stragulum, a blanket. 

Stratum, a couch. 

Strigmentum, a scrap- 

Studium, desire, study. 

Stuprum, debauchery. 

Suavium, a kiss. 

Subsellium, a bench. 

Subsidium, help. 

Suburbanum, a house 
near the town. 

Suburbium, the suburbs, 
the part of a town 
without the icalls. 

Sudarium, a handker- 

Suffragium, a vote. 

Suggestum, & -us, us, 
a place raised above 

Summarium, an abridg- 

Supercilium, the brow, 

SuspTrium, a sigh. 

Symbolum, a sign or 

Symposium, &. -on, a 

Tabernaculum, a tent. 

Tabulatum, a story. 

Tabum, black gore. 

Tsedium, weariness. 

Talentum, a talent. 

Tectum, the roof, a 

TeJum, a weapon 

Tempi um, a church. 

Tergum, the back. 

Testimonium, an evi- 

Theatrum, a theatre. 

Thuribulum, a censer, 
a vessel to burn incense 

Tintinnabulum, a little 

Tirocinium, an appren- 

Tormentum, an engine, 
a torment. 

Toxicum, poison. 

Trlbutum, tax, or cus- 
tom, [room. 

Triclinium, a dining- 

Triduum, three days. 

Triennium, three years. 
Trlpudium, a dancing. 
Trivium, a place where 

three ways meet. 
Tropaeum, a trophy, a 

token of victory. 
Tugurinm, a cottage. 
Tympanum, a drum. 
Vacclnium, a berry. 
Vadimonium, bail ; a 

promise to appear in 

Vadum, a ford, the sea. 
Vallum, a rampart. 
Velum, a veil, a sail. 
Venabtilum, a hunting 

Venerium, poison. 
Ventilabrum, a fan. 
Verbum, a xoord. 
Vestlbtilum, a porch. 
Vestigium, the print oj 

the foot. 
Vexillum, a banner. 
Viaticum, money, or pro 

visions for a journey 
Vinculum, a chain. 
Vlnum, wine. 
Vltium, vice, a fault. 
Vitrum, glass. 
Vivarium, a place to 

keep beasts in, a tcar- 

ren or fish-pond. 
Vocabulum, a name or 

Votum, a vow. 


Exc. 1. The following nouns in us are feminine; humus, the ground; 
alvus the belly ; vannus, a sieve. 

An.i the following, derived from Greek nouns in os ; 

Abyssus, a bottomless Carbasus, a sail. Eremus, a desert. 

pit Dialectus, a dialect or Method us, a method. 

A n ti dotus, a preservative manner of speech. Periodus, a period. 

against poison. Diametros, the diameter Peri metros, the circum 

Arctos, the Bear, a con- of a circle. ference. 

stellation near the north Diphthongus, a diph- Pharus, a watch-totcer. 

pole. thong. Synodua, an assembly. 

To these add some names of jewels and plants, because gemma arid 
planta are feminine, (See Observations on Gender, page Xb,)', as, 


Amethystus, mi ame- Sapphlrus, a sap- Byssus, fine jla& of 

thyst. pliire. linen. 

Chrysolithiis, a chryso- Topazius, a topaz Costus, costmary. 

lite. fan Egyp- Crocus, saffron. 

Chrysophrasus, a kind r>:uj us tian reed, Hyssopus, hyssop. 

of topaz. p~ - ' < of which Nardus, spikenard. 

Chrystallus, crystal. a py ms > -paper was 

Leucochrysus, a jacinth. \made. 

Other names of jewels are generally masculine ; as, beryllus, the beryl ; 
carbunculus, a carbuncle ; pyropus, a ruby ; smdragdus, an emerald 
And also names of plants; as, asparagus, asparagus or sparrowgrass ; 
elleborus, ellebore ; raphanus, radish or cole wort; intybus, endive of 
succory, &c. 

Exc. 2. The nouns which follow are either masculine or feminine • 
Atomus, an atom. Barbltus, a harp. Grossus, a green fig. 

Balanus, the fruit of the Camelus, a camel. Penus, a store-house. 

palm tree, ointment. Colus, a distaff. Phaselus, a little shop. 

Exc. 3. Virus, poison ; peldgus, the sea; are neuter. 

Exc. 4. Vulgus, the common people, is either masculine or neuter 
but oftener neuter. 


Proper names in ius lose us in the vocative ; as, Horatius, 
Horati; Virgilius, Vivgili; Georgius, Georgi, names of men: 
Lctrius, Lari; Mincius, Minci; names of lakes. Filius, a son, 
also has fill; genius, one's guardian angel, geni; and dens, 
a god, has deus in the voc. and in the plural more frequently 
dii and diis, than del and dels. Mens, my, an adjective pro- 
noun, has mi, and sometimes mens, in the vocative. 

Other nouns in ius have e; as, tdbclldrius, tabellarie, a letter-carrier, 
pius, pie, &c. So these epithets, Delius, Delie; Tiryntl'ius, Tirynthie , 
and these possessives, La&rtius, Laprtie; Sdturnius, Saturnie; &c. which 
are not considered as proper names. 

The poets sometimes make the vocative of nouns in us like the nomi • 
native ; as, fluvius, Latlnus, for fluvie, Latlne. Virg. This also occurs in 
prose, but more rarely ; thus, Audi tu, populus, for popule. Liv. i. 24. 

The poets also change nouns in er into us; as Evander, or Exandi-us^ 
vocative, Evander, or Evandre. So Meander, Leander, Tymber, Teucer i 
&c; and so anciently pucr in the vocative had puere, from puerus. 

Note. When the genitive singular ends in ii, the latter i is sometimes 
taken away by the poets for the sake of quantity ; as, tuguri, for tuguni ; 
ingeni, for ingenii, &c. And in the genitive plural we find deum, liberum, 
fabrum, duumvirum, &c, for deorum, liberorum, &c; and in poetry, Ten- 
erurn, Graium, Arglvum, Danaiim, P6lasgum, &>c. for Teucrorum, <&c. 


Os and on are Greek terminations; as, Alpheos, a river in 
Greece; llion, the city Troy; and are often changed into us 
and urn, by the Latins; Mpheus, Ilium, which are declined 
Hke doimnus and regnum. 



Nouns in *.os or eus are sometimes contracted in the genitive ; as Or 
vh6us, gen. Orph£i, Orphei or Orpki. So Tkeseus, Prometht us , &c. Bu' 
nouns in cus, when cu is a diphthong, are of the third declension. 

Some nouns in os have the genitive singular in o ; as, Androgeos, geni 
live Androgeo, or -Bi, the name of a man; Atlws, Atao, or -i, a hill in Muce 
dojiia : both of which are also found in the third declension ; thus, nomin 
a ti ve Androgeo, genitive Androgeonis. So AtJto, or Athon, -onis, <fcc. An 
ciently nouns in os, in imitation of the Greeks, had the genitive in u 
as, Menandru, Apoliodoru, for Menundri, Apollodori. , Ter. 

Nouns in os have the accusative in um or on; as, Delus, or Delos, accu 
iative Delum or Delon, the name 01 an island. 

Some neuters have the genitive plural in on; as, Georgica, genitive pin 
ral Georgicon, books which treat of husbandry, as, Virgil's Georgicks. 


There are more nouns of the third declension than of all tho 
other declensions together. The number of its final syllables 
is not ascertained. Its final letters are thirteen, a, e, t, o, y, 
c, d, I, n, r, s, t, x. Of these, eight are peculiar to this de- 
clension, namely, i, o, y, c, d, I, t, x; a and e are common to 
it with the first declension; n and r, with the second; and s, 
with all the other declensions. A, i, and y, are peculiar to 
Greek nouns. 




Nom. a, e, i, &c. 

Nom. ^ 

Gen. is. 

Ace. > es, a, or ia. 

Dat. i. 

Voc. ) 

Ace. em, or like the nom. 

Gen. . um, or ium, 

Voc. like the 
Abl c, or i. 


Dat - I Ibus 

Abl. 5 wus - 

Sermo, a speech, masc. 

Singular. Plural. 



a speech. 

N. sermones, speeches, 



of a speeeh, 

G. sermonum, of speeches. 



to a speech, 

D. sermonibus, to speeches, 



a speech, 

A. sermones, speeches, 




V. sermones, speeches, 



with a speech. 

A. sermonibus, toif/i speeches 



Rupes, a rock, fern. 





a rock, 






of a rock, 







to a rock, 







a rock, 









rocks j 



with a rock. 





Lapis, a stone 

, masc. 





a stone, 






of a stone, 







to a stone, 







a stone, 












with a stone. 





Caput, a head, neut. 





a head, 






of a head, 







to a head, 







a head, 












with a head. 





Sedile, a seat 

, neut. 





a seat, 






of a seat, 







to a seat, 







a seat, 












with a seat. 





Iter, a journey, neut. 





a journey, 






of a journey, 



of journeys 



to a journey, 



to journeys, 



a journey, 












with a journey. 



with journey*. 



Opus, a work, neut. 





a work, 







a worl^ 



of works, 




a work) 



to works. 



a work) 













a work. 



with works 


a parent) common gender. 





a parent) 







a parent) 



of parents 




a parent. 



to parents. 




a parent) 













a parent. 



with parents 


A, E, L and Y. 

1. Nouns in a, e, i, and y, are neuter. 
Nouns in a form the genitive in dtis ; as, diadema, diadematis, & 

Dogma, an opinion, neut. 

N. dogma, 
G. dogmatis, 
D. dogmati, 
A. dogma, 
V. dogma, 
A. dogmate. 

N. dogmata, 
G. dogmatum, 
D. dogmatibus, 
A. dogmata, 
V. dogmata, 
A. dogmatibus. 

JEnigma, a riddle. 

Apophthegma, a short, 
'pithy saying. 

Aroma, svveet sjrices. 

Axioma, a plain truth. 

Diploma, a charter. 

Epi gramma, an inscrip- 

Numisma, a coin. 

Phasma, an apparition. Stratagema, an artful 

Poema, a poem. contrivance. 

Schema, a scheme, or Thema, a theme, a sub- 
figure, ject to write or speak 

Sophisma, a deceitful ar- on. 

gument. Toreuma, a carved ves* 

Stemma, a. pedigree. sel. 

Stigma, a mark or brand, 
a disgrace. 

* Nouns in ns and as form their genitive plural in ium and 6m, but often 
admit a syncope of the i. 




Nouns in e change e into is ; as, rete, retis, a net. So, 

Anclie, a shield. Crlnale, a pin for the 

Aplustre, the flag of a hair. 

ship. Cublle, a couch. 

Campestre, a pair of Equlle , a stable for hors- 

drawers. es. 

Cochleare, a spoon. Laqueare, a ceiled roof. 

Conclave, a room. Mantlle, a totoel. 

Monlle, a necklace,. 

Navale, a dock or vlaa 

for shipping. 
Ovile, a sheep fold- 
Prsesepe, a stall ■ a bee 

Sulle, a sow-cote. 
Tibiale, a stocking. 

Nouns in i are generally indeclinable; as, gummi, gum ; zingiberi, gin 
ger; but some Greek nouns add itis ; as, hydromeli, hydromelltis, water 
and honey sodden together, mead. 

Nouns in y add os ; as, moly, molyos, an herb ; mlsy, -yos vitriol. 


2. Nouns in o are masculine, and form the genitive in 5ms, 

Sermo, sermonis, speech ; draco, drdconis, a dragon. So, 

Agaso, a horse-keeper. Curio, the chief of a ward Pero, a kind of shoe 
Aquilo, the north icind. or curia. Prasco, a common crier. 

Arrhabo, an earnest-pen- Equlso, a groom or ost- Prasdo, a robber. 

ny, a pledge. ler. 

B&latro, a pitiful fellow. Erro, a wanderer. 
Bambalio, a stutterer. Fullo, a fuller of cloth. 

Helluo, a glutton. 
Histrio, a player. 
Latro, a robber. 
Leno, a pimp. 

Baro, a blockhead. 
Bubo, an owl. 
Bufo, a toad. 
Caio, a soldier's slave. 
Capo, a capon. 
Carbo, a coal. 
Caupo, an inn-keeper. 

Cerdo, a cobbler, or one Mirmillo, a fencer 
who follows a mean Morio, a fool. 

Pulmo, the lungs. 
Pusio, a little child. 
Salmo, a salmon. 
Sannio, a buffoon 
Sapo, soap. 
Slpho, a pipe or tube. 
Spado, an eunuch. 

Ludio, <fc -ius, a player. Stolo, a shoot or scion. 
Lurco, a glutton, [chant. Strabo, a goggle-eytd 
Manofo, a slave-mer- person. 

Temo, the pole or 

trade. Mucro, the point of a Tiro, a raw soldier. 

Ciniflo,& frizzier oj 'hair, iceapon. Umbo, the boss of a 

Crabro, a wasp, or hor- Mtilio, a muleteer. shield. 

net. Nebulo, a knave. Upilio, a shepherd. 

Pavo, a peacock. Volo, a volunteer. 

Exc. 1. Nouns in io are feminine, when they signify any thing without 
a body ; as, ratio, rationis, reason. So, 
Captio, a quirk. Opinio, 

Cautio, caution, care. Optio, 

Oratio, a speech. 

Pensio, a payment. 

Perduellio, treason. 

Portio, a part. 

Potio, drink. 

Prodi tio, treachery. 

Concio, an assembly 

Cessio, a yielding. 
Dictio, a word. 
Deditio, a surrender. 
Lectio, a lesson. 

, an opinion. 
'. choice. 

Quasstio, an inquiry, 

Rebellio, rebellion. 

Regio, a country. 

Relatio, a telling. 

Religio, religion. 

Remissio, a slackening. 

Sanctio, a confirmation. 

Sectio, the confiscation 
Legio, a legion, a body of Proscriptio, a proscrip- or forfeiture of one's 

men. tion, ordering citizens goods. 

Mentio, mention. to be slain, and confis- Seditio, a mutiny. 

Notio, a notion or idea. eating their effects. Sessio, a sitting. 



Statio, a station. ring. Vacatio, freedom from 

Suspicio, mistrust. Usucapio, the enjoyment labour, fyc. 

Titillatio, a tickling. of a thing by prescrip- Vlsio, an apparition. 
Translatio, a transfer- tion. 

But when they mark any thing which has a body, or signify numbers, 
they are masculine ; as, 

Curculio, the throat-pipe, Scipio, a staff. 

the weasand. Scorpio, a scorpion. 

Papilio, a butterfly. Septentrio, the north. 

Pugio, a dagger. Stellio, a lizard. 

Pusio, a little child. Titio, a firebrand. 

Unio, a pearl. 
Vespertilio, a bat. 
Ternio, the number three. 

Quaternio, four. 

Senio, six. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in do and go, are feminine, and have the genitive in 
\ais ; as, arundo, arundinis, a reed; imago, imaginis, an image. 

Arundo, a reed, fern. 

N. arundo, 
G. arundinis, 
D. arundmi, 
A. arundmem, 
V. arundo, 
A. arundine. 


N. arundines, 
G. arundlnum, 
D. arundinibus, 
A. arundines, 
V. arundines, 
A. arundinibus. 


./Erugo, rust (of brass.) 
Callgo, darkness. 
Cartilage, a gristle. 
Crepldo, a creek, bank. 
Farrago, a mixture. 
Ferrugo, rust (of iron.) 
Formldo, fear. 
Fuligo, soot. 
Grando, hail. 
Hirudo, a horse-leech. 

Hirundo, a swallow. 

Intercapedo, a space be- 

Lanugo, dmen. 

Lentigo, a pimple. 

Origo, an origin. 

Porrlgo, scurf, or scales 
in the head ; dandruff. 

Propago, a lineage. 

Rubfgo, rust, mildew. 

Sartago, a frying-pan 
Scaturlgo, a spring. 
Testudo, a tortoise. 
Torpedo, a numbness. 
Ullgo, the natural mois 

ture of the earth. 
Valetudo, health. 
Vertigo, a dizziness. 
Virgo, a virgin. 
Vorago, a gulf. 

But the following are masculine • 

Cardo, -mis, a hinge. 
Cudo, -onis, a leatfier cap. 
Harpago, -onis, a drag 
Llgo, -onis, a spade. 

Mar^o, -mis, the brink of a river; 

al*5o feminine. 
Ordo, -Inis, order. 
Te'ido, -mis, a tendon. 
Udo, -onis, a linen or woollen sock. 

Cupido, desire, is often masc. with tb3 poets; but in prose always feaa. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns have inis? 
Apollo, -Tnis, the god Apollo. Nemo, -inis, m. or f. no body. 

Homo, Inis, a man, or woman. 

Turbo, -Inis,m. & whirlwind. 

Cdro, flesh, fem. has carnis. Anio, masc. the name of a river, Anie~ni* 
JYerio, JYerienis, the wife of the god Mars ; from the obsolete nominatives 
Amen, JVerien. Turbo, the name o£ a n> , has onis. 


Exc. 4. Greek nouns in o are feminine, and have us »*> the genitive, and 
o in the other cases singular , as, Dido, the name of a woman ; genit. Oe- 
dits; dat. Did6, &c. Sometimes they are declined regularly; thus, J)*Jj, 
Didonis : so eclto, -us, f. the resounding of the voice from a rock oi voo^ ; 
Argo, -ils, the name of a ship ; halo, -onis, f. a circle about the %un vi 

Dido, Dido, the name of a woman, fern. 
Nom. Dido, 

Gen. Didonis or Didus, 
Dat. Didoni or Dido, 
Ace. Didonem or Dido, 
Voc. Dido, 
Abl. Didone or Dido. 

C, D, L. 

3. Nouns in e and I are neuter, and form the genitive by 
adding is; as, 

Animal, animdlis, a living creature ; toral, ■ alls, a bed-cover ; hdlec, ha- 
lt cis, a kind of pickle. So, 

Cervical, a bolster. Mi nerval, entry -money. Ptiteal, a well-cover. 

Cubital, a cushion. Minutal, minced meat. Vectlgal, a tax. 

Except, Consul, -ulis, m. a consul. Mugil, -ilis, m. a mullet-Jish. 

Fel, fellis, n. gall. Sal, salis, m. or n. salt. 

Lac, lactis, n. milk. Sales, -ium, pi. m. witty sayings. 

Mel, mellis, n. honey. Sol, soiis, m. the sun. 

D is the termination only of a few proper names, which form the geni 
tive by adding is; as, David, Davidis. 


4. Nouns in n are masculine, and add is in the genitive; as, 

Canon, -onis, a rule. Lien, -enis, the milt. Ren, renis, the reins. 

Daemon, -onis, a spirit. Paean, anis, a song. Splen, -enis, the spleen. 

Delphin,-Inis, a dolphin. Physiognomon, -onis, one Syren, -enis, f. a Syren. 

Gnomon, -onis, the cock who guesses at the dis- Titan, -anis, the sun. 

of a dial. positions of men from 

Hymen, -enis, the god of the face. 


Exc. 1. Nouns in men, are neuter, and make their genitive in \nis 
K8,fiumen,fluminis, a river. So, 

Abdomen, the paunch. Discrlmen, a difference. Omen, a presage. 

Acumen, sharpness. Examen, a swarm of Putamen, a nut-shell. 

Agmen, an army on bees. Sagmen, vervain, an 

march. Foramen, a hole. herb. 

Alumen, alum. Germen, a sprout. Semen, a seed. 

Bitumen, a kind of clay. Gramen, grass. Specimen, a proof 

Cacumen, the top. Legumen^ all kinds of Stamen, the warp. 

Carmen, a song, a poem. pulse. Subtemen, the woof. 

Cognomen, a sir-name. Lumen, light. Tegmen, a covering 

Columen, a support. Numen, a name. Vlmen, a twig. 

Crimen, a crime. Numen, the Deity. Volumen, a folding 


The following nouns are likewise neuter ; 
Gluten, -inis, glue. Inguen, -Inis, the groin. 

(Jnjruen, -Inis, ointment. Pollen, -ims, fine fi our. 

Exc. 2. The following masculines have inis ; pecten, a comb ; tuMcen, 
a trumpeter; tlbicen, a piper; and oscen, or oscinis, sc. avis, f. a bird whieu 
foreboded by singing. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns are feminine; Sindon, -onis, fine linen, 
dedon, -onis, a nightingale; halcyon, -onis, a bird called the king's fisher; 
icon, -6nis, an image. 

Exc. 4. Some Greek nouns have ontis ; as, Laomedon, -ontis, a king of 
Tray. So Acheron, chameleon, Phaethon, Charon, &c. 
AR and UR. 

5. Nouns in ar and ur are neuter, and add is to form the 
genitive; as, 

Calcar, a spur, neut. 

Nom. calcar, 
Gen. calcaris, 



Nom. calcaria, 
Gen. calcarium, 
Dat. calcaribus, 
Ace. calcaria, 
Voc. calcaria, 
Abl. calcaribus. 

Nectar, -aris, drink of the gods 
Pulvlnar, -aris, a pillow. 
Sulphur, -uris, sulphur. 


Jecur, -oris, 


Robur, -oris, n. strength. 
S&lar, -aris, m. a trout. 
Turtur, -uris, m. a turtle-dove. 
Vultur, -uris, m. a vulture. 


Guttur, -uris, the throat. 
Jubar, -aris, a sun-beam. 
Lacunar, -aris, a ceiling. 
Murmur, -uris, a noise. 
Except, Ebur, -oris, n. ivory. 

Far, farris, n. corn. 

Femur, -oris, n. the thigh. 

Furfur, -uris, m. bran. 

Fur, furis, m. a thief. 

Hepar, -atis, or -atos, n. 
the liver. 

ER and OR. 

6. Nouns in er and or are masculine, and form the genitive 
by adding is; as, 

Anser, OMseris, a goose or gander ; agger, -eris, a rampart ; acr, -eris, the 
air ; career, -eris, a prison ; asser, -eris, and assis, -is, a plank ; dolor, -oris, 
pain , color, -oris, a colour. So, 
Actor, a doer, a plead- tended the magis- Rumor, a report. 

er. trates. Sapor, a taste. 

Creditor, he that trusts Llvor, paleness, madce. Sartor, a cobbler or tail&t 

or lends. 
Cruor, gore. 
IVsbitor, a debtor. 
Foe tor, an ill smell. 
Honor, honour. 
Lector; a reader. 

Nidor, a strong smell. 
Odor, and -os, a smell. 
Olor, a swan. 
Psedor, filth. 
Pastor, a shepherd. 
Praetor, a commander. 

Lictor, an officer among Pudor, shame. 
the Romans, icho at- Rubor, blushing. 

Sator, a sower, a father. 
Sopor, slecn. 
Splendor, ^brightness 
Sponsor, a surety. 
Squalor , filth in ess. 
Stupor, dulness. 
Sutor, a sewer. 

*See Exc. in Abl. Sing, page 51. Neuter nouns in ur have the Abl 
Sing, in e, and the Nom. \ ur. in a 




Tepor, warmth. Tonsor, a barber. Vapor, a vapour. 

Terror, dread. Tutor, a guardian. Venator, a hunter 

Timor, fear. 

Rhetor, a rhetorician, has rhetoris , castor, a beaver, -oris. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are neuter : 

Acer, -eris, a maple tree. 
Ador, -oris, fine wheat. 
^qnor, -oris, a plain, the sea. 
Cadaver, -eris, a dead carcass. 
Cicer, -eris, vetches. 
Cor, cordis, the heart. 
Iter, itineris, a journey. 

Arbor, -oris, a tree, is fern. 

Marmor, -oris, marble. 
Papaver, -eris, poppy. 
Piper, -eris, pepper. 
Spinther, -eris, a clasp. 
Tuber, -eris, a swelling. 
Uber, -eris, a pap, ox fatness. 
Ver, veris, the spring. 

Tuber, -eris, the fruit of the tuber-tree, is 

masc, but when put for the tree, is fern. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in ber have bris, in the genitive; as, hie imber, imbris, 
a shower. So Insuber, October, &-c. 

Nouns in ter have tris; as, venter, ventris, the belly; pater, patris, a 
father ; f rater, -tris, a brother ; accipiter, -tris, a hawk ; but crater, a cup, 
has crdteris ; soter, -eris, a saviour; later, a tile, lateris ; Jupiter, the 
chief of the Heathen Gods, has Jovis ; linter, -tris, a little boat, is masc. or 


7. Nouns in as are feminine, and have the genitive in atis , 


iEtas, an age, fern. 

JYom. rotas, 
Gen. rotatis, 
Dat. rotati, 
Ace. rotatem, 
Voc. eetas, 
Abl. rotate. 

Nom. estates, 
Gen. rotatam,* 
Dat. rotatibus, 
Ace. rotates, 
Voc. rotates, 
Abl. rotatibus. 

J^stas, the summer. 
Pietas, piety. 
Potest&s, poiccr. 
Prob! tas, probity, [gust. 
Satietas, a glut or dis- 

a Veritas, truth. 

Voluntas, will. 
a Voluptas, pleasure. 

Anas, a duck, has ana 


Simultas, a feud, 

Tempestas, a time 1 

Ubertas , fertility. 

Exc. 1. As, assis, m. a piece of mo- Mas, maris, m. a male, 
jiey, or any thing which may Vas, vadis, m. a surety, 
be divided into twelve parts. Vas, vasis, n. a vessel. 

Note. All the parts of as are likewise masculine, except uncia, an 
•unce, fern.; as, sextans, 2 ounces ; qv.adrans,3; triens,i; quincunx, 5 ; 
gemis, 6; septunx, 7; bes, 8; dodrans, 9; dextans, or decunx, 10; deunx, U 

Exc. 2. Of Greek nouns in as, some are masculine; some feminine* 
»>dze neuter. Those that are masculine have antis in the genit. as 

'See note, page 37. 



gigas, gigaiUis / a giant; dddmas, -antis, an adamant; tUphas, -antis, an 
elephant. Those that are feminine have adis, or ados; as, lampas, 
lampddis, or lampadvs, a lamp ; dramas, -adis, f. a dromedary ; likewise 
Areas, an Arcadian, though masculine, has Arcddis, or -ados. Those 
that are neuter have atis ; as, buceras, -dtis, an herb; artocreas, -dtis, a 


8. Nouns in es are feminine, and in the genitive change es 
into is; as, 

ruves, rupis, a rock ; nubes, nuhs, a cloud. So, 

iEdes, or -is, a temple; Lues, a plague. 

plur. a house. 
Cautes, a rugged rock. 
Clades, an 'overthrow, 

Crates, a hurdle. 
Fames, hunger. 
Fides, afiadle. 

Moles, a heap. 
Nates, the buttock. 
Palumbes, m. or f. 

Proles, an offspring. 
Pubes, youth. 

Sepes, a hedge. 
Soboles, an offspring. 
Strages, a slaughter, 
a Strues, a heap. 
Sudes, a stake. 
Tabes, a consumption. 
Vulpes, a fox. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and most of them likewise 
excepted in the formation of the genitive : 

Ales, -itis, a bird. 

Ames, -itis, a fowler's staff. 

Aries, -etis, a ram. 

Bes, bessis, txco thirds of a pound. 

Cespes, -itis, a turf. 

Eques, -itis, a horseman. 

Femes, -itis, fuel. 

Gurges, -itis, a ichirlpool. 

Heeres, -edis, an heir. 

Indiges, -etis, a man deified. 

Interpres, -etis, an interpreter. 

Limes, -itis, a limit or bound. 

Miles, -itis, a soldier. 

Obses, -idis, a hostage. 

But ales, miles, hares, interpres, obses, and vates, are also used m the 

Palmes, -itis, a vine-branch. 
Paries, etis, a wall. 
Pes, pedis, the foot. 
Pedes, -itis, a footman. 
Poples, -itis, the ham of the leg. 
Presses, -idis, a president. 
Satelles, -itis, a life-guard. 
Stipes, -itis, the stock of a tree. 
Termes, -itis, an olive-bough. 
Trames, -Itis, a path. 
Veles, -Itis, a light-armed soldier. 
Vates, vatis, a prophet. 
Verres, verris, a boar-pig. 

The following feminines are excepted in the formation of the 

Exc. 2. 

genitive : 

Abies, -etis, a fir-tree. 
Ceres, -eris, the goddess of corn. 
Merces, -edis, a reward, hire. 
Merges, -itis, a handful of corn. 
Quies, -etis, rest. 

Requies, -etis; or requiei, {of tkt 

fifth declension) rest. 
Seges, -etis, growing corn. 
Teges, -etis, a mat or coverlet. 
Tudes, -is, or -Itis, a hammer. 

To these add the following adjectives- 


Ales, -itis, swift. Prfepes, -etis, sioift-winged. 

Bipes, -edis, tioo-footed. Reses, -idis, idle. 

Quadrupes, -edis, four-footed. Sospes, -itis, safe. 

Deses, -Idis, slothful. Superstes, -itis, surviving. 

Dives, -itis, rich. Teres, -etis, round and long, smooth. 

Hebes, -etis, dull. Locuples, -etis, rich. 

Perpes, -etis, perpetual. Mansues, -etis, gentle. 

Exc. 3. Greek nouns in es are commonly masculine; as hie dclndces 
-i&, a Persian sword, a scimitar: but some are neuter; as, hoc cacoethes, 
an evil custom ; hippomdnes, a kind of poison which grows in the forehead 
of a foal ; pdndces, the herb all-heal ; nepenthes, the herb kill-grief. Dis- 
syllables, and the monosyllable Cres, a Cretan, have -etis in the genitive; 
as, hie magnes, magnetis, a load-stone ; tapes, -Etis, tapestry ; lebes, -etis, a 
cauldron. The rest follow the general rule. Some proper nouns have 
either -etis, or is; as, Dares, Daretis, or Daris ; which is also sometimes 
of the first declension. Achilles has A chillis ; or Achilli, contracted for 
AchilUi, or Achillei, of the second declension, from Achill&us • So Ulysses, 
Pericles, Verres, Jlristoteles, &c. 


9. Nouns in is are feminine, and have their genitive the* 
same with the nominative; as, 

auris, auris, the ear ; avis, avis, a bird. So, 

Apis, a bee. Messis, a harvest or Pestis, a plague. 
Bilis, the gall, anger. crop. Ratis, a raft. 

Classis, a fleet. Naris, the nostril. Rudis, a rod. 

Felis, a cat. Neptis, a niece. Vallis, a valley. 

Foris, a door; oftener Ov is, a sheep. Vestis, a garment. 

plur. fores, -ium. Pellis, a skin. Vltis, a vine. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine, and form the genitive ac- 
cording to the general rule : 

Axis, axis, an axle-tree. Ensis, a sword. Patruelis, a cousin-ger 

Aqualis, a water-pot, an Fascis, a bundle. man. 

ewer. Fecialis, a herald. Piscis, a fish. 

Callis, a beaten road. Follls, a pair ofbelloivs. Postis, a post. 

Caulis, the stalk of an Fustis, a staff. Sodalis, a companion. 

herb. Mensis, a month. Torris, a fire-brand 

Collis. a hill. Mugilis, or -il, a mullet- Unguis, the nail 

Cenchris, a kind of ser- fish. Vectis, a lever. 

pent. Orbis, a circle, the world. Vermis, a worm. 

To these add Latin nouns in nis ; as, pdnis, bread ; crinis, the hair, 
ignis, fire ; funis, a rope, &c. But Greek nouns in nis are feminine, and 
have the genitive in idis; as, tyrannis, tyrannidis, tyranny. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns are also masculine, but form their geni- 
tive differently 


Clnis -€ris, ashes. Pubis, or pubes, -is, or oftener, -grig 
Cucumis, -is, or -eris, a cucumber. marriageable. 

Dis, ditis, the god of riches ; or rick, Pulvis, -eris, dust. 

an adj. Quiris, itis, a Roman. 

Glis, gllris, a dormouse, a rat. Samnis, -Itis, a Samnite. 

Impubis, or impubes, -is, or -eris, not Sanguis, -mis, blood. 

marriageable. Semis, -issis, the half of any thing. 

Lapis, -Idis, a stone. Vomis, or -er, -eris, a ploughshare. 

Pulvis, and cinis, are sometimes feminine. Semis is also sometime* 
neuter, and then it is indeclinable. Pubis and impubis are properly 
adjectives; thus, Puberibuscaulem foliis, a stalk with downy leaves. 
Virg. JEn. xii. 413. Impube corpus, the body of a boy not having yet got 
the down (pubes, -is, f.) of youth. Horat. Epod. 5. 13. Exsanguis, blood- 
less, an adjective, has exsanguis in the genitive. 

Exc. 3. The following are either masculine or feminine, and form the 
genitive according to the general rule : 

Amnis, a river. Finis, the end; fines, the boundaries 

Anguis, a snake. of a field or tei'ritories, is always 

Canalis, a conduit-pipe. masc. 

Clunis, the buttock. Scrobis, or scrobs, a ditch. 

Corbis, a basket. Torquis, a chain. 

Exc. 4. These feminines have idis : Cassis, -Mis, a helmet; cuspis 
idis, the point of a spear ; capis, -idis, a kind of cup ; promulsis, -Idis, a 
kind of drink, metheglin. Lis, strife, f. has litis. 

Exc. 5. Greek nouns in is are generally feminine, and form the geni 
tive variously: some have eos or ios ; &s,hairesis, -eos, or -ios, or -is, a 
heresy; so, basis, f. the foot of a pillar; phrasis, a phrase; phthisis, a con- 
sumption; poesis, poetry; metropolis, a chief city, &c. Some have idis t 
or idos , as, Paris, -idis, or -idos, the name of a man ; aspis, -idis, f. an 
asp , eplicmeris, -idis, f. a day-book ; Iris, -idis, f. the rainbow ; pyxis, idis, 
f. a box. So JEgis, the shield of Pallas ; cantharis, a sort of fly ; periscelis, 
a garter ; proboscis, an elephant's trunk ; pyramis, a pyramid ; and tigris, 
a tiger, -idis, seldom tigris : all fern. Part have idis, as, Psophis, -idis, the 
name of a city: others have inis ; as, Eleusis, inis, the name of a city ; 
and some have entis ; as, Simois, Simoentis, the name of a river. Charis 
one of the Graces, has Charitis. 


10. Nouns in os are masculine, and have the genitive jx 
eti*; as, 

nepos, -Otis, a grandchild ; sdcerdos, -otis, a priest, also fern. 

Exc. 1. The following are feminine : 

Aa^-oos, or -or, -oris, a tree. Eos, eois, the morning. 

Cos, cotis, a whetstone. Glos, gloris, the husband's sister , oi 

Dos, dotis, a dowry. brother's wife. 

Exc 2. The following masculines are excepted in the genitive : 


Flos, floris, a flower. Gustos, -odis, a keeper; also fem. 

Bonos, or -or, -oris, honour Heros, herois, a hero. 

Labos, or -or, -oris, labour Minos, -ois, a king of Crete. 

Lepos, or -or, oris, wit. Tros, Trois, a Trojan. 

Mos, moris, a custom. Bos, bovis, m. or f. an ox or cow. 

Ros, roris, dew. 

Exc. 3. Os, ossis, a bone; and os, oris, the mouth, are neuter. 

Exc. 4 Some Greek nouns have ois, as heros, -ois, a hero, or gre%i 
xaan : So Minos, a king of Crete ; Tros, a Trojan; thos, a kind of wolf 

11. Nouns in us are neuter, and have their genitive in 
oris; as, 

pectus, pectoris, the breast ; tempus, temporis, time. So, 

Corpus, a body. Frigus, cold. Penus, provisions. 

Dec us, honour. Littus, a shore. Pignus, a pledge. 

Dedecus, disgrace. Nemus, a grove. Stercus, dung. 

Facinus, a great action. Pecus, cattle. Tergus, a hide. 
Fcenus, usury. 

Exc. 1. The following neuters have eris: 

Acus, chaff. Munus, a gift, or office, fecelus, a crime. 

Funus, a funeral. Olus, pot-herbs. Sldus, a star. 

Foedus, a covenant. Onus, a burden. Vellas, afieece of wool 

Genus, a kind, or kin- Opus, a work. Viscus, an entrail. 

dred. Pondus, a weight. Ulcus, a bile. 

Glomus, a clew. Rudus, rubbish. Vulnus, a wound. 
Latus, the side. 

Thus aceris,funeris, &c. Glomus, a clew, is sometimes masculine, and 
has glomi, of the second declension. Venus, the goddess of love, and 
vetus, old, an adjective, likewise have eris. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns are feminine, and form the genitive va 
f iously : 

Incus, -udis, an anvil. Jtiventus, -utis, youth. 

Palus, -udis, a pool or morass. Saius, -utis, stifety. 

Pecus, -udis, a sheep. Senectus, -utis, old age. 

Subscus, -udis, a dove-tail. Servitus, -utis, slavery. 

Tellus, -uris, the earth, or goddess of Virtus, -utis, virtue. 

the earth. Intercus, -utis, an hydropsy. 

Intercus is properly an adjective having aqua understood. 

Exc. 3. Monosyllables of the neuter gender have uris in the genitive; 


Crus, cruris, the leg. Rus, ruris, the country. 

Jus, juris, Jxiw or right; also broth. Thus, thuris, frankincense. 
Pus, puris, the corrupt matter of any So Mus, muris, masc. a mouse 


Llgus, or -ur, a Ligunan, has Liguris ; lepus, masc. a hare, lep&ris ,• sus 
masc. or fern, a swine, suis ; grus, masc. or fem. a crane, gruis. 

(Edlpus, the name of a man, has (Edipodis ; sometimes it is of t'.ie sec 
ond declension, and has (Edlpi. The compounds of pus have odis ; as 
tripus, masc. a tripod, tripodis ; but lagopus, -odis, a kind of bird, or, tht 
herb hare's foot, is fem. .Names of cities have untis ; as, Trapezus, Traps 
zuntis ; Opus, Opuntis ; Hierichus, -untis, Jericho. 


12. Nouns in ys are all borrowed from the Greek, and are 
for the most part feminine. In the genitive they have some- 
times yis, or yos ; as, 

Hbbc chelys, chelyis, or -yos, a harp ; Cdpys, Capyis, or -yos, the name 
of a man; sometimes they have ydis, or ydos ; as, hgec chldmys, chlarnp- 
dis, or chlamydos, a soldier's cloak; and sometimes ynis or ynos; as, 
Trachys, Trachynis, or Trachynos, the name of a town. 


13. The nouns ending in ces, and aus, are, 

Ms, seris, n. brass, or money. Laus, laudis, f. praise. 

Fraus, fraudis, f. fraud. Prass, praedis, m. or f. a surety. 

Substantives ending in the syllable eus are all proper names, and have 
the genitive in eos ; as, Orpheus, Orpheos ; Tereus, Tereos. But these 
nouns are also found in the second declension, where eus is divided into 
two syllables : thus, Orpheus, genit. Orphgi, or sometimes contracted Or- 
phei, and that into Orphi. 

S with a consonant before it. 

14. Nouns ending in s with a consonant before it, are femi- 
nine; and form the genitive by changing the s into is or tis; 

Trabs, trdbis, a beam ; scobs, scobis, saw-dust ; hiems, hiemis, winter 
gens, gentis, a nation; slips, stijris, alms; pars,, partis, a part; sors, sortis 
a lot ; mors, -tis, death. 

Exc. 1. The following nouns are masculine : 

Chalybs, -ybis, steel. Merops, -opis, a woodpecker. 

Dens, -tis, a tooth. Mons, -tis, a mountain. 

Fons, -tis, a well. Pons, -tis, a bridge. 

Gryps, gryphis, a griffin. Seps, sepis, a kind of serpent, tat 

Hydrops, -opis, ths dropsy. Seps, sepis, a hedge, is fem. 

Exc. 2. The following are either masculine or feminine : 
Adeps, Rdlpis, fatness. Serpens, -tis, a serpent. 

Rudens, -tis, a cable. Stirps, stirpis, the root of a tree. 

Scrobs, scrobis, a ditch. Stirps, an offspring, always fera, 

Animans, a living creature, is found in all the genders, but most fire 
quently in the feminine or neuter. 

Exc. 3 Polysyllables in eps change e into i; as, haec forceps, fordpis 


a pair of tongs; princeps, -Ipis, a prince or princess ; partlceps, -clpis, a 
partaker ; so likewise codebs, cadlbis, an unmarried man o: woman. The 
compounds of caput have clpitis ; as, pr&ceps, prazcipitis, headlong; an 
ceps, ancipitis, doubtful ; biceps, -clpitis, two-headed. Auceps, a fowler, 
has aucupis. 

Exc. 4. The following feminines have dis : 
Frons, frondis, the leaf of a tree. Juglans, -dis, a walnut. 

Glans, glandis, an acorn. Lens, lendis, a nit. 

So Ittripens, libripendis, m. a weigher; nefrens, -dis, m. or f. a grice, o? 
pig; and the compounds of cor; as, concors, concor dis, agreeing; discors, 
disagreeing ; vecors, mad, &c. But frons, the forehead, has frontis, fem 
and lens, a kind of pulse, lends, also fem. 

Exc. 5. lens, going, and quicns, being able, participles from the verba 
ec and queo, with their compounds, have euntis : thus, tens, euntis ; quiens 7 
quemiiis; reditns, redeuntis ; nequiens, nequeuntis : but ambiens, going 
round, has ambientis. 

Exc. 6. Tlryns, a city in Greece, the birthplace of Hercules, has Ti 


15. There is only one noun in t, namely, caput, capitis, the 
head, neuter. In like manner, its compounds, sinciput, sinci- 
pitis. the forehead; and occiput, -itis, the hind-head. 


16. Nouns in x are feminine, and in the genitive change s 
into cts ; as, lux, lucis, light. 

Vox the voice, fem. 

Kom. vox, 
Gen. vocis, 
Dat. voci, 
Ace. vocem, 
Voc. vox, 
Ml. voce. 

Kom. voces, 
Gen. vocum, 
Dot. vocibus, 
Ace. voces, 
Voc. voces, 
Abl. vocibus. 


Appendix, -icis, an ad- Crux, crucis, a cross. Merx, -cis, merchandise 

dition ; dim. -icula. Faex, -cis, dregs. Nutrix, -Icis, a nurse. 

Celox, -ocis, a pinnace. Falx, -cis, a scythe. Nux, nucis, a nut. 

Cervix, -icis, the neck. Fax, -acis, a torch. Pax, -&cis, peace. 

Cicatrix, -Icis, a scar. Filix, -icis, a fern. Pix, picis, pitch. 

Cornix, -Icis, a crow. Lanx, -cis, a plate. Radix, -Icis, a root. 

Coturnix, -Icis, a quail. Lodix, -Icis, a sheet. Salix, -icis, a willow. 

Cox 3ndix, -icis, the hip. Me re trix, -Icis, a courte- Vlbix, or -ex, Icis, tha 
zan. mark of a wound. 

Exc. t. Polysyllables in ax and ex are masculine; as, thorax, -acis, a 
breast-plate ; Cor ax, -acis 7 a raven. Ex in the genitive is changed into 
ids ; as, pollex, -icis, m. the thumb. So the following nouns, also mascu- 


Apex, the tuft or tassel Clmex, a bug. Podex, the breech. 

on the top of a priest's Codex, a book. Pontifex, a chief priest 

cap t the cap itself, or Culex, a gnat, a midge. Pule x, a flea. 

the top jf any thing. Frutex, a shrub. Ramex, a rupture. 

Artifex, an artist. Index, an informer. Sorex, a rat. 

Carnifex, an executioner. Latex, any liquor. Vertex, the crown of thi 

Caudex, tlie trunk of a Murex, a shell-fish, pur- head. 

tree. pie. Vortex, a whirlpool 

Vervex, a wether sheep, has verve cis ; fanlsex, a mower of hay , famist- 
cis; resex, m. -ecis, a vme branch cut off. 

To these masculines add, 
Calix, -icis, a cup. Oryx, -ygis, a wild goat. 

Calyx, -ycis, the bud of afloicer. Phoenix, -Icis, a bird so called. 

Coccyx, -ygis, or ycis, a cuckoo. Tradux, -ucis, a graff or offset of a 

Fornix, -Icis, a vault. vine; also fern. 

But the following polysyllables in ax and ex are feminine : 
Fornax, -acis, a furnace. Smllax, -acis, the herb rope-weed. 

Panax, -acis, the herb all-heal. Carex, -icis, a sedge. 

Climax, -acis, a ladder. Supellex, supellectilis, household fur- 

Forfex, -icis, a pair of scissors. niture. 

Halex, -ecis, a herring. 

Exc. 2. A great many nouns in x are either masculine or feminine; 
Calx, -cis, the heel, or the end of any Llmax, -acis, a snail. 

thing, the goal; but calx, lime, is Obex, -icis, a bolt or bar. 

always fern. Perdix, Icis, a partridge. 

Cortex, -icis, the bark of a tree. Pumex, -icis, a pumice stone. 

Hystrix, -icis, a porcupine. Rumex, -icis, sorrel, an herb. 

Imbrex, -icis, a gutter or roof tile. Sandix, -Icis, a purple colour. 
Lynx, -cis, an ounce, a beast of very Silex, -icis, a flint. 

quick sight. Varix, -icis, a sicollen vein. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns depart from the general rule in forming 
the genitive : 

AquTlex, -egis, a well-maker. Phalanx, -angis, f. a phalanx. 

Conjunx, or -ux, -ugis, a husband or Remex, Igis, a rower. 

xoife. Rex, regis, a king. 

Frux {not used), frugis, f. corn. Nix, nivis, f. snow. 

Grex, gregis, m. or f. a flock. Nox, noctis, f. night. 

Lex, legis, f. a law. Senex, senis, & -icis, (an adj.) old 

Exc. 4. Greek nouns in x, both with respect to gender and manner of 
declension, are as various as Latin nouns ; thus, bombyx, bombSjcis, a silk- 
worm, masc. but when it signifies silk, or the yarn spun by the worm, it 
is feminine ; onyx, masc. or fern, onijchis, a precious stone ; and so 
sardonyx; larynx, laryngis, fern, the top of the wind-pipe; Phryx, 
Phrygis, a Phrygian; sphinx, -ngis, a fabulous hag; strix, -igis, f. a 
screech-owl ; Styx, -ygis, f. a river in hell ; Hylax, -ctis, the name of a 
dog; Bibrax, Bibractis, the name of a town, &c. 


The dative singular anciently ended also in e; as, Esuriente leoni ex ort 
exculplre prcedam, To pull the prey out of the mouth of a hungry lion. 
Lucil. Hceret pede pes, Foot sticks to foot. Virg. JEn. x. 361. for esuri- 
enh and pedi. 




Exc. 1 The following nouns have the accusative in tm: 

Amussis, f. a mason's rule. Ravis, f. hoarseness. 

Buns, f. the beam of a plough. Sinapis, f. mustard. 

Cannabis, f. hemp. Sitis, f. thirst. 

Cucumis, m. a cucumber. Tussis, f. a cough. 

Gummis, f. gum. Vis, f. strength. 
Mephitis, f. a damp or strong smell. 

To these add proper names, 1. of cities and other places; as, HisptiniSj 
Seville, a city in Spain; Syrtis, a dangerous quicksand on the coast of 
Lybia; — 2. of rivers; as, Tiberis, the Tiber, which runs past Rome; 
Baitis, the Guadalquiver, in Spain; so, Albis, Ardris, Athesis, Liris, fyc. — 
3. of gods; as, Anubis, Apis, Osiris, Serapis, deities of the Egyptians, 
But these sometimes make the accusative also in in; thus, Syrtim or 
Syrtin, Tiberim or -in, &c. 

Exc. 2. Several nouns in is have either em or im; as, 

Aqualis, m. a waterpot. Pelvis, f. a basin. Securis, f. an axe. 

Clavis, f. a key. Puppis, f. the stern of a Sementis, f. a souring. 

Cutis, f. the skin. ship. Strigilis, f. a horse-comb. 

Febris, f. a fever. Restis, f. a rope. Turris, f. a tower. 
Na\is, f. a ship. 

Thus navem or navim; puppem or puppim, &c. The ancients said 
avim, aurim, omm, pestim, vallim, vitim, &c. which are not to be imitated. 

Exc. 3. Greek nouns form their accusative variously: 

1. Greek nouns, whose genitive increases in is or os impure, that is 
with a consonant going before, have the accusative in em or a; as, lam 
vas, lampddis or lampddos, lampddem or lampdda. In like mannei 
these three, which have is pure in the genitive, or is with a vowel befor 
it: Tros, Trois, Troem or Troa, a Trojan; heros, a hero; Minos, a khv 
of Crete. The three following have almost always a; Pan, the god of 
shepherds ; aether, the sky ; delphin, a dolphin ; thus, Pana, cethera, del 

2. Masculine Greek nouns in is, which have their genitive in is or os 
impure, form the accusative in im or in; sometimes in idem, never ida; 
as, Paris, Parldis or Paridos, Parim or Par in, sometimes Pdrldem, never 
Part da. — So, Daphnis. 

3. Feminines in is, increasing impurely in the genitive, have commonly 
Idem or Ida, but rarely im or in; as, Elis, Elidis or Elidos, Elidem or 
Elida; seldom Elim or Elin; a city in Greece In like manner feminines 
in ys, ydos, have ydem or yda, not ym or yn in the accusative ; as, chlamys, 
-pdtm or yda, not chlamyn, a soldier's cloak. 

4. But all Greek nouns in is or ys, whether masculine or feminine, 
having is or os pure in the genitive, form the accusative by changing s 
of the nominative into m or n; as, metamorposis, -eos, or -ios, metamor- 
phcsim or -in, a change. Tethys, -yos or -yis, Tethym or -yn; the name of 
tt goddess. 

5. ISouns ending in the diphthong eus, have tm accusative in ea; as 
Theseus , Thesea; Tydeus, Tydea. 



Exc. 1. Neuters in e, al, and ar, have i in the ablative; as, 
sedJle, sedlli; animal, anhndli; calcar, calcari. Except pro 
per names; as, Praineste, abl. Prceneste, the name of a town; 
and the following neuters in ar: 

Far, farre, corn Nectar, -are, drink of the gods. 

Hepar, -ate, the liver. Par, pare, a match, a pair. 

Jubar, -are, a sun beam. Sal, sale, or -i, m. or n. salt. 

Exc. 2. Nouns which have im or in in the accusative, have 
t in the ablative; as, vis, vim, vi; but cannabis, Bcetis, and 
Tigris, have e or i. 

Nouns which have em or im in the accusative, make their 
ablative in e or i; as, turris, turre, or turri; but restis, a rope, 
and cutis, the skin, have e only.* 

Exc. 3. Adjectives used as substantives have commonly 
the same ablative with the adjectives; as, bipennis, -i, a hal- 
bert; moldris, ~i, a millstone; quadriremis, -i, a ship with four 
banks of oars. So names of months, Apr'tlis, -i; December, 
-bri, &c. But rudis, f. a rod given to gladiators when dis- 
charged; juvenis, a young man, have e only; and likewise 
nouns ending in il, x, ceps, or ns ; as, 

Adolescens, a young man. Prineeps, a prince. Torrens, a brook. 

Infans, an infant. Senex, an old man. Vigil, a watchman. 

* Exc. 4. Nouns in ys, which have ym in the accusative, 
make their ablative in ye, or y; as, Jitys, JLtye, or Aiy, tie 
name of a man. 


1. The nominative plural ends in es, when the noun ia 
either masculine or feminine; as, sermones, rupes. 

Nouns in is and es have sometimes in the nominative plural 
ilso eis or is ; as, puppes, puppeis, or puppis. 

2. Neuters which have e in the ablative singular, have a in 
i?he nominative plural; as, capita, itinera: but those which 
tiave i in the ablative, make ia; as, sed'ilia, calcaria. 

* Several nouns which have only em in the accusative, have e or i in 
ihe ablative ; as, finis, supellex, vectis, vugil, a champion ; mugil of 
svugilis ; so rus, occiput: Also names of towns, when the question is 
3aaie by ubi; as, habitat Carthagine or Carthagi/ii, he lives at Carthage. 
So, civis, classis, sors, imber, anghis, avis, postis, fustis, amnis, and 
ignis; but these have oftener e. Candlis has only i. The most ancient 
writers made the ablative of many other nouns in i; as astati, cani % 
Nipidi, vvi ; &o. 



Nouns which in the ablative singular have i only, or eithei 
e or i, make the genitive plural in ium; but if the ablative be 
in e only, the genitive plural has um; as, sedile, seddi, sedi- 
lium; turns, turre or turri, turrium; caput, capite, capitum. 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables in as have ium, though their ablative 
end in e; as, mas, a male, mare, marium; vas, a surety, vadium: 
but polysyllables have rather um; as, civitas, a state or city, 
civitcitum, and sometimes civitatium. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in es and is, which do not increase in the 
genitive singular, have also ium; as, hostis, an enemy, hoshum. 
So likewise nouns ending in two consonants; as, gens, a na- 
tion, gentium; urbs, a city, urbium. 

But the following have um; parens, vdtes, pdnis, juvenis, 
and canis. Horace, however, has parentium. Od. iii. 4, 23. 

Exc. 3. The following nouns form the genitive plural in 
turn, though they have e only in the ablative singular: 
Arx, arcis, f. a castle. Linter, -ti s, m. or f. a little boat. 

Caro, carnis, f. flesh. Lis, litis, i' strife. 

Cohors, -tis, f. a company. Mus, muri « m a mouse. 

Cor, cordis, n. the heart. Nix, nivis, f. snow. 

Cos, cotis, f. a hone or whetstone Nox, noctis, f. the night. 

Dos, dotis, f. a dowry. Os, ossis, n. a bone. 

Faux, faucis, f. thejaics. QuTris, -His, a Roman. 

Glis, gliris, m. a rat. Samnis, -itis, m. or f. a Samnitt 

Lar, laris, m. a household god. Uter, utris, m. a bott'e. 

Thus Samnitium, lintrium, litium, &c. Also the compounds of uncia 
and as: as, septunx, seven ounces, septuncium; bes, eight ounces 

Bos, an ox or cow, has bourn; and in the dative, bobus ) or bubus. 

Greek nouns have generally um; as, Mace do, & Macedonian; Arabs, 
an Arabian; JEthiops, an Ethiopian; monoceros, an unicorn; lynx, t 
beast so called ; Thrax, a Thracian ; Macedonum, Arabum, JEthiopum, 
monocerotum, lyncum, Thrdcum. Bat those which have a or sis in the 
nominative singular, sometimes form the genitive plural in on; as, Epi- 
gramma, epigrammdtum, or epigrammdton, an epigram; metamorphosis, 
-ium, or -edn. 

Obs. 1. Nouns, which want the singular, form the genitive plural as if 
they were complete ; thus, manes, m. souls departed, manium; cazlites, m. 
inhabitants of heaven, coditum; because they would have had in the sing. 
manis or manes, and cceles. But names of feasts often vary their decJep- 
eion ; as, Saturnalia, the feasts of Saturn, Saturnalium and Saturnaliaruja,, 
So, Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Terminalia, &c. 

Obs. 2. Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, are, by the poets, 
often contracted into Um; as. nocentum for nocentium: and sometimes, t& 
increase the number of syllables, a letter is inserted ; as, cozlxtuum, for 
tcdltum. The former of these is said to be done by the figure Syncope 
and the latter by EpenthSsis. 



Exc. 1 Greek nouns in a have commonly lis instead of 
tibus ; as, voema, a poem, poemdtis, rather than poematibus, 
from the old nominative poemdtum, of the second declension. 

Exc. 2. The poets sometimes form the dative plural of 
Greek nouns in si, or, when the next word begins with a 
/owel, in sin; as, Trodsi or Trodsin, for Troddibus, from 
Troas, Troddis or Troddos, a Trojan woman. 


Exc. 1. Nouns which have ium in the genitive plural, make 
tneir accusative plural in es, eis, or is; as, partes, partium, ace. 
partes, parteis. or partis. 

Exc 2. If the accusative singular end in a, the accusative 
plural also ends in as; as, lampas, lampddem or lampdda; 
lampddes or lampddas. So Tros, Troas; heros, herbas; 
JEthiops, JEthiopas, &c. 


Lampas, a lamp, f. lampdais or -ados, -ddi, -ddem or -dda, -as, 

-dde. Plur. -ddes, -ddum, -ddibus, -ddes or -ddas, -ddes. 

Troas, f Troddis or dos, -di, -dem or -da, -as, -de. Plur. Tro- 

ddes, dum, -dibus or -si or -sin, -des or -das, -des, -dibus 
Tros, m. Trots, Troi, Troem or -a, Tros, Troe, &c 
Phillis, f. Phillidis or -cios, -cfo, -dem or -da, -z or -is, -de. 
Paris, m. Pari lis or -dos, -di, dem or Parim or -in, -i, -de. 
Cfildmys, f. c/il imydis or -ydos, -ydi, -ydem or $da, -i/s, -#de, 

Cdpys, m. Capyis or -yos, -i/i, -7/m or -tp, -?/, -i/e or -i/. 
Metamorphosis, f. -is or -ios, or -eos, -i, -im or -in, -i, -i, &c 


Nouns of the fourth declension end in us and u. 
Nouns in us are masculine ; nouns in u are neuter, and in 
declinable in the singular number. 




Nom. ) 
Voc. ) ' 

Nom. } 

or u, 

Ace. > us, or ua, 

Gen us, 

Voc. S 

Dat. ui, 

Gen. uum. 

Ace. urn, 

Abl. ) 

Abl. u 




Fructus, fruit, masc. 

* Singular. 








fruit s, 



of fruit, 



of fruits 



to fruit, 



to fruits , 















with fruit. 



with fruits 

Cornu, a horr 

,, neut. 






a horn, 






of a horn, 



of horns, 



to a horn, 



to horns, 



a horn, 











cornu, ivith a horn. 



with horns 

In like manner decline, 

AdTtus, an access. 

Anfractus, a winding. 

Auditus, the sense of 

Cant us, a singing, or 

Casus, a fall, an acci- 
dent, or chance. 

Csestus, a gauntlet. 

Cestus, a marriage-gir- 

Coetus, an assembly. 

Cultus, worship, dress. 

Currus, a chariot. 

Cursus, a race. 

Decessus, a departure. 

Eventus, an event. 

Exercitus, an army. 

ExTtus, an issue. 

Fastus, pride. 

Flatus, a blast. 

Fletus, weeping. 

Fluctus, a wave. 

Foetus, an offspring. 

Gelu, ice. 

Gemltus, a groan. 

Gradus, a step, a de- 

Gustus, the taste. 

Habitus, a habit, the 
state of mind or body. 

Ha lit us, breath. 

Haustus, a draught. 

Ictus, a stroke. 

impetus, an attack. 

Incessus, a stately gait. 

Luctus, grief. 

Luxus, luxury, riot. 

Metus, fear. 

Missus, a throw ; a turn 
or heat in races. 

Mot us, a motion. 

Nexus, servitude for 

Nurus, f. a daughter-in- 

Nutus, a nod. 

Ob tutus, a look. 

Odoratus, the sense of 

Passus, a pace, [nence. 

Princlpatus, pre-emi- 

Processus, a ^progress. 

Progressus, an advance- 

Prospectus, a view. 

Prove ntus, an increase, 

Quaes* us, gain. 

Questus, a complaint. 

Iteditus, a return, an 

Rictus, a grinning. 
Rlsus, laughter. 
Ritus, a rite, a cere 

Ructus, a belching. 
Saltus, a leap, a forest. 
Senatus, the senate, the 

supreme council among 

the Romans. 
Sensus, a sense, feeling, 

Sexus, a sex. 
Sinus, a bosom. 
Singultus, a sob, the 

Situs, a situation. 
Status, a posture. 
Socrus, f. a mother-in- 
Splritus, a breathing, 

Successus success. 
Sumptus, expense. 
Tact us, the touch. 
Tonitru, thunder. 
Transitus, a passage. 
Tumultus, an uproar. 
Venatus, hunting. 
Visus, the sight. 
Y ictus, food. 
Vultus, the countenance 


Exc. 1. The following nouns are feminine ■ 

Acus, a needle. Flcus, a jig,. Porticua, a gallery. 

Anus, an old woman. Manus, tlwhand. Specus, a den. 

Doi:ius, a house. Penus, a store house. Tribus, a tribe. 

Penus and specus are sometimes masculine. Flcus •, penus, and domus 
with several others, are also of the second declension. Capricornus, m 
the sign Capricorn, although from cornu, is always of the second decl. 
and so are the compounds of manus ; unimdnus, having one hand ; centi- 
mdnus, &c. adj. Quercus, an oak, has quercorum, and -uum, in the gen. 
pi. Versus has versi, versorum, versis, as well as its regular cases. Sendtus 
has also -efci, in the gen. 

Domus is but partly of the second declension ; thus, 

Domus, a house, fern. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. domus, a house, 

G. domus, or -mi, of a house, 
D. domui, or -mo, to a house, 
A. domum, a house, 

V. domus, O house, 

A. domo, with a house. 

N. domus, houses, 

G. domorum,or-uum, of houses, 
D. domibus, to houses, 

A. domos, or -us, houses, 

V. domus, O houses, 

A. domibus, with houses. 

Note. Domus, in the genit. signifies, of a house; and domi, 
at home, or of home; as memineris domi. Terent. Eun. iv. 
7. 45. 

Exc. 2. The following nouns have ubus, m the dative and ablative 

Acus, a needle. Lacus, a lake. Specus, a den. 

Arcus, a hoic. Partus, a birth. Tribus, a tribe. 

Artus, a joint. Portus, a harbour. Veru, a spit. 
Genu, the knee. 

Portus, genu, and veru have likewise Ibus ; as, portibus or p or tubus. 

Exc. 3. Jesus, the venerable name of our Saviour, has um 
in the accusative, and u in all the other cases.* 

* Nouns of the fourth declension anciently belonged to the third, and 
were declined like grus, gruis, a crane ; thus, fructus, fructuis, fructui t 
frvctuem, fructus, fructue; fructues, fructuum, fructuibus, fructues, fructuts % 
fructuibus. So that all the cases are contracted, except the dative singu- 
lar, and genitive plural. In some writers, we still find tne genitive sin 
gular in uis : as, Ejus anuis causd, for anus. Terent. Heaut. ii. 3. 46. and 
in others, the dative in u; as, Resistere impetu, for impctui. Cic. Fam. x 
24. Esse usii sibi, for usui. lb. xiii 71. The gen. plur. is sometimes con 
tracted ^ as, currum i for curruum. 




Nouns of the fifth declension end in es, and are of the femi- 
nine gender. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ) oa 

voc. r s > 

Gen. 1 • 

Ace. em, 
Abl. e. 

Ace. >es, 
Voc. ) 
Gen. erum, 
Dat. ) _. 

Abl. j ebus - 

Res, a thing 

, fern. 





a thing, 






of a thing, 

to a thing, 

a thing, 




of things, 

to things, 










with a thing. 



with things 

In like manner decline, 

Scabies, the scab, or itch. 
Series, an order, oj 


pecies, an appearance. 
Superficies, the surface 
Temperies, temperate 

Acies, the edge of a Ingluvies, gluttony. 

thing, or an army in Macies, leanness. 

order of battle. Materies, matter. 

Carief , rottenness. Pernicies, destruction. 

Caesaries, the hair. Proluvies, a looseness. 

Facies, the face. Ptabies, madness. 

Glacies, ice. Sanies, gore. 

Except dies, a day, masc. or fern, in the singular, and always masc. iii 
the plural; and meridies, the mid-day, or noon, masc. 

The poets sometimes make the genitive, and more rarely the dative sin- 
gular, in e; as, fide, forfidei. Ov. M. 3. 341. 

The nouns of this declension are few in number, not exceeding fifty, 
and seem anciently to have been comprehended under the third declen- 
sion. Most of them want the genitive, dative, and ablative plural, and 
many the plural altogether. 

All nouns of the fifth declension end in ies, except three; fides, faith; 
tpes, hope; res, a thing; and all nouns in ies are of the fifth, except these 
lour ; dbies, a fir tree ; dries, a ram ; paries, a wall ; and quies, rest ; which 
are of the third declension. Requies is of the third and fifth declension. 


Irregular nouns may be reduced to three classes, Variably 
Defective, and Redundant. 



Nouns are variable either in gender, or declension, or in 

Heterogeneous Nouns. 

Those which vary in gender are called heterogeneous, and 
may be reduced to the following classes. 

1. Masculine in the singular, a,nd neuter in the plural. 
A vermis, a lake in Campania, hell. Maenalus, a hill in Arcadia. 
Dindymus, a hill in Phrygia. Pangaeus, a promontory in Thrace. 

Ismarus, a hill in Thrace. Tamarus, a promontory in Laconia. 

Massicus, a hill in Campania, famous Tartarus, hell. 

for excellent wines. Taygetus, a hill in Laconia. 

Thus, Averna, Avernorum ; Dindyma, -drum, &c. These are thought by 
some to be properly adjectives, having mons understood in the singular, and 
juga, or cacumlna, or the like, in the plural. 

c 2. Masc. in the sing, and in the plur. masc. and neuter. 
Jocus, a jest, pi. joci and joca; locus, a place, pi. loci and 
loca. When we speak of passages in a book, or topics in a 
discourse, loci only is used. 

3. Feminine in the singular, and neuter in the plural. 
Carbasus, a sail, pi. carbdsa; Pergdmus, the citadel of Troy, 

pi. Pergdma. 

4. JYeuler in the lingular, and masculine in the plural. 
Ccelum, pi. ceeli, heaven; Elysium, pi. Elysii, the Elysian 

fields; Argos, pi. Jlrgi, a city in Greece. 

5. Neuter in the sing, in the plur. masc. or neuter. 
Hastrum, a rake, pi. rastri and rastra; frcenum, a bridle, pi. 
frozni and frozna. 

6. Neuter in the singular and feminine in the plural. 
Delicium, a delight, pi. delicice; epulum, a banquet,]?/, ep 
mZgb; balneum, a bath, pi. balnece and balnea. 


Nouns which vary in declension are called heteroclites ; as, 
tas, vdsis, a vessel, pi. vasa, vasorum; jugerum, jugeri, an 
acre, pi. jugcra, jugerum, jugeribus, which has likewise some- 
times jugeris, arid jugere, in the singular, from the obsolete 
jugus, or juger. 

In double nouns, both nouns are declined wh«n combin ^ 
in the nominative case; as, 



Respublica, a commonwealth, fern. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. respubllca, 
G. reipubliceej 
D. reipubiicae, 
A. rempubllcam, 
V. respublica, 
A. republica. 

N respublicae, 
G. rerumpublicarum, 
D. rebuspubllcis^ 
A respublicas, 
"V. respublicae, 
A. rebuspublicis. 

Jusjurandum, an oath, neut. 
Singular. Plural. 

N. jusjurandum, 
G. jurisjurandi, 
D. jurijurando, 
A. jusjurandum, 
V. jusjurandum, 
A. jurejurando. 

N jurajuranda, 

G jurumjuranddrum* 

D juribusjurandis, 

A, jurajuranda, 

V. jurajuranda, 

A. juribusjurandis. 

If a nominative is combined with some other case, then the 
nominative only is declined; as, 

Paterfamilias, a master of a family, masc. 
N. paterfamilias, 
G. patrisfamilias, 
D. patrifamilias, 
A. patremfamilias, 
V. paterfamilias, 
A. patrefamilias. 

Some nouns are both of the second and third declension ; as, 


eo; c zd Declen. 
— ; 3d Declen. 

o; 2d Declen. 
ode; 3d Declen. 

V. Ab. 

eo; 2d Declen. 

le; 3d Declen. 




or eon, 


* The Gen. Dat. and Abl. plural are not used. 



Some nouns are of peculiar declension. 
Singular Singular. 

N. Jupiter, 
G. Jovis, 
D Jovi, 
A. Jovem, 
V. Jupiter, 
A Jove. 

N. bos, 
G. bovis, 
D. bovi, 
A. bovem, 
V. bos, 
A. bove. 


N. vis, N. vires, 

G. vis, G. virium, 

D. — D. viribus, 

A. vim, A. vires, 

V. vis, V. vires, 

A. vi. A. viribus 

N. boves, 
G. bourn, 

D. bobus, or bubus, 
A. boves, 
V. boves, 
A. bobus, or bubus 


Nouns are defective, either in cases or in number. 
Nouns are defective in cases different ways. 

1. Some are altogether indeclinable, and therefore called 
aptota;* as, pondo, a pound or. pounds; fas, right; nefas, 
wrong; sindpi, mustard; 

mane, the morning ; as, clarum mane. Pers. A mane ad vesperam. Plaut 
Multo mane, <&c. ; cepe, an onion ; gausdpe, a rough coat, &c. ; all of them 
neuter. We may rank among indeclinable nouns, any word put for a noun ; 
as, velle suum, for sua voluntas, his own inclination. Pers. Istud eras, for 
iste crastinus dies, that to-morrow. Mart. magnum Groecorum, the Om- 
ega, or the large O of the Greeks. Infldus est compositum ex in et fid us \ 
infldus is compounded of in and fldus. 

To these add foreign or barbarous names ; that is, names which are nei- 
ther Greek nor Latin ; as, Job, Elisabet, Jerusalem, &c. 

2. Some are used only in one case, and therefore called 
monoptota; as, inquies, want of rest, in the nominative sing. ; 

dlcis, and nauci, in the genit. sing. ; thus, dicis gratia, for form's sake; 
res nauci, a thing of no value ; inficias, and incita, or incitas, in the ace. 
plural; thus, ire inficias, to deny; ad incitas redactus, reduced to a strait or 
nonplus ; ingratiis, in the ablative plural, in spite of one : and these abla- 
tives singular ; noctu, in the night-time ; diu, interdiu, in the day-time ; 
promptu, in readiness ; ndtu, by birth ; injussu, without command or leave ; 
ergo, for the sake ; as, ergo illius. Virg. Ambage, f. with a winding or • 
tedious story ; compede, f. with a fetter; casse, m. with a net; Plur. am, 
bdges, -thus j compede*, -ium,-ibus ; casses,-ium. 

3. Some are used in two cases only, and therefore called 

1 From m: oi$, a case, and a privative ; gen. aptotorum 


diptota; as, necesbt, or -um, necessity; volupe or volup, pleas- 
ure; instar, likeness, bigness; astu, a town; 

Mr the palm of the hand, in the nom. and ace. singular : vespe~,m. zes 
pere, or -eri, the evening ; siremps, sirempse, the same, all alike ; in the 
nom. and abl. sinor. : spontis, f. sponte, of its own accord ; impetis, m. i?a- 
pete, force; verberis, n. verbere, a stripe; in the gen. and abl. sing.: ve~ 
prem, m. vepre, a briar; in the ace. and abl. sing. : the last two entire in 
the plur. ; veprcs, -urn, or -ium : &c. ; verbera, verbcrum, verberlbus, &c 
repetunddrum, abl. repetundis, sc. pecuniis, money unjustly taken in the 
time of one's office, extortion; suppetiai, nom. plur. suppetias, ir. the aec. 
help ; inferia, inferias, sacrifices to the dead. 

4. Several nouns are only used in three cases, and there- 
fore called triptota; as, preci, precem, prece, f. a prayer, frona 
prex, which is not used: in the plural it is entire; preces,pre- 
cum, precibus, fyc. 

F&mlnis, genit. from the obsolete femen, the thigh; in the dat. and aol 
sing, jemini, and -e ; in the nom. ace. and voc. plur. femina. Dica,a pro- 
cess, ace. sing, dicam, pi. dicas ; tantundem, nom. and ace. tantidem, genit. 
even as much. Several nouns in the plural want the genitive, dative, and 
ablative ; as, hiems, ^us, thus, metus, mel,far, and nouns of the fifth de- 
clension; except res, dies, and perhaps species, entire. 

To this class of defective nouns may be added these neuters ; melos, a 
songr ; melc, songs ; epos, a heroic poem ; edeoethes, an evil custom; ce^5, 
whales ; Tempe, plur. a beautiful vale in Thessaly, &c. used only in t'.ie 
nom. ace. and voc ; also grates, f. thanks ; which wants the singular. 

5. The following nouns want the nominative, and of conse- 
quence the vocative; and therefore are called tetraptota: 

Vicis, f. of the place or stead of another ; pecudis, f. of a beast ; sordis, f. 
of filth; ditionis, f. of dominion, power; opis, )f help. Of these pecudis 
and sordis have the plural entire ; ditionis want? »t altogether ; vicis is not 
used in the genitive plural ; opis, in the plural, generally signifies wealth 
or power, seldom help. To these add nex, slaughter ; daps, a dish of meat ; 
&ndfrux, corn; hardly used in the nominative singular, but in the plural 
mostly entire. 

6 Some nouns only want one case, and are called pentapto- 

Thus, /ax, fcez,fel, glos, lobes, lux, os, (the mouth;) pax, pix, proles, pus, 
res, soboles, and sol, want the genitive plural. Chaos, n. a confused mass, 
wants the genit. sing, and the plural entirely ; dat. sing. chao. So satias, 
i. e. satietas, a glut or fill of any thing. Situs, a situation, nastiness, of the 
fourth djcl. wants the genit. and perhaps the dat sing, also the gen. dat 
and abl. plur. 

Of nouns defective in Number there are various sorts. 

1. Several nouns want the plural from the nature of the 
things which they express. Such are the names of virtues 
and vices, of arts, herbs, metals, liquors, different kinds of 
corn, most abstract nouns, &c. ; as, justltia, justice; ambitus 
ambition; astus, cunning; musica, music; dpium, parsley 


argentum, silver aurum, gold; lac, milk; tr~dicum : wheat; 
hordcum, barley; dvena, oats; jiiventus, youth, &c. But of 
these we find several sometimes used in the plural. 

2. The following masculines are hardly ever found in the plural: 
Aer, aeris, the air. Nemo, -Inis, c. g. no uody. 
/Ether, -ens, the sky. Penus, -i, or -us, d. g. all manner of 
Fimus, -i, dung. provisions. 

Hesperus, -i, the evening-star. Pontus, -i, the sea. 

Llmus, -i, slirne. Pulvis, -eris, dust. 

Meridies, -iei, mid-day. Sanguis, -inis, blood. 

Muudus, -i, a woman's ornaments. Sopor, -oris, sleep. 

Muscus, • i, /ftjij. Yiseus, -i, bivii-lime. 

3. The following feminines are scarcely used in the plural : 
Argilla, -a?, potter s earth. Salus, -utis, safety 
Fama, -de, fame. Sitis, -is, thirst. 

Humus, -i, the ground. Supellex, -ctllis, household furniture 

Lues, -is, a plague. Tabes, -is, a consumption. 

Plebs, plebis, the common people. Tellus, -uris, the earth. 

Pubes, -is, the youth. Vespera, -se, the evening. 
Quies, -etis, rest. 

4. These neuters are seldom used in the plural : 
Album, -i, a list of names. Lutum, -i, clay. 
Dlluculum, -i, the dawning of day. Nihil, nihilum, or nil, nothing. 
Ebur, -oris, ivory. Pelagus, -i, the sea,. 

(.ielu, indecl. frost. Penum, -i, and penus, -oris all kinds 
Hllum, -i, the black speck of a bean, of provisions. 

a trifle. Sal, salis, salt. 

Justitium, -i, a vacation, the time Senium, -i, old age. 

when courts do not sit. Ver, veris, the spring. 

Lethum, -i, death. Virus, -i, poisan. 

5. Many nouns want the singular; as, the names of feasts, books, games, 
and several cities ; thus, 

Apollinares, -ium, games in honour Olympia, -orum, the Olympic games . 

of Apollo. Syracuse, -arum, Syracuse. 

Bacchanalia, -ium, and -iorum, the Hierosolyma, -orum, Jerusalem; or 

feasts of Bacchus. Hierosolyma, -ae, of th*. first dt- 

Bucolica, -orum, a book of pastorals. clension. 

6. The following masculines are hardly used in the singular : 
Cancelli, lattices or windows, made ried before the chief magistrates of 

with cross-bars like a net ; a rail or Rome. 

balustrade round any place ; bounds Fasti, -orum or fastus, -uum, calen- 

or limits. dars, in which were marked festival 

C&ni. grey hairs. days, the names of magistrates, fyc. 

Casses, -ium, a hunter's net. Fines, -ium, the borders of a county f 

Celeres, -urn, the light-horse or a country. 

Codieilli, writings. Fori, the gangways of a ship ; seats 

Druides, -um, the Druids, priests of in the circus, or the cells of a bee- 

the ancient Britons and Gauls. hive. 
If asces, -ium, a bundle of rods, car- 



Furfures, -urn, scales in the head. Mmores, -urn, successors. 

Inferi, the gods below. Natales, -ium, parentage. 
Le mures, -um, hobgoblins, or spirits Posteri, posterity. 

in the dark. Proceres, -um, the nobles. 

Liberi, children. Pugillares, -ium, writing-tables. 

Majores, -um, ancestors. Sentes, -ium, thorns. 

Manes, -ium, spirits of thz dead. Superi, -um, <^ -orum, the gods ahjve 

7. The following feminine s want the singular number : 

Alpes, -ium, the Alps. Feriae, holidays. OfFucise, cheats. 

Angustiae, difficulties. Gades, -iiun, Cadiz. Operas, workmen. 
Apinae, geicgaws. Gerrae, trifles. Parietlnae, ruinous walls 

Argutias, quirks, wltti- Hyades, -um, the seven Partes, -ium, a party. 

cisms. stars. Phaleras, trappings. 

Blgae, a chariot drawn J^/Induciee, a truce. Plagas, nets. 

two horses. Induviae, clothes to put Pleiades, -um, the seven 

Trlgas, — by three. on. stars. 

Quadrlgas, — by four. Ineptias, silly stories. P 'r aestl gias, enchantments 
Braccas, breeches. Insidias, snares. Prlmitias , fir st fruits. 

Branchias, the gills of aKalendas, Nonas, Idus, Quisquilias, sweepings. 

fish. -uum, names which £Ae Reliquiae, a remainder. 

Charites, -um, the three Romans gave to certain Salebras, rugged places. 

graces. days in each month. Salinas, salt-pits. 

Cunae, a cradle. Lapicldlnas, stone quar- Scalas, a ladder. 

Declmae, tithes. ries. Sc&tebras, a spring. 

Dlrae, imprecations, the Literae, an epistle. Scopae, a besom, a broom 

furies. Lactes, -ium, the small Tenebras, darkness. 

Divitias, riches. guts. Thermae, hot baths. 

Dryades,-um, the nymphs Manubiae, spoils taken in Thermopylae, straits of 

of the woods. war. mount GUta. 

Excubias, watches. Minae, threats. Trlcas, toys. 

Exsequias, funerals. Minutiae, little niceties. Valves, folding doors. 

Exuviae, spoils. Nugas, trifles. Vergiliae, the seven stars 

Facetiae, pleasant sa?/-Nundin3S, a market. Vindiciae, a claim of lib 

ings. Nuptiae, a marriage. wty, a defence 

Faxultates, -um, fy -ium, 

one's goods Sf chattels. 

8. The following neuter nouns want the singular : 

Acta, public acts, or records. Cunabula, a cradle, an origin. 

iEstiva, sc. castra, summer quar- Dicteria, scoffs, witticisms. 

ters. Exta, the entrails. 

Arma, arms. Februa, -orum, purifying sacrifices. 

Bellaria, -orum, sweetmeats. Flabra, blasts of wind. 

Bona, goods. Fraga, straivberries. 

Brevia, -ium, shelves. Hyberna, sc. castra, winter quarters 

Castra, a camp. Ilia, -ium, the entrails. 

Charistia, -orum, a peace-feast. Incunabula, a cradle 

Cibaria, victuals. Insecta, insects. 
Comitia, an assembly of the people, J usta, funeral rites. 

to make laws, elect magistrates, or Lamenta, lamentations. 

hold trials. Lautia, provisions for the entertain^ 

Crepundia, children's baubles. ment of foreign ambassadors 


Lustra, dens of wild beasts. Princlpia, the place in the camp where 

Magaha, -ium, cottages. the general's tent stood. 

Moenia, -ium, <$/• -iorum, the walls of Pythia, games in honour of Apollo. 

a city. Rostra, a place in Rome made of the 
Munia, -iorum, offices. beaks of ships, from which or a- 

Orgia, ike sacred rites of Bacchus. tors used to make orations to th§ 

Ovlli-a, -ium, an enclosure ichere the people. 

people went to give their votes. Scruta, old clothes. 

Palearia, -ium, the dew-lap of a Sponsalia, -ium, espousals. 

beast. Statlva, sc. castra, a standing camp. 

Parapherna, all things the wife Suovetaurllia, -ium, a sacrifice of a 

brings her husband except her swine, a sheep, and an ox. 

dowry. Talaria, -ium, winged shoes. 

Parentalia, -ium, solemnities at the Tesqua, rough places. 

funeral of parents. Transtra, the seats where the rowers 
Philtra, love potions. sit in ships. 

Praecordia, the bowels. Utensilia, -ium, utensils. 

QJ= Several nouns in each of the above lists are found also in the singu ■ 
lar, but in a different sense ; thus, castrum, a castle \ litera, a letter of the 
alphabet, &c. 


.Nouns are redundant in different ways: 1. In termination 
only; as, arbos and arbor, a tree. 2. In declension only; as, 
laurus, genit. lauri and laurus, a laurel tree; sequester, -tri, or 
-tris, a mediator. 3. Only in gender; as, hie or hoc vulgus, 
the rabble. 4. Both in termination and declension; as, ma- 
teria, -ce, or materies, -iei, matter; plebs, -is, the common peo- 
ple, or plebes, -is, -ei, or contracted, plebi. 5. In termination 
and gender; as, tonitrus, -its, masc. tonitru, neut. thunder. 
6. In declension and gender; as, penus, -i, and -us, m. or f. or 
penus, -oris, neut. all kind of provisions. 7. In termination, 
gender, and declension; as, cether, -eris, masc. and cethra, -ce, 
fern, the sky. 8. Several nouns in the same declension are 
differently varied; as, tigris, -is or -idis, a tiger; to which 
may be added nouns which have the same signification in dif- 
ferent numbers; as, Fidena, -ce; or Fidence, -arum, the name 
of a city. 

The most numerous class of redundant nouns consists of 
those which express the same meaning by different termina- 
tions; as, menda, -ce; and mendum, -i, a fault; cassis, -idis; 
and cassida, -doe, a helmet. So, 

Acinus, Sf -urn, a grape-stone. Aphractus, fy -urn, an open ship. 

Alvear, $/• -e, <§/• -ium, a bee-hive. Aplustre, Sf -um, thefiag, colours 

Amaracus, <^ -um, sweet marjoram. Baculus, fy -um, a staff. 

Ancile, fy -ium, an oval shield. Balteus, fy -um, a belt. 

Angiportus, -us, fy -i, <^ -um, a nar- Batillus, Sf -um, a fire-shovel, 

*qw lane. Capulus, <^ -um, a hilt. 



Capus, Sf -o, a capon 
Cepa, fy -e, indecl. an onion. 
Clypeus, fy -urn, a shield. 
Colluvies, fy -io, filth, dirt. 
Compages, <^ -go, a joining. 
Conger, fy -grus, a large eel 
Crocus, <£- -urn, saffron. 
Cubitus, 4* -urn, a cubit. 
Diluvium, fy -es, a deluge. 
Elepiiantus, fy Elephas, -antis, an 

Elegus, fy -eia, an elegy. 
Esseda, fy -urn, a chariot. 
Eventus, 8/- -um, an event. 
Fulgetra, ^ -um, lightning 
Galerus, <^ -um, a hat. 
Gibbus, fy -a; ty -er, -eris or -Sri, a 

bunch, a swelling. 
Glutinum, fy -en, glue. 
Hebdomas, fy -ada, a week. 
Intrita, fy -um, fine mortar, minced 

Libra rium, fy -a, a book-case. 
Maceria, fy -es, iei, a wall. 
Milliare, 4* -ium, a mile. 

Monitum, <^ -us, -u.i ; an admonition 
Muria, fy -es, -iei, brine or pickle. 
Nasus, fy -um, the nose. 
Obsidio, <§/• -um, a siege. 
GEstrus, if -um, a, gad-bee. 
Ostrea, fy -um, an oyster. 
Peplus, ty -um, a veil, a robe. 
Pistrlna, fy -um, a bake-house. 
Prsetextus, -us, <^ -um, a pretext, 
Rapa, fy -um, a turnip. 
Ruma, Sf" -men, the cud. 
Ruscus, fy -um, a brush. 
Seps, fy sepes, f. a hedge. 
Segmen, fy -mentum, a piece of 

Slbilus, fy -um, a hissing. 
Sinus, 8f -um, a milk-pail. 
Spurcitia, fy -es, nastiness. 
Stramen, &■ -turn, straw. 
Suiilmen, 4" -turn, a perfume. 
Tignus, ty -um, a plank. 
Toral, Sf -ale, a bed-covering. 
Torcular, fy -are, a wine press 
Viscus, fy -um, bird-lime. 
Veternus, fy -um, a lethargy. 

Note. The nouns which are called variable and defective, seem origin 
ally to have been redundant; thus, vdsa, -drum, properly comes from va- 
sum, and not from vas ; but custom, which gives laws to all languages^ 
has dropt the singular, and retained the plural ; and so of others. 


1. A substantive which signifies many in the singular num- 
ber, is called a collective noun; as, populus, a people; exrci- 
tus, an army. 

2. A substantive derived from another substantive proper, 
dignifying one's extraction, is called a patronynic noun; as, 

Vriamxdes, the son of Priamus; JEetias, the daughter of iEetes* 
JVerinb, the daughter of Nereus. Patronymics are generally derived from 
the name of the father; but the poets, by whom they are chiefly used, de- 
rive them also from the grandfather, or from some other remarkable per- 
son of the family ; sometimes likewise from the founder of a nation of 
people; as, JEacides, the son, grandson, great-grandson, or one of the pos 
ferity of iEacus ; Rdmulida> ) the Romans, from their first king Romulus 


Patronymic names of men end in des; of women, in is, as, 
or ne. Those in des and ne are of the first declensica, and 
those in is and as, of the third; as, Priamides, -dee, &c.; pi. 
^dce } durum, Slc.; Nerlne, -es ; TyndaHs, -idis or -idos ; JEe- 
tias, -ddis, &c. 

3. A noun derived from a substantive proper, signifying 
one's country, is called a patrial or gentile noun; as, 

Tros, Trois, a man born at Troy ; Troas, -ddis, a woman born at Troy 
Siculus, -i, a Sicilian man ; Slcelis, -Idis, a Sicilian woman ; so, Macedo 
-onis, Arpinas, -dtis, a man born in Macedonia, at Arpinum ; from Troja, 
Sicilia, Macedonia, Arpinum. But patrials for the most part are to be con- 
sidered as adjectives, having a substantive understood ; as, Romdnus, 
Athenknsis, &c. 

4. A substantive derived from an adjective, expressing 
simply the quality of the adjective, without regard to the 
thing in which the quality exists, is called an abstract; as, 

justitia, justice ; bonitas, goodness ; dulcedo, sweetness ; from Justus, 
just ; bonus, good ; dulcis, sweet. 

The adjectives from which these abstracts come are called concretes ; be- 
cause, besides the quality, they also suppose something to which it be- 
longs. Abstracts commonly end in a, as, or do, and are very numerous, 
being derived from most adjectives in the Latin tongue. 

5. A substantive derived from another substantive, signify- 
ing a diminution or lessening of its signification, is called a 
dimimdive; as, 

libellus, a little book; chartula, a little paper; dpusculum, a little work ; 
corculum, a little heart; reticulum, a small net; scdbellum, a small form; 
Idvillus, a little stone ; cultelhis, a little knife ; pagella, a little page : from 
liber, charta, opus, cor, rete, scamnum, lapis, culter, pdgina. Several di- 
minutives are sometimes formed from the same primitive ; as, from pu£r, 
vuerXdus, puellus, puellulus ; from cista, cistula, cistetla, cistellula; from 
homo, homuncio, homunculus. Diminutives for the most part end in lus, 
la, lum, and are generally of the same gender with their primitives. 

When the signification of the primitive is increased, it is called an am- 
fLincATiVE, and ends in o; as, cdplto, -onis, having a large head: so, 
ndso, labeo, bucco, having a large nose, lips, cheeks. 

6. A substantive derived from a verb is called a verbal 
noun ; as, 

amor, love ; doctrlna, learning ; from dmo, and ddceo. Verbal nouns 
are very numerous, and commonly end in io, or, us, and urn ; as, lectio^ a 
lesson ; amdtor, a lover ; luctus, grief; credtura, a creature, 



An Adjective is a word added to a substantive, to express 
its quality; as, durus, hard; mollis, soft* 

Adjectives in Latin are varied by gender, number, and 
case, to agree with substantives in all these accidents.')* 

Adjectives are varied like three substantives of the same 
termination and declension. 

All adjectives are either of the first and second declension, 
or of the third only. 

Adjectives of three terminations are of the first and second 
declension; but adjectives of one or two terminations are of 
the third. 

Exc. The following adjectives, though they have three teimmations, 
are of the third declension : 

Acer, sharp. Celeber, famous. Pedester, on foot. 

Alacer, cheerful. Celer, swift, [a horse. Saluber, wholesome 

Campester, belonging to Equester, belonging to Sylvester, icoody. 

a plain. Paluster, marshy. Volucer, swift. 

Rule for the Gender of Adjectives. 
In adjectives of three terminations, the first is masc, the 
second fern., and the third neut In those of two termina- 
ions, the first is masc. and fem., and the second neut. Ad- 
jectives of one termination are of all genders 


Bonus, masc. bona, fem bonum, neut. good. 



N. bon-us, 



N bon-i, -ge, 


G. bon-i, 



G. bon-orum, -arum, 


D. bon-o, 



D. bon-is, 

A. bon-um, 



A. bon-os, -as. 


V. bon-e, 



V. bon-i, -33, 


A. bon-o, 



A. bon-is 


i like manner decline, 

Icerbus, unripe, 



, sick. Albus, white. 

Acidus, sour, tart. 


, vying with. Altus, high. 

Acutus, sharp. 


squat, just. Amarus, bitter. 

Adulterlnus, counterfeit. 


of brass. Amojnus, pleasant. 

* We know things by their qualities only. Every quality must belong 
to some subject. An adjective therefore always implies a substantive ex- 
pressed or understood, and cannot make full sense without it. 

t An adjective properly has neither genders, numbers, nor cases; but 
certain terminations answering to the gender, number, and case of the 
substantive ^ith which it is joined. 


AmbTguus, doubtful. 

Amicus, friendly. 

Ampins, Large. 

Ann u as, yearly. 

Angustus, narrow* 

Ant.iquus, ancient. 

Apricus, sunny. 


Arcanus, secret. 

Arctus, straight. 

Arduus, lofty. 

Argiitus, quick, shrill. 

Assus, roasted, hot, pure, 

Astutus, cunning. 

A varus, covetous. 

Avid us, greedy. 

Augustus, venerable. 

Austerus, harsh, rough. 

Balbus, stammering. 

Barbarus, savage. 

Bardus, dull, slow 

Beatus, blessed. 

Bellus, pretty. 

Benignus, kind. 

Blmus, two years old. 

Blaesus, lisping. 

Blandus, flattering. 

Brutus, brutish, sense- 

Caducus, fading. 

Caecus, blind. 

Callidus, cunning. 

Calvus, bald. 

Camurus, crooked. 

Candldus,/«ir, sincere. 

Canus, hoary. 

Carus, dear. 

Cass us, void. 

Castus, chaste. 

Cautus, wary. 

Cavus, hollow. 

Celsus, high, lofty. 

Cernuus, stooping. 

Certus, certain, sure. 

Clar 'us, famous. 

Claud us, lame. 

Coerulus, or -eus, azure, 
sky -col mired. 

Commodus, convenient. 

Concinnuc fine, neat. 

Cdrus^as, glittering. 

Crassuo, thick. 

Creperus, doubtful. 

Crisp us, curled 

Crudup, raw 

Cunctus, all. 

Curtus, short. 

Curvus, crooked. 

Cynicus, churlish. 

Daedalus, (poet.) cuit- 
ously made. 

Decorus, graceful. 

Densus, thick. 

Dignus, worthy. 

Dims, direful. 

Disertus, eloquent. 

Diuturnus, lasting; 

Doctus, learned. 

Dubius, doubtful. 

Durus, hard. 

Ebrius, drunk, 

Effcetus, past having 

Egenus, poor. 

Egregius, remarkable. 

Elixus, boiled. 

Exlguus, small. 

Exlmius, excellent. 

Exoticus,y><>m a foreign 

Externus, outward. 

Facetus, witty. 

Facundus, eloquent. 

Fa Is us, false, lying. 

Famelicus , famish ed. 

Fatu us, foolish. 

Faustus, lucky. 

Ferus, icild, savage. 

Fessus, weary. 

Festlnus, hastening. 

Festus, festival. 

Fldus, faithful. 

Finitlmus, neighbour- 

Firmus, firm, steady. 

Flaccus, flap-eared. 

Flavus, yellow. 

Foedus, ugly. 

Foetus, big with young 

Y or mosus, fair. 

Fretus, trusting. 

Frlvolus, trifling. 

Fulvus, yellow. 

Fur v us, sicarthy 

Fuscus, brown. 

Garrulus, prattling. 

Gelldus, cold as ice. 

Gemlnus, double. 

Germanus, of the same 
stock, real. 

Gibbus, convex. 
Gil v us, Jlesh- coloured. 
Glaucus, gray. 
Gnurus, skilful. 
Gnavus, active. 
Gratus, thankful. 
Hirsutus, hirtus, rough 
Hispid us, ~ugged 
Honestus, hon*jurable i 

Hornus, of this year. 
Humanus, human, be- 

longing to a max 

humane, polite. 
Humldus, moist. 
1 gn a rus, ignorant. 
lgnavus, slot/if ul. 
Jmprobus, wicked. 
Incestus, unchaste. 
Inclytus, renowned. 
Indlgus, needy. 
Industrius, diligent. 
Inept us, unfit. 
Inf Idas, unfaithful. 
Ingenu us, free-born. 
Inlmlcus, unfriendly. 
Iniquus, uneven, unjust 
Intentus, intense, strait. 
lnvidus, envious. 
Invltus, unwilling. 
Iracundus, passionate. 
Iratus, angry. 
Iwitus, fruitless, vain. 
J ej u nus , fasting. 
Jucundus, pleasant. 
L&stus, joyful. 
Lasvus, on the left hand 
Largus, large. 
Lasclvus, wanton. 
Lassus, weary. 
Latus, broad. 
Laxus, loose, slack. 
Lentus, slow, pliant. 
Lepidus. pretty, witty. 
Limpidus, clear, pure. 
Llmus, squinting. 
Lippus, blear-eyed. 
Longinquus,/ar off. 
Longus, long. 
Lubricus, slippery 
Lucidus, bright. 
Lurldus, pale, ghastly. 
Luscus, blind of one 



Macuentus, lean. Paulus, little. 

Malignus, spiteful. Pauci, -cae, -c&,few. 

Mane us, maimed, lame. Peritus, skilful. 

Manliestus, evident. Perf Idus, treacherous. 

Marcldus, rotten. Perpetuus, continual. 

Medius, mid or middle. Persplcuus, evident. 

Mendicus, beggar-like. Pius, pious. 

Menstruus, monthly. Planus, plain. 
Meracus, without mix- Flenus, full. 

a que, 


Plerique, -seque, 

the most part ; 

fern, pleraque. 
Posticus, on the 

part of a house. 
Prseditus, endued with. 
Pravus, wicked. 
Precarius, at another s 

Prisons, old, out of use. 

Merus, pure. 
Mirus, wonderful. 
Modestus, modest. 
iMcestus, sad. 
Molestus, troublesome. 
Morosus, surly. 
Moms, foolish. 
Mucldus, musty 
Mundus, neat. 
Mutilus, maimed, with- Pristlnus, ancient. 

out horns Privatus, private, re- 

Mutus, dumb. tired. 

Mutuus, mutual, lent, or Privus, single, peculiar. 

borrowed. Probus, good, honest. 

Nimius, too much. Procerus, high, tail. 

Noxius, hurtful. Prof anus, profane, un- 

Nudus, naked. holy. 

Nuntius, bringing news. Profundus, deep. 
Obesus,/a£, dull. Promiscuus, confused. 

Obliquus, crooked. Promptus, ready. 

Obscomus, obscene, omi- Pronus, with the 

nous. downward. 

Obsourus, dark, mean. Properus, hasty. 
Obsoletus, old, out o/Propinquus, near. 
Proprius, proper. 


Obstipus, stiff, wry. 
Obtusus, blunt. 
Odiosus, nateful. 
Opacus, dark, shady. 
Oplmus, rich, fat. 

Protervus, saucy. 
Publicus, public. 
Pudlcus, chaste 
Pullus, blackish. 
Purus, pure, clean. 

Opiparus, costly, dainty. Putus, icithout 'mixture. 
Opportunus, seasonable. Quantus, how great. 
Opulentus, or -ens, rich. Quadrimus, four years 

Orbus, destitute. 
Otiosus, at leisure 
Partus, pink-eyed. 
Pallid us, pale. 
Parous, sparing. 

"] having 


Quotidianus, daily. 
Rabidus, mad. 
Rancldus, rank, stale. 
Rams, rars, thin. 
Raucus, hoarse. 

Patrlmus, [father and Rectus, right, straight. 
Matrlmus, (mother Reus, impeached. 

J alite. Rigidus, cold, stiff, se- 

p Stulus, wide, spread- vere. [tered. 

ing. Riguus, moist, well wa- 

Robustus, strong. 
Roscidus, dewy. 
Rotundus, round. 
Rubicundus, blushing 
Rufus, reddish. 
Russus, of a carnation 

Rutilus, fiery, red. 
Soevus, cruel. 
Sagus, knowing. 
Salsus, salted, smart, 
Salvus, safe. 
Sanctus, holy. 
Sanus, sound. 
Saucius, wounded. 
Scsevus, left. 
Scambus, bow-legged. 
Scaurus, club-footed 
Securus, secure, out of 

Sedulus, careful. 
Sentus, rough. 
Serenus, clear. 
Serius, earnest. 
Serus, late. 
Severus, severe, harsh 
Siccus, dry. 
Slmus, fiat-nosed. 
Sincerus, sincere, pure. 
Situs, situate, placed. 
Sobrius, sober, temper 

Socius, in alliance, a 

Solid us, solid. 
Sordidus, dirty. 
Splnosus, prickly. 
Spissus, thick. 
Splendidus, bright. 
Spurius, base-born, not 

Squalidus, nasty 
Stolidus, foolish. 
Strenuus, active, stout. 
Strigosus, lean, lank. 
8tu\ius, foolish. ( 

Stupidus, stupid, dull. 
Subitus, sudden. 
Subsecivus, cut off, o 

taken from other busi 

Sudus, fair, without 

Superbus, proud 


Suplnus, lying on the 

Surd us, deaf. 

Tacitus, silent. 

Tuntus, so great. 

Tardus, slow. 

Temerarius, rash. 

Tempestlvus, seasona- 

Temulentus, drunken. 

Tepid us, lukewarm,. 

Timidus, fearful. 

Torvus, stern. 

Tranquillus, calm. 

Trepidus, trembling for 

Truculentus, cruel. 

Truncus, maimed, want- 

Tumidus, swollen. 

Turbid us, muddy. 

Tutus, safe. 

Udus, wet. 

Uncus, crooked. 

UnTcus, only. 

Urban us, courteous. 

Vacivus, at leisure. 

Vacuus, empty, void. 

Vagus, wandering. 

Valgus, bow-legged. 

Validus, strong. 

Vanus, vain, empty. 

VSrius, various, differ- 

Varus, bandy-legged. 
Vastus, huge. 
Vegetus, vigorous. 
Venustus, comely. 
Verbosus, talkative. 
Verecundus, bashful. 
Vernaculus, born in one's 

Verus, true. 
Vescus, Jit for eating. 
Vlcinus, neighbouring 
Viduus, deprived. 
Vietus, withered. 
Vlvidus, lively. 
Vlvus, alive. 

Tener, tenera, tenerum, tender. 

N. ten-eri, -eras, -era, 
G. ten-erorum, -erarum, -erorum 
D. -ten-eris, 

A. ten-eros, -eras, -era, 
V. ten-eri, -erse, -era, 
A. -ten-eris. 

In like manner decline, 

Asper, rough. Gibber, crook-backed. Miser, wretched. 

Caeter, (hardly used) the L&cer, torn. Prosper, prosperous. 

rest. Liber, free. 

Also the compounds of gero and fero ; as, laniger, bearing wool ; oplfei^ 
bringing help, <fcc. Likewise, sdiur, satura, saiiirum, full. But most ad- 
jectives in er drop the e ; as, dter, atra, atrum, black ; gen. atri, atrce, atri, 
aat. atro, atrai, atro, &c. So, 















ten-erum, -eram, 










iEger, sick. 
Creber, frequent. 
Glaber, smooth. 
Integer, entire. 
Ludicer, ludicrous. 

M&cer, lean. 
Niger, black. 
Piger, sloio. 
Ruber, red. 

Sacer, sacred. 
Scaber, rough. 
Teter, ugly. 
Vafer, crafty. 

Dexter, right, has -tra, -trum, or -tera, -terum. 

Obs. 1. The following adjectives have their genitive singu- 
iar in ius 7 and the dative in t, through all the genders; in the 
other cases, like bonus and tener. 

Unus, -a, -um ; gen. unius, dot. uni, Nullus nullius., none. 

one. Solus, -ius, alone. 

Alius, -Ius, one of many, another. Totus, -ius, whole.'* 

* Totus, so great, is regularly declined. 



Ullus, ius, any. 

Uterque, utriusque, both 

Alter, alterms, one of two. the other. TT . ,-, . . • ,«, . ) which of iht 
,r. ' • ?,. J , ,, ' r .1 . Uterlibet, utnusiibet, f . J 

[J ter,utrms, either, whether oj the two. TTf • ' • • ' > two you 

Neuter, -trius, neither. 

Utervis, -triusvis, 


Alteriiter, the one or the other, alterutrius, alterutri, and sometimes alte* 
rius utrius, alteri utri, <fcc. 

These adjectives, except totus, are called partitives ; and seem to resem« 
ble, in their signification as well as declension, what are called pronominal 
adjectives. In ancient writers we find them declined like bonus. 

Obs. 2. To decline an adjective properly, it should always be joined with 
6 substantive in the different genders; as, bonus liber , a good book; bona 
penna, a good pen ; bonum sedile, a good seat. But as the adjective in 
Latin is often found without its substantive joined with it, we therefore, in 
declining bonus, for instance, commonly say bonus, a good man, under- 
standing mr, or homo; bona, a good woman, understanding fccmlna; and 
bonum, a good thing, understanding negotium. 





Felix, masc. 


and neut.; happy. 





N. felices, 




G. felicium, 



T>. felicibus, 




A. felices, 




V. felices, 



felice, or 


A. felicibus. 


m. f. 

and n. prudent. 





N. prudentes, prudentia, 
G. prudentium, 


prudentem, prudens, 
prudente, or -ti. 

D. prudentibus, 
A. prudentes, prudentia, 
V. prudentes, prudentia, 
A. prudentibus. 

In like manner decline, 

Amens, -tis, mad. 
Atrox, -ocis, cruel. 
Audax, -acis, fy -ens, -tis, 

Bilix, -icis, icoven with a 

double thread. 
Capax, capacious. 
Cicur, -uris, tame. 
Clemens, -tis, merciful. 
Contumax, stubborn. 

Demens, mad. 
Edax, gluttonous. 
Efficax, effectual. 
Elegans, handsome. 
Fallax, deceitful 
Ferax, fertile. 
Ferox, fierce. 
Fre que ns , frequent. 
Ingens, huge. 
Iners, -tis, sluggish. 

Insons, guiltless. 
Mendax, lying. 
Mordax, biting, satirical, 
Pernix, -Icis. swift. 
Pervicax, wilful. 
PetHldins, froivard, saucy. 
Priegnans, with child. 
Recens, fresh. 
Repens, sudden. 
Sagax, -acis, sagacious 



Salax, -acis, lustful. 
Sapiens, wise. 
Solers, shrewd. 
Sons, guilty. 

Te"nax, tenacious. 
Trux, -iicis, cruel. 
Uber, -eris, fertile. 
Vehemens, vehement. 

Velox, -ocis, swift 
Vorax, devouring. 

Mitis, ma3c. and fern.; *nlte, neut.; meek. 

N mitis, mite, 

G. mitis, 

D. miti, 

A. mitem, mite, 

V". mitis, mite, 

A. miti. 

N. mites, 


G. mitium, 

D. mitibus, 

A. mites, mitia, 

V. mites, mitia, 

A. mitibus 

Agilis, active. 
Amabllis, lovely. 
Biennis, of two years. 
Brevis, short. 
Clvllis, courteous. 
Cceiestis heavenly. 
Comis, mild , affable. 
Crudelis, cruel. 
Debllis, weak. 
Deformis, ugly. 
Docilis, teachable. 
Duleis, swett in taste. 
Exllis, slender. 
Exsanguis, bloodless. 
Fortis, brave. 
Fragilis, brittle. 
Grandis, great. 
Gravis, heavy. 
Hilaris, cheerful. 

In like manner decline, 

Ignobilis, of mean par- 
Immanis, huge, cruel. 
Inanis, empty. 
Incolumis, safe. 
I nfa mis , infamous . 
Insignis, remarkable. 
Jugis, perpetual. 
L 03 vis, smooth. 
Lenis, gentle. 
Levis, light. 
Mediocris, middling. 
Mirabllis, wonderful. 
Mollis, soft. 
Omnis, all. 
Putris, rotten. 
Qualis, of what kind. 

Rudis, raw. 
Segnis, slow. 
Solennis, annual, sol 

Sterllis, barren. 
Suavis, sweet. 
Subllmis, lefty. 
Subtllis, subtile, fine. 
Talis, such. 
Tenuis, small. 
Terrestris, earthly. 
Terrlbilis, dreadful. 
Tristis, sad. 
Turpis, base. 
UtTlis, useful. 
Vilis, worthless 
Viridis, green. 
Vltilis, pliant. 

Mitior, masc. and fern. ; mitius, neut. ; compar. meeker. 

N. mitiores, mitiora, 

G. mitiorum, 

D. mitioribus, 

N mitior, mitius, 

G. mitioris, 

D. mitiori, 

.A. mitiorem, mitius, 

V. mitior, mitius, 

A. mitiore, or -ri. 

A. mitiores, mitiora, 

V. mitiores, mitiora, 

A. mitioribus. 

In this manner all comparatives are declined. 



Acer or acris, masc. acris, fern, acre, neut. sharp. 

N. a-cer or acris, acris, 
G. a-cris, 

D. a-cri, 

A. a-crem, a-crem, 

V. a-cer or acris, a-cris, 
A. a-cri. 


a-cre 3 


N. a-cres, a-cres, u-cria, 

G. a-cri um, 

D. a-cribus, 

A. a-cres, a-cres, a-cria, 

V. a-cres, a-cres, a-cria, 

A. a-eribus. 

In like manner alacer or alacris, celer or celeris, and the 
other adjectives included in the exception on page 66] which 
form exceptions also to the rule for the gender of adjectives 
on that page, having in the nom. and voc. sing, two termina- 
tions for the masculine. 


1. Adjectives of the third declension have e or i in the 
ablative singular: but if the neuter be in e, the ablative has % 

2. The genitive plural ends in ium, and the neuter of the 
nominative, accusative, and vocative, in ia: except compara- 
tives, which have um and a. 


Exc. 1. Dives, hospes, sospes, super stes, juvenis, senex, and pauper 
have e only in the ablative singular, and consequently um in the genitive 

Exc. 2. The following have also e in the abl. singular, and um, not 
ium, in the genit. plural. Compos, -otis, master of, that has obtained his 
desire ; impos, -otis, unable ; inops, -opis, poor ; supplex, -ids, suppliant, 
humble ; uber, -Iris, fertile ; consors, -tis, sharing, a partner ; degener, -eris, 
degenerate or degenerating ; vigil, watchful ; piiber, -eris, of age, mar- 
riageable, and celer. Also compounds in ceps,fex,pes, and corpor; a,s, parrt- 
ccps, partaking of; artlfex ,-icis, cunning, an artist; hip es, -pedis, two-foot- 
ed ; bicorpor, -oris, two-bodied, &c. All these have seldom the neut. sing. 
and almost never the neut. plural in the nominative and accusative. To 
which add memor, mindful, which has membri and memorum : also, deses, 
rises, hibes,perj)cs,prcbpes,Uxes, concolor, versicolor, which likewise for 
the most part want the genitive plural. 

Exc. 3. Par. equal, has only pari: but its compounds have either e cr 
; as compare or -ri. Vetus, old, has vetera and veterum. 

Plus, more, has only the neuter gender in the singular, and is thus de- 
eli led • 

Singular. Plural. 

JN. plus, 
G. pluris, 


A. plus, 


A. plure. or 

Its compound, compliires, has no singular 

N. plures, plura & pluria, 

G. plurium, 

D. plaribus, 

A. plQres, plura & pluria, 

A. pluribus. 


Exc. 4. Exspes, hopeless ; and pdtis, -e, able, are only used in the nom- 
inative. Potis has also sometimes potis in the neuter. 


1. Comparatives, and adjectives in ns, have e more frequently than i, 
and participles in the ablative called absolute have generally e; as, TJje 
Ho regnante, not regnanti, in the reign of Tiberius. 

2. Adjectives joined with substantives neuter for the most part have i, 
as, victrlciferro, not victrice. 

3. Different words are sometimes used to express the different genders, 
as, victor, victorious, for the masc. victrix, for the fern. Victrix, in the 
plural, has likewise the neuter gender; thus, matrices, victricia: so, ultor, 
and ultrix, revengeful. Victrix is also neuter in the singular. 

4. Several adjectives compounded of clivus, frcenum, bacillum, arma, 
jugum, limus, somnus, and animus, end in is or us ; and therefore are 
either of the first and second declension, or of the third ; as, declivis, -e, 
and decllvus, -a, -urn, steep ; imbecillis, and imbccillus, weak ; semisom- 
nis, and semisomnus, half asleep ; exanimis, and exanimus, lifeless. But 
several of them do not admit of this variation; thus we say, magndnimus, 
Jlexantmus, efframus, levisomnus ; not magnanlmis, &c. On the contrary, 
we say, pusillanlmis , injugis, illimis, insomnis, exsomnis ; not pusillanU 
mus, &c. So, semianlmis, inermis, sublimis, accllvis, declivis, procllvis ; 
rarely semianimus, &c. 

5. Adjectives derived from nouns are called denominatives , 

as, corddtus, mordtus, ccelestis, dddmantlnus, corpore'us, agrestis, astlvus, 
<fcc.; from cor, ?nos, caelum, addmas, &c. 

Those which diminish the signification of their primitives, are called 
diminutives ; as, misellus, parvulus, duriusculus, &c. Those which sig- 
nify a great deal of a thing, are called amplificatives, and end in osus, 
or entus ; as, vinosus, vlnolentus, much given to wine ; opZrosvs, labori- 
ous; plumbosus, full of lead ; nodosus, knotty, full of knots ; corpulentus, 
corpulent, &c. Some end in tus ; as, auritus, having long or large ears ; 
nasutus, having a large nose ; literdtus, learned, &c. 

6. An adjective derived from a substantive, or from another 
adjective, signifying possession or property, is called a pos- 
sessive adjective; as, 

Scoticus, pdternus, herilis, alienus, of or belonging to Scotland, a father, 
a master, another ; from Scotia, pater, herus, and alius 

7. Adjectives derived from verbs are called verbals; as, 

amibilis, amiable ; capax, capable ; docilis, teachable ; from amo, aipia y 

8. When participles become adjectives, they are called par- 
ticipials; as, sapiens, wise; aciitus, sharp; disertus, eloquent 

Of these many also become substantives ; as, adolescens, animaus, 
ripens, serpens, advocdtus, sponsus, natus, legatvs ; s])onsa, nata, scrtu, 
bc cor ona, a garland ; prmtexta, sc. vestis ; debltum, decretum, praceptum, 
eatum, *.v£mn, votum, &c. 




9. Adjectives derived from adverbs are called adverbials; 

as, hodiernuSy from hodie; crastlnus, from eras; hinus. from bis, &c 
There are also adjectives derived from prepositions; as, contraritu , from 
contra; antlcus, from ante; posticus, from post. 


Adjectives which signify number, are divided into four 
classes, Cardinal, Ordinal, Distributive, and Multiplicai te. 

1. The Cardinal or Principal numbers are : 





















Viginti unus, or > 

Unus et viginti, ) 

Viginti duo, or ) 

Duo et viginti, \ 









Ducenti, -ae, -a, 
































































twenty -two. 
























a hundred. 



two hundred. 





Trecenti, -ae, -a 








Duo millia, or 

Bis mille, 

Decern millia, or ) 

Decies mille, ) 

Viginti milia, or ) 

Vicies mille, J 

three hundred, 
four hundred. 
five hundred, 
six hundred, 
seven hundred, 
eight hundred, 
nine hundred, 
a thousand. 

two thousand, 
ten thousand, 
twenty thousand. 

300. CCC. 

400. CCCC. 

500. D. 

600. DC. 

700. DCC. 

800. DCCC. 

900. DCCCC 

1,000. M. 

2,000. MM 

10,000. XM 

20,000. XXM. 

A thousand was originally marked thus, CIO. which in 
latter times was contracted into M. Five hundred was 
marked thus, 10. or, by contraction, D. 

The annexing of 0. to 10. makes its value ten times great- 
er; thus, 100. marks five thousand; and 1000. fifty thou- 

The prefixing of C. together with the annexing of O. to 
the number CIO. makes its value ten times greater; thus, 
CCIOO. denotes ten thousand; and CCCIOOO. a hundred 
thousand. The ancient Romans, according to Pliny, pro- 
ceeded no farther in this method of notation. If they had 
occasion to express a larger number, they did it by repe- 
tition; thus, CCCIOOO. CCCIOOO. signified two hundred 
thousand, Slc 

We sometimes find thousands expressed by a straight line 
drawn over the top of the numeral letters; thus, HI. denotes 
three thousand; x. ten thousand. 

The cardinal numbers, except unus and mille, want the sin- 

Unus is not used in the plural, except when joined with a 
substantive which wants the singular; as, in unis cedibus, in 
one house. Terent. Eun. ii. 3. 15. Unoz nuptice. Id. Andr. 
iv. 1. 51. In una mania convenere. Sallust. Cat. 6. or when 
several particulars are considered as one whole; as, una ves« 
timenta, one suit of clothes. Cic. Flacc. 29. 


Duo and tres are thus declined 




duo, duse, 






duorum, duarum, 





duobus, duabus, 





duos or duo, duas, 






duo, duse, 






duobus, duabus, 




In the same manner with duo, decline ambo, both. 

All the cardinal numbers from quatuor to centum, including 
them both, are indeclinable ; and from centum to mille, are 
declined like the plural of bonus ; thus, ducenti, -tee, -ta\ du- 
centorum, -tarum, -torum, &c. 

Mille is used either as a substantive or adjective ; when 
taken substantively it is indeclinable in the singular number, 
and in the plural has millia, millium, millibus, &c. 

Mille, an adjective, is commonly indeclinable, and, to ex- 
press more than one thousand, has the numeral adverbs joined 
with it; thus, mille homines, a thousand men; mille horni- 
num, of a thousand men, &c. Bis mille homines, two thousand 
men; ter mille homines, &c. But with mille, a substantive, 
we say, mille hominum, a thousand men; duo millia hominum, 
tria millia, quatuor millia, centum or centena millia hominum; 
decies centena millia, a million; vicies centena millia, two mil- 
lions, &,c. 

2. The Ordinal numbers are, primus, first; secundus, sec- 
ond, Slc , declined like bonus. 

3. The Distributive are, singuli, one by one; blni, two by 
two, or by twos, Sec. ; declined like the plural of bonus. 

4. The Multiplicative numbers are simplex, simple; duplex, 
double, or two-fold; triplex, triple, or three-fold; quadruplex, 
four-fold, &.c; all of them declined like felix; thus, simplex, 
-ids, &c. 

The interrogative words to which these numerals answer, 
are quot, quotus, quoteni, quoties, and quotuplex. 

Quot, how many? is indeclinable: So tot, so many; toti , 
dem, just so many; quotquot, quotcunque, how many soever; 
aliquot, some. 

The following Table contains a list of the Ordinal and Dis- 
tributive N ambers, together with the Numeral Adverbs, which 
are often joined with the Numeral Adjectives. 



Ordinal . 

Primus, -a, -um. 
Decimus tertius. 
Decimus quartus. 
Decimus quintus. 
DecTmus sextus. 
Decimus septimus 
Decimus octavus. 
Decimus nonus. 
Vigeslmus, vicesi- 

Vigeslmus primus. 
Trigesimus, trice-) 

simus. ) 

Bis millesimus. 


Singuli, -as, -a. 












Tredeni, terni deni. 

Quaterni deni. 


Seni deni. 

Septeni deni. 

Octoni deni. 

Noveni deni. 


Viceni singuli. 











Quater centeni. 

Quinquies centeni. 

Sexies centeni. 

Septies centeni. 

Gcties centeni. 

Novies centeni. 


Bis milleni. 

Numer % al Mverbn 

Semel, once. 

Bis, twice. 

Ter, thrice. 

Quater, four times 

Quinquies, Sac. t 












Decies ac septies 

Decies ac octies. 

Decies et novies 


Vicies semel. 


















Bis millies 


To tne numeral adjectives may be added such as express division, 
proportion, time, weight, &c; as, bipartltus, tripartitus, &c; duplus ) 
t iplus, &.C.; blmus, trlmus, &c; biennis, triennis, <5bc; bimestris, tri- 
mestris, &c.; billbris, trilibris, &c; bindrius, ternarius, &c; which 
last are applied to the number of any kind of things whatever; as, versus 
sendrius, a verse of six feet ; denarius nummus, a coin of ten asses ; octo- 
gendrius senex, an old man eighty years old ; grex centendrius, a flock of 
an hundred, &c. 


The comparison of adjectives expresses the quality in dif 
ferent degrees; as, durus, hard; durior. harder; durissimus, 

Those adjectives only are compared, whose signification 
admits the distinction of more and less. 

The degrees of comparison are three, the Positive, Compar- 
ative, and Superlative. 

The Positive seems improperly to be called a degree. It 
simply signifies the quality; as, durus, hard; and serves only 
as a foundation for the other degrees. By it we express the 
relation of equality; as, he is as tall as I. 

The Comparative expresses a greater degree of the quality, 
and has always a reference to a less degree of the same; as, 
durior, harder; sapientior, wiser. 

The Superlative expi esses the quality carried to the great 
est degree; as, durissimus, hardest; sapientissimus , wisest. 


The comparative degree is formed from the first case of the 
positive ending in i, by adding the syllable or, for the mascu- 
line and feminine, and us, for the neuter. The superlative is 
formed from the same case, by adding ssimus ; thus, alius, 
high; gen. alii, by adding or, we have the comparative altior, 
for the masc. and fern.; and by adding us, altius, for the neut., 
higher: so, by adding ssimus, to the gen. alii, we have the 
superlative altissimus, -a, -urn. So, mltis, meek, gen. mitis i 
dative miti; mitior, -us, meeker; mitissimus, -a, -um, meekest. 

If the positive end in er, the superlative is formed from the 
nominative by adding rhnus ; as, pauper, poor; pauperrimu8 i 

The comparative is always of the third declension; the su 
perlative of the first and second; as, alius, altior, altissimus ; 
alia, altior, allissima; altum, altius, altissimum; gen. alti, at* 
lioris, altissimi, &,c. 
















1 Bonus, melior, optimus, 

Malus, pejor, pessimus, 

Magnus, major, maximus, 

Parvus, minor, minimus, 

MultuSj plurimus, 

Fern. Multa, plurima; neut multum, plus, plurimum; plur. 
multi, plures, plurimi; multae, plures, plurimae, Sic. 

In several of these, both in English and Latin, the com- 
parative and superlative seem to be formed from some other 
adjective, which in the positive has fallen into disuse; in others, 
the regular form is contracted; as, maximus, for magnisslmus ; 
worst for ivorsest. 

2. These five have their superlative in limus: 

Facllis, facilior, facilllmus, easy. Imbecillis, imbecillior, imbecillimus, 

Gracilis, gracilior, crracillimus, lean. weak. 

Humilis, humilior, humillimus, low. Similis, similior, simillimus, like. 

3. The following adjectives have regular comparatives, but 
form the superlative differently: 

Citer, citerior, citimus, near 7 &c. Maturus, -ior, maturrimus or matu- 

Dexter, dexterior, dextimus, right. rissimus, ripe. 

Sinister, sinisterior, sinistimus, left. Posterus, posterior, postremus, be* 

Exter, -erior, extimus or extremus, hind. 

outward. Superus, -rior, supremus or summus, 

Inferus, -ior, infimus or Imus, below. high. 

Inter us, interior, intimus, inward. Vetus, veterior, veterrimus, old. 

4. Compounds in dicus, loquus^ficus, and volus, have entior* 
and entissimus ; as, mdledicus, railing; maledicentior, maledi~ 
centissimus: So, magnllcquus, one that boasteth; bcneficus. 
beneficent ; mdlevolus, malevolent ; mirificus, wonderful; 
-entior, -eidissimus or mirtficissimus. Nequam, indeclinable, 
worthless, vicious, has nequior, nequissimus. 

There are a great many adjectives, which, though capable 
of having their signification increased, yet either want one of 
the degrees of comparison, or are not compared at all. 

1. The following adjectives are not used in the positive: 

Deterior, worse, deterrimas. Propior, nearer, proximus, near* 

Ocior, swifter, ocisslmus est or next. 

Prior, former, primus. Ulterioi t farther, ultlmus. 


2. The following want the comparative : 

fnclytus, inclytissimus, re- Novus, novissimus, new. 

nowned. Nuperus, nuperrimus, late. 

Merit us, meritissimus, deserv- Par, parissimus, equal. 

ing. Sacer, sacerrimus, sacred. 

S. The following want the superlative: 

Adolescens, adolescentior, Oplmus, opimior, rich. 

young. Pronus, pronior, inclined down* 

Diuturnus, diuturnior, lasting. tvards. 
Ingens, ingentior, huge. Satur, saturior,/wZZ. 

Juvenis, junior, young. Senex, senior, old. 

To supply the superlative of juvenis, or adolescens, we say minimus na 
tu, the youngest ; and of senex, maximus natu, the oldest. 

Most adjectives in ilis, dtis, and bills, also want the superlative ; as, clvl 
lis, civilior, civil; regdlis, regalior, regal; fiebllis, -ior, lamentable. So 
juvenilis, youthful ; exllis, small, &c. 

To these add several others of different terminations. Thus, arcdnus 
-ior, secret; decllvis, -ior, bending downwards; longinquus, -ior, far off, 
propinquus, -ior, near. 

Anterior, former; sequior, worse; sdtior, better, are only found in the 

4. Many adjectives are not compared at all ; such are those compounded 
with nouns or verbs ; as, versicolor, of divers colours ; pestlfcr, poisonous : 
also adjectives in us pure, m ivus, xnus, orus, or imus, and diminutives ; as, 
dubius, doubtful ; vacuus, empty , fugltlvus, that flieth away ; mdtutlnus, 
early; cdnorus, shrill ; legitimus, lawful; tenellus, somewhat tender; ma- 
jusculus, «fcc. ; together with a great many others of various terminations ; 
as, almus, gracious ; prcecox, -dels, soon or early ripe ; mlrus, egenus, I deer, 
memor, sospes, &c. 

This defect of comparison is supplied by putting the adverb magis be- 
fore the adjective, for the comparative degree; and valde, or max\me for the 
superlative ; thus, egenus, needy, magis egenus, more needy; valde or max- 
im e egenus, very, or most needy. Which form of comparison is also used 
in those adjectives which are regularly compared. 


A Pronoun is a word which stands instead of a noun* 
The simple pronouns in Latin are eighteen; ego, tu, sux; 

* Thus, / stands for the name of the person who speaks; thou, for the 
name of the person addressed. 

Pronouns serve to point out objects, whose names we either do not know, 
or do not want to mention. They also serve to shorten discourse, and pre 
vent the too frequent repetition of the same word ; thus, instead of saying, 
When Ccesar had conquered Gaul, Ccesar turned Caisars arms against Casar* 
country, we say, When Tessar had conquered Gaul, he turned his armg 
against his country. 



ille, ipse , iste, hie, is, quis, qui; mens, tuus, suus, nosier, v ester , 
nostras, vestras, and cujas. 

Three of them are substantives, ego, tu, sui; the other fif- 
teen are adjectives. 

Ego, J. 







tu, the 
tui, of 



of me, 
to me, 

with me. 

N. nos, we, 

G. nostrum, or nostri, of us, 

D. nobis, 
A. nos, 


A nobis, 
Tu, thou. 

to us, 

with us. 

r N. vos, ye or you, 

G. vestrum, or vestri, of you, 



D. tibi, to thee, 
A. te, thee, \ or ^ U 

V. tu, thou, 
A. te, with thee, j 

Sui, of himself, of herself, of itself. 
Singular. Plural. 


D. vobis, 

A. vos, 
V. vos, 
A. vobis, 

to you, 


O ye or ym % 

with you. 


G. sui, of themselves, 
D. sibi, to themselves, 
A. se, themselves, 

V. ■ 

A. se, with themselves 

N. — — 

G. sui, of himself, of herself, of itself 
D. sibi, to himself to herself] &,c. 
A. se, himself, &,c. 

A. se, with himself, &e. 

Obs. 1. Ego wants the vocative, because one cannot call upon him 
self, except as a second person ; thus, we cannot say, ego, O I ; nos 
O we. 

Obs 2. Mihi in the dative is sometimes by the poets contracted into 

Obs 3. The genitive plural of ego was anciently nostrorum and nos* 
trdrum ; of tu, vestrorum and vestrdrum, which were afterwards contract- 
ed into nostrum and vestrum. 

We commonly use nostrum and vestrum after partitives, numerals, com- 
paratives, or superlatives; and nostri and vestri after other words. 

The English substantive pronouns, he, she, it, are express- 
ed in Latin by these pronominal adjectives, ille, iste, hie, of 
is; as, 

llle, for the masc. ilia, for the fern. Mud, for the neuter, 
that: Dr ille, he; ilia, she; Mud, it or that: thus, 





N ille, 

ilia, illud, 

N. illi, 





G. illorum 

, illarum, 






A. ilium, 

illam, illud, 

A. illos, 



V. ille, 

ilia, illud, 

V. illi, 



A. illo, 

ilia, illo. 



Ipse, he himself, ipsa, she herself, ipsum, itself; and iste, 
ista, istud, are declined like ille ; only ipse, has ipsum in the 
nom. ace. and voc. sing. neut. 

Ipse is often joined to ego, tu, sui; and has in Latin the 
same force with self in English, when joined with a possessive 
pronoun; as ego ipse, I myself. 

Hie, haec, hoc, this. 



N. hie, 



N. hi, hae, 




G. horum, harum, 




D. his, 

A hunc, 



A. hos, has, 


V. hie, 



V. hi, hae, 


A. hoc, 



A, his. 


ea, id; he, 

she, it; or that. 



N is, 



N. ii, eae, 




G. eorum, earum, 




D. iis, or eis, 

A. eum, 



A. eos, eas, 




A. eo, 



A. iis, or eis. 

Quis, quae, quod or quid ? which, what ? Or quis 1 who ? 
or what man? quoz ? who? or what woman? quod or quidl 
what ? which thing ? or what thing ? thus, 

Singular. Plural. 

N, quis, quae, quod or quid, 
G cujus, 

D» cui, 

A. quern, quam, quod or quid, 

A quo, qua, quo. 

N. qui, quae, quae, 

G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, or quibus, 

A. quos, quas, quae, 

V. ; — 

A. queis, or quibus, 

* In those cases where the word is not repeated, it is the 
genders, both in the pronouns and adjectives. 

in fid 


Qui, quaz, quod, who, which, that; Or vir qui, the man who 
or that; foe rn in a quaz, the woman ivho or that; negotium quod, 
the thirg which or that: genit. vir cujus, the man whose or of 
whom; mime/ cujus, the woman whose or of whom; negotium 
Ctyt3 t the thug of which, seldom whose, &c. thus, 

Singular. Plural. 



qua, quo. 

N. qui, quae, quae 

G. quorum, quarum, quorum, 
D. queis, or quihus, 

A. quos, quas, quae, 

A. queis, or quibus. 

The other pronouns are derivatives, coming from ego, tu, 
and sui. Meus, my or mine; tuus, thy or thine; suus, his 
own, her own, its own, their own; are declined like bonus, -a, 
-urn; and noster, our; vester, your; like pulcher, -chra, -chrum, 
of the first and second declension; noster, -tra, -trum. 

JYostras, of our country; vestras, of your country; cujas, of 
what or which country , are declined like felix, of the third 
declension: gen. nostrdtis, dat. nostrdti, &c. 

Pronouns as well as nouns, that signify things which can 
not be addressed or called upon, want the vocative. 

Meus has mi, and sometimes meus, in the voc. sing, masc 

The relative qui has frequently qui in the ablative, and that, which u 
remarkable, in all genders and numbers. 

Qui is sometimes used for quis : and instead of cujus, the gen. of quis 
we find an adjective pronoun, cujus, -a, -um. 

Simple pronouns, with respect to their significations, are divided into 
the following classes : 

1. Demonstratives, which point out any person or thing present, or aa 
if present : Ego, tu, hie, iste, and sometimes die, is, ipse. 

2. Relatives, which refer to something going before : ille, ipse, iste, hie, 
is, qui. 

3. Possessives, which signify possession : meus, tuus, suus, noster, ves- 

4. Patriots or Gentiles, which signify one's country: nostras, vestras, 

5. Interrogatives , by which we ask a question: quis? cujas? When 
they do not ask a question, they are called Indejinites, liite other words cf 
the same nature. 

6. Reciprocals, which again call back or represent the same object to the 
mind : sui and suus. 


Pronouns are compounded variously : 

1. With other pronouns ; as, isthic, isthac, isthoc, isthuc, or istuc. Ace 
Isthunc, isthanc, isthoc, or isthuc. Abl. Isthoc, isthac, isthoc. Nom. and 
tec. phu. neut. isthac, of iste and hie. So illic, ofille and hie. 


2. Witn some other parts of speech ; as, hujusmddi, cujusmodi, &c. mi 
cum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, vobiscum, quocum, or quicum, and quibus* 
cum : cecum, eccam ; eccvs, eccas, and sometimes ecca in Jie nom. sing, ot 
ccce and is. So ellum, of ecce and Hie. 

3. With some syllable added , as, tute of tu and te, used only in the 
nom. egomet, tutemet, suimet, through all the cases, thus, meimet, tuimet, 
&c of ego, tu, sui, and met. Instead of tumet in the nom. we say, tutl- 
met: Hiccine, kceccine, &c. in all the cases that end in c; of hie and cine • 
Me&pte, tudpte, sudpte, nostrdpte, vestrdpte, in the ablat. fern, and some- 
times meojjte, tuopte, &c. of meus, <fcc. and vte: hicce, hcecce, hocie; hu» 
jusce, hisce, hosce; of hie and ce: whence hujuscemodi, ejuscemodi, cujus- 
cemodi. So, IDEM, the same, compounded of is and dem, which is thui 
declined : 


N. idem, eadem, idem, 

G. ejusdem, 

D. eidem, 

A. eundem, eandem, idem, 

V. idem, eadem, idem, 

A. eodem, eadtm, eodem. 

N. iidem, eaedem, eadem, 

G. eorundem, earundem, eorundem, 
D. eisdem, or iisdein, 

A. eosdem, easdem, eadem, 
V. iidem, eaedem, eadem, 

A. eisdem, or iisdem. 

The pronouns which we find most frequently compounded, are quis and 

Quis in composition is sometimes the first, sometimes the last, and 
eometimes likewise the middle part of the word compounded ; but qui is 
always the first. 

1. The compounds of quis, in which it is put first, are quisnam, who? 
quispiam, quisquam, any one; quisque, every one; quisquis, whosoever; 
which are thus declined : 

Norru Gen. Dat. 

Quisnam, quaenam, quodnam or quidnam; cujusnam; cuinam, 

Quispiam, qusepiam, quodpiam or quidpiam; cujubpiam ; cuipiam; 

Quisquam, quaequam, quodquam or quidquam; cujusquam; cuiquam; 

Quisque, quseque, quodque or quidque ; c uj usque ; cuique, 

Quisquis, quidquid or quicquid; cujuscujus; cuicui. 

And so in the other cases according to the simple quis. But quisquis 
has not the fern, at all, and the neuter only in the nominative and accusa- 
tive. Quisquam has also quicquam for quidquam; accusative, quenquam, 
without the feminine. The plural is scarcely used. 

2. The compounds of quis, in which quis is put last, have qua in the 
nom. sing, fern.; and in the nominative and accusative plur. neut. aa, 
u£tqui& } some; ecquis } who ? of et and quis; also, nequis, siquis, numquis. 


which for the mo**, part are read separately ; thus, ne quis, si quis, mtm 
quis. They are thuf, declined : 

Mom. Gen. Dat. 

Aliquis, alTqua, aliquod or alTquid; alicujus; allcui; 

Ecquis, ecqua or ecquae, ecquod or ecquid ; eccujus ; eccui ; 

Si quis, si qua, si quod or si quid ; si cujus ; si cui; 

Ne quis, ne qua, ne quod or ne quid ; ne cujus ; ne cui ; 

Num quis, num qua, num quod or num quid; num cujus; num cui. 

3. The compounds which have quis in the middle, are, ecquisnam, who? 
vnusquisque, gen. uniuscujusque, every one. The former is used only in 
ths nom sing, and the latter wants the plural. 

4. The compounds of qui are quicunque, whosoever; quidam, some; 
quilibet, qulvis, any one, whom you please ; which are thus declined : 

JVora. Gen. Dat. 

QuTcunque, quaecunque, quodcunque ; cujuscunque; cuicunque; 

Quidam, qusedam, quoddam or quiddam ; cujusdam ; cuidam ; 

Quilibet, quaellbet, quodlibetor quidlibet; cujuslibet; cuilibet; 

Quivis, quaevis, quodvis orquidvis; cujusvis; cuivis. 

Obs. 1. All these compounds have seldom or never queis, but quibus, in 
their dat. and abl. plur.; thus, aliqulbus, &c. 

Obs. 2. Quis, and its compounds, in comic writers, have sometimes quis 
in the feminine gender. 

Obs. 3. Quidam has qiiendam, quondam , quoddam or quiddam, in the 
ace. sing, and quorundam, quarundam, quorundam, in the genitive plural, 
n being put instead of m, for the better sound. 

Obs. 4. Quod, with its compounds, aliquod, quodvis, quoddam, &c. are 
used, when they agree with a substantive in the same case ; quid, with its 
compounds, aliquid, quidvis, &c. for the most part have either no substan 
tive expressed, or govern one in the genitive. For this reason, they are 
by some reckoned substantives. 

Obs. 5. Aliquis and Quidam may be thus distinguished ; the former de- 
notes a person or thing indeterminately the latter, determinately. 

Obs. 6. Uter refers to two, and is therefore joined to comparatives. 

Obs. 7. Quis may refer to many, and is therefore joined v r ith superla- 

Obs. 8. Hie and Me are often found to refer to two words going before 
them. Hie usually to the latter ; llle to the former. 

Obs. 9. As demonstratives, Hie refers to the person nearest to me ; 1st* 
to the person nearest to you ; llle to any intermediate person. 

Obs. 10. Tile denotes honour; Iste, contempt; as, illc vir ; tste homo. 

Obs. 11. Tuus is used when we speak to one ; as, Sumne, Corioldne, r 
tuis castris captiva an muter ? Vcster, when we speak to more than one 
as, Cives, miser evilni casli vestri. 

Obs. 12. Alter is in general applied to one of two ; Alius to one of 


86 VERBS. 


A verb is a word which expresses what is affirmed of things 
as, The boy reads. The sun shines. The man loves. 

Or, A verb is that part of ipeeeh which signifies to be, to do, 
or to suffer. 

Verbs, with respect to their signification, are divided into 
three different classes, Active, Passive, and JYeuter; because 
we consider things either as acting, or being acted upon; or 
as neither acting, nor being acted upon; but simply existing, 
or existing in a certain state or condition, as in a state of mo- 
tion or rest; &c. 

1. An Active verb expresses an action, and necessarily sup- 
poses an agent, and an object acted upon; as, amare, to love, 
amo te, I love thee. 

2. A verb Passive expresses a passion or suffering, or the 
receiving of an action; and necessarily implies an object act- 
ed upon, and an agent, by which it is acted upon; as, amari, 
to be loved; tu amaris a me, thou art loved by me. 

3. A JYeuter verb properly expresses neither action nor pas- 
sion, but simply the being, state, or condition of things; as, 
doi*mio, 1 sleep; sedeo, I sit. 

The verb is also called Transitive, when the action passes 
over to the object, or has an effect on some other thing; as, 
scribo literas, I write letters: but when the action is confined 
within the agent, and passes not over to any object, it is called 
Intransitive ; as, ambulo, I walk; curro, I run; which are 
likewise called Neuter verbs. Many verbs in Latin and En- 
glish are used both in a transitive and in an intransitive or 
neuter sense; as, sistere, to stop; incipere, to begin; durare, 
to endure, or to harden, &c 
. I 

* It is called a Verb or Word by way of eminence, because it is the most 
essential word in a sentence, without which the other parts of speech can 
form no complete sense. Thus, the diligent boy reads his lesson with care, 
is a perfect sentence ; but if we take away the affirmation, or the word 
~eads, it is rendered imperfect, or rather becomes no sentence at all ; thus, 
Jie diligent boy his lesson with care. 

A verb therefore may be thus distinguished from any other port of 
speech: Whatever word expresses an affirmation, or assertion, is a vnb: 
Dr thus, Whatever word, with a substantive noun or pronoun before oi 
after it, makes full sense, is a verb ; as, stones fall, I walk, walk thou 
Here fall and walk are verbs, because they contain an affirmation : but 
when we say, a long walk, a dangerous fall, there is no affirmation ex- 
pressed; and the same words icalk and fall become substantives or nouns. 
We often find likewise in Latin the same word used as a verb, and also 
as some other part of speech ; thus, amor, -oris, love, a substantive ; and 
amor, I am loved, a verb. 

VERBS. 87 

Verbs which simply signify bAng are likewise called Sub- 
stantive verbs; as, esse, or existere, to be, or to exist. The 
notion of existence is implied in the signification of every 
verb; thus, I love, may be resolved into./ am loving. 

When the meaning of a verb is expressed without any af- 
firmation, or in such a form as to be joined to a substantive 
noun, partaking thereby of the nature of an adjective, it is 
called a Participle; as, amans, loving; amdtus, loved. But 
when it has the form of a substantive, it is called a Gerund, 
or a Supine; as, amandum, loving; amdtum, to love; amdtu, 
to love, or to be loved. 

A verb is varied or declined by Voices, Modes, Tenses, 
Numbers, and Persons. 

There are two voices; the Active and Passive. 

The modes are four; Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative, 
and Infinitive. 

The tenses are five; the Present, the Preter- Imperfect, 
the Preter-perfect, the Preter-pluperfect, and the Future. 

The numbers are two; Singular and Plural. 

The persons are three; First, Second, and Third. 

1 . Voice expresses the different circumstances in which we 
consider an object; whether as acting, or being acted upon. 
The Active voice, signifies action; as, amo, I love; the Passive, 
suffering, or being the object of an action; as, amor, I am 

2. Modes or moods are the various manners of expressing 
the signification of the verb. 

The Indicative declares or affirms positively; as, amo, I love; 
amdbo, I shall or will love; or asks a question; as, an tu amasl 
dost thou love? 

The Subjunctive is usually joined to some other verb, and 
cannot make a full meaning by itself; as, si me obsecret, re- 
dlbo, if lie entreat me, I will return. Ter. 

The Imperative commands, exhorts, or entreats; as, ama, 
love thou. 

The Infinitive simply expresses the signification of the verb, 
without limiting it to any person or number; as, amdre, to 

3. Tenses or Times exjress the time when any thing iff 
supposed to be, to act, or to suffer. 

Time in general is divided into three parts, the present, past 
and future. 


Past time is expressed three aifferent ways. When we 
speak C/f a thing, which was doing, but not finished at some 
former time, we use the Preter-imperfect, or past time not com- 
pleted; as, scribebam, I was writing. 

When we speak of a thing now finished, we use the Preter- 
perfect, or past time completed; as, scripsi, I wrote, or have 

When we speak of a thing finished at or before some past 
time, we use the Preter-pluperfect, or past time more than com- 
pleted; as, scripseram, I had written. 

Future time is expressed two different ways. A thing may 
be considered either as simply about to be done, or as actually 
finished, at some future time; as, scribam, I shall write, or, I 
shall [then] be writing; scripsero, I shall have written. 

4. Number marks how many we suppose to be, to act, or to 

5. Person shows to what the meaning of the verb is applied, 
whether to the person speaking, to the person addressed, or 
to some other person or thing. 

Verbs have two numbers and three persons, to agree with 
substantive nouns and pronouns in these respects: for a verb 
properly hath neither numbers nor persons, but certain termi- 
nations answering to the person and number of its nominative. 

A verb is properly said to be conjugated, when all its parts 
are properly classed, or, as it were, yoked together, according 
to Voice, Mode, Tense, Number, and Person. 


Conjugation is the regular distribution of the various parts 
of verbs, according to the different voices, modes, tenses, num- 
bers, and persons. 

There are four conjugations of verbs in Latin; distinguished 
by the vowel preceding re of the infinitive mode. 
The first conjugation makes are long; as, Amare 
The second conjugation makes ere long; as, Docere 
The third conjugation makes ere short; as, Legere. 
The fourth conjugation makes ire long; as, Jkudlre 

Except dare, to give, which has a short, and also its compounds, thus 
Circumdare, to surround ; circumddmus, -datis, -ddbam, -ddbo, &c. 

The different conjugations are likewise distinguished from 
one another by the different terminations of the following 




Judicative Mode. 
Present Tense. 





i 2. 





d l 1 * 

-o, -as, 





§ >2. 

-eo, -es, 





| )a 

-o, -is, 







-io, -is, 







f -abas, 

-abat ; 






, -ebas, 

-ebat ; 






, -ebas, 

-ebat ; 






i, -iebas, 


; -iebamus, 


, -iebant. 


-a bo, 









-ebit ; 


















Subjunctive Mode. 

Present Tense. 







































-eret ; 


















Imperative Mode. 






-a or -ato, 


-ate or 




-e or -eto, 


-ete or 




-e or -Ito, 


-Ite or 

-I tote, 



-i or -Ito, 


-Ite or 




Indicative M&ie. 

Present Tenso. 



aris or -are, 

-atur ; 





-eor, • 

eris or -ere, 

-etur ; 





-or, - 

gris or -ere, 

-itur ; 





-ior, - 

Iris or -Ire, 

-Itur ; 






1. -abar, -abaris or -abare, 

2. -ebar, -ebaris &r -ebare, 

3. -ebar, -ebaris or -ebare, 

4. -iebar, -iebarisor-iebare, 

1. -abor, -aberis or -abere, 

2. -ebor, -eberis or -ebere, 

3. -ar, -eris or -ere, 

4. -iar, -ieris or -iere, 


-abatur ; -abamur, 



-ebatur ; -ebamur, 



-ebatur ; -ebamur, 



-iebatur ; -iebamur, 




-abitur ', -abimur, 



-ebitur ; -ebimur, 



-etur ; -emur, 



-ietur ', -iemur, 



Subjunctive Mode. 
Present Tense. 



-e"ris or -ere, 

-etur ; 






-earis or -eare, 

-eatur ; 






-aris or -are, 

-atur J 






-iaris or iare, 

-iatur ; 







-arens or -arere, 







-ereris or -erere, 

-eretur ; 






-eberis or -erere, 







-Ireris or -Irere, 

-Iretur ; 




Imperative Mode. 






-are or -ator, 

-ator ; 




-ere or -etor, 

-etor ; 




-ere or -Ttor, 

-itor ; 




-Ire or -Itor, 

-Itor ; 



Observe. Verbs in io of the third conjugation have hint in the third 
person plur. of the present indie, active, and iuntur in the passive ; and 
so in the imperative, iunto and iuntor. In the imperfect and future of the 
indicative they ha?e always the terminations of the fourth conjugation 
iebam and iam ; iebar and iar, &c. 

The terminations of the other tenses are the same through all the Con- 
jugations. Thus, 


Indicative Mode. 


1. 2. 

-i, -isti, 
-gram, -eras, 

3. 1. 

-it ; -Imus, 
-erat; -eramus, 



-erunt or '-ere, 


-grim, -ens, 
-issem, -isses, 
-ero, -eris, 

Subjunctive Mode. 
-erit; -erimus, 
-isset ; -issemus, 
-erit ; -erimus, 







These Tenses, in the Passive Voice , are formed by the Participle Perfect* 
and the auxiliary verb sum, which is also used to express the Future of 
*ne Infinitive Active. , 


SUM is an irregular verb, and thus conjugated:. 

Pres. Indie. Pres. Infin. Perf. Indie. 

Sum, esse, fui. To be. 



Singular. Plural. 


Sum, / am, Sumus, We are, 

I 2 - 

Es, Thou art, or you are, Estis, Ye or you are, 


Est, He is; Sunt, They are. 


1. Eram, I was, Eramus, We were, 

2. Eras, Thou ivast, or you were, Eratis, Ye or you were, 

3. Erat, He was ; Erant, They were 

perfect, have been or was. 

1. Fui, J have been, Fuimus, We have been t 

2. Fuisti, Thou hast been, Fuistis, Ye have been. 

3. Fuit, He has been; Fuerunt, or -ere, They have been 

pluperfect, had been. 

1. Fueram, I had been, Fueramus, We had been, 

2. Fueras, Thou hadst been, Fueratis, Ye had been, 

3 Fuerat, He had been; Fuerant, They had been 

future, shall or will* 

1. Ero, I shall be, Erimus, We shall be, 

2. Ens, Thou wilt be, Eritis, Ye tvill be, 

3. Erit, He will be; Erunt, They will be. 

present tense, may or can. 
1. Sim, I may be, SImus, We may be, 

2 Sis, Thou mayest be, Sitis, Ye may be, 

3 Sit, He may be; Sint, They may be. 

* Shall and will are always employed to express future time. 

Will, in the first person singular and plural, promises or threatens ; in the 
second and third persons, only foretells : shall, on the contrary, in the first 
person, sinn^y foretells ; in the second and third persons, promises, com- 
mands, or threatens. But the contrary of this holds, when we ask a ques- 
tion ; thus," I shall go," "you. will go;" express event only ; but "will 
you go?" imports intention; and " shall I go ? " refers to the will of 


imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 
1 Essem, J might be, Essemus, We might be, 

2. Esses, Thou mightesi be, Essetis, Ye might be, 

3. Esset, He might be; Essent, They might be 

perfect, may have. 

1. Fuerim, I may have been, Fuerimus, We may have been t 

2. Fueris, Thou mayest have Fueritis, Ye may have been, 


3. Fuerit, He may have been; Fuerint, They may have been. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have; or had. 

1. Fuissem, / might have been, Fuissemus, We might have 

2. Fuisses, Thou mightest been, 

have been, Fuissetis, Ye might have been % 

3. Fuisset, He might have been; Fuissent, They might have been. 

future, shall have. 

1. Fuero, J shall have been, Fuerimus, We shall have been, 

2. Fueris, Thou wilt have been, Fueritis, Ye will have been, 

3. Fuerit, He will have been; Fuerint, They will have been 


2. Es or esto, Be thou, Este or Estote, Be ye, or be you. 

3. Esto, Let him be; Sunto, Let them be 


pres. Esse, To be, 

perf. Fuisse, To have been, 

fut. Esse futurus, -a, -um, To be about to be, 

Fuisse futurus, -a, um, To have been about to be. 


future. Futurus, -a, -um, About to be. 

Obs. 1. The personal pronouns, which in English are, for the most part, 
added to the verb, in Latin are commonly understood; because the several 
persons are sufficiently distinguished from one another by the different ter 
minations of the verb, though the persons themselves be not expressed. 
The learner, however, at first may be accustomed to join them with the 
verb ; thus, ego sum, I am ; tu es, thou art, or you are ; ille est, he is ; nos 
siimus, we are ; &c. So ego dmo, I love ; tu amas, thou lovest, or you 
love ; ille amat, he loveth or loves ; nos amdmus, we love ; &c. 

Obs. 2. In the second person singular in English, we commonly use the 
plural form, except in solemn discourse ; as, tu es, thou art, or much often- 
er, you are ; tu eras, thou wast, or you were ; tu sis, thou mayest be, or 
you may be ; &c. So, tu amas, thou lovest ; or you love ; tu amdbas, thoa 
lovedst, or vou loved ; &e. 





Pres. Ind. 


Pres. Inf. 

Perf. Ind. 


To lote 








Am-o, I love, 
Am-as, Thou lovest, 
Ain-at, He loves; 

love, do love, or am loving. 
Plur. Am-amus, We love, 

Am-atis, Ye or you lov* t 
Am-ant, They love. 









Am- a v it, 



Am-averunt or -avere, 














I iv as loving, 
Thou ivast loving, 
He was loving; 
We were loving, 
Ye or you were loving , 
They were loving. 

perfect, have. 

I have loved, 
Thou hast loved, 
He has loved; 
We have loved, 
Ye or you have loved, 
They have loved. 


I had loved, 

Thou hadst loved, 

He had loved; 

We had loved, 

Ye or you had loved. 

They had loved. 

future, shall or will. 

I shall love, 
Thou icilt love, 
He will love; 
We shall love, 
Ye or you will love, 
They will love. 




present tense, may or can. 

Sing Am-em, I may love, 

Am-es, Thou mayest love, 

Am-et, He may love; 

Plur. Am-emus, We may love, 

Am-etis, Ye or you may love, 

Am-ent, They may love. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should. 

Sing. Arn-arem, J might love, 

Am-ares, Thou mightest love, 

Am-aret, He might love; 

Plur. Am-aremus, We might love, 

Am-aretis, Ye or you might love, 

Am-arent, They might love. 

perfect, may have. 

Sing. Am-averim, I may have loved, 

Am-averis, Thou mayest have lovea, 

Am-averit, He may have loved; 

Plur. Am-averimus, We may have loved, 

Am-averitis, Ye or you may have loved } 

Am-averint, They may have loved 

pluperfect, might have. 

Sing. Am-avissem, / might have loved, 

Am-avisses, Thou mightest have loved, 

Am-avisset, He might have loved; 

Plur. Am-avissemus, We might have loved, 

Am-avissetis, Ye or you might have loved, 

Am-avissent, They might have loved. 

future, shall have. 

Sing, Am-avero, I shall have loved, 

Am-averis, Thou ivilt have loved, 

Am-averit, He will have loved; 

Plur. Am-averimus, We shall have loved, 

Am-averitis, Ye or you will have loved, 

Am-averint, They ivill have loved 




Am-a or am-ato, Love thou, or do thou love, 


Am-ate or am-atote, 


Let him love; 

Love ye, or do ye love, 

Let them love. 

To love. 

pres Am-are, 
perf. Am-avisse, 
fut Esse amaturus, -a, -um, 
Fuisse amaturus, -a, -um, 

To have loved. 

To be about to love. 

To have been about to love 

pres. Am-ans, 
fut. Am-aturus, -a, 

•TVom. Am-andum, 
Gen. Am-andi, 
Dat. Am-ando, 
Ace. Am-andum, 
JLbl. Am-ando, 

Former. Am-atum, 
Latter. Am-atu, 


-um, About to love. 


Of loving. 
To loving 
With loving. 


To love. 

To love, or to be loved. 






















esse or fuisse 



Pres. Indie. 


Pres. Infin. 

Perf. Part. 
amatus. To be loved 

* The form of the present subjunctive is often used for the imperative 
hi the first and third person ; as, amemus, let us love : anient let thein 




Sing. Am-or, / am loved, 

Am-aris or -are, Thou art loved, 

Am-atur, He is loved; 

Plur. Am-amur, We are loved, 

Am-amini, Ye or you are loved, 

Am-antur, They are loved 


Sing. Am-abar, / was loved, 

Am-abar is or -abare, Thou wast loved, 

Am-abatur, He ivas loved; 

Plm\ Am-abamur, We were loved, 

Am-abamini, Ye or you were loved, 

Am-abantur, They were loved. 

perfect, have been, was, or am. 

Sing. Amatus sum or fui, I have been loved, 

Amatus es or fuisti, Thou hast been loved, 

Amatus est or fuit, He has been loved; 

Plur. Amati sumus or fuimus, We have been loved, 

Amati, estis or fuistis, Ye or you have been loved 

Amati sunt or fuerunt or fuere, They have been loved. 

pluperfect, had been. 

Sing. Amatus eram or fueram, I had been loved, 

Amatus eras or fueras, Thou hadsl been loved, 

Amatus erat or fuerat, He had been loved; 

Plur. Amati eramus or fueramus, We had been loved, 

Amati eratis or fueratis, Ye or you had been loved 

Amati erant or fueram, They had been loved. 

future, shall or will be. 

Sing. Am-abor, / shall be loved, 

Am-aberis or -abere, Thou wilt be loved, 

Am-abltur, He ivill be loved; 

Plur. Am-abunur, We shall be loved, 

Am-abimini, Ye or you will be loved, 

Am-abuntur, They will be loved 



present tense, may, or can be 

Sing. Am-ei, J may be loved, 

Am-eris or -ere, Thou mayest be loved, 

Am-etur, He may be loved; 

Plur. Am-emur, We may be loved, 

Am-emini, Ye or you may be loved, 

Am-entur, They may be loved. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

Sing. Am-arer, J might be loved, 

Am-areris or -arere, Thou mightest be loved, 

Am-aretur, He might be loved; 

Plur. Am-aremur, We might be loved, 

Am-aremini, Ye or you might be loved, 

Am-arentur, They might be loved 

perfect, may have been. 

Sing. Amatus sim or fuerim, / may have been lovea, 

Amatus sis or fueris, Thou mayest have been loved, 

Amatus sit or fuerit, He may have been loved; 

Plur. Amati simus or fuerimus, We may have been loved, 

Amati sitis or mentis, Ye or you may have been loved, 

Amati sint or fuerint, They may have been loved. 

pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been. 

S. Amatus essem or fuissem, / might have been loved, 
Amatus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been loved 

Amatus esset or fuisset, He miglit have been loved; 

P. Amati essemus or fuissemus, We might have been loved, 
Amati essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have been loved 
Amati essent or fuissent, They might have been loved. 

future, shall have been. 

Sing. Amatus fuero, 1 shall have been loved, 

Amatus fueris, Thou ivilt have been loved, 

Amatus fuerit, He ivillhave been loved; 

Plur. Amati fuerimus, We shall have been loved, 

Amati mentis, Ye or you will have been loved, 

Amati fuerint, They will have been loved. 

Sing 2 Am-are, or am-ator, Be thou loved, 

3. Am-ator, Let him be loved; 

Plur. 2. Am-amini, Be ye loved, 

3. Am-antor, Let them be loved 


pres. Arn-ari, 

perf, Esse or fuisse amatus, 

fut. Amatum iri, 

To be loved, 
■a, -urn, To have been loved. 

To be about to be loved 


perf. Am-atus, -a, -um, 
fut. Am-andus, -a, -um, 


To be loved. 







sum or fui 

eram or 





amatus sim 
or fuerim 

essem or 

amatus fue- 



esse or fuisse 

amatum in 






Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Supine. 
Doceo, docere, docui, doctum. To teacn. 

present tense, teach, do teach, or am teaching. 

Sing. Doc-eo, 

Plur Doc-emus, 

Sing. Doc-ebam, 

Plur. Doc-ebamus, 

J teach, 

Thou teachest, or you teach. 

He teaches; 

We teach, 

Ye or you teach, 

They teach. 


I was teaching, 

Thou wast teaching. 

He was teaching; 

We were teaching, 

Ye or you were teaching, 

They were teaching 




Sing. Doc-ui, 


Plur . Doc-uimus, 


Doc-uerunt or -uere, 


Sing. Doc-ueram, 

Plur. Doc-ueramus, 


I have taught, 

Thou hast taught, 

He has taught; 

We have taught, 

Ye or you have taught , 

They have taught 


I had taught, 
Thou hadst taught, 
He had taught; 
We had taught, 
Ye or you had taught 9 
They had taught 

future, shall or will. 

Sing. Doc-ebo, 

Plur. Doc-ebimus, 

J shall teach, 
Thou wilt teach, 
He will teach; 
We shall teach, 
Ye or you will teach, 
They will teach 



Sing. Doc-eam, 

Plur. Doc-eamus, 

may or can. 

I may teach, 
Thou mayest teach, 
He may teach; 
We may teach, 
Ye or you may teach , 
They may teach. 

imperfect might, could, would, or should. 

Sing. Doc-erem, 

Plur. Doc-eremus, 

I might teach, 
Thou mightest teach, 
He might teach; 
We might teach, 
Ye or you might teach 
They might teach. 


perfect, may have. 

Sing Doc-uerim, 

Plur. Doc-uerimus, 

I may have taught, 

Thou mayest have taught, 

He may have taught; 

We may have taught, 

Ye or you may have taught * 

They may have-taught. 

pluperfect, might, could : 

would, or should have. 

Sing. Doc-uissem, 

Plur. Doc-uissemus, 

I might have taught, 
Thou mightest have taught, 
He might have taught; 
We might have taught, 
Ye or you might have taught 
They might have taught 

future shall have. 

Sing. Doc-uero, 

Plur. Doc-uerimus, 

I shall have taught, 
Thou wilt have taught, 
He will have taught; 
We shall have taught, 
Ye or you will have taught, 
They will have taught. 


Sing. 2. Doc-e or doc-eto, 

3. Doc-eto, 
Plur. 2. Doc-ete or doc-etote, 

3. Doc-ento, 

Teach thou, 
Let him teach ; 
Teach ye or you, 
Let them teach 


Pres. Doc-ere, 
Perf. Doc-uisse, 
Fut. Esse doc-turus, -a, -um, 
Fuisse doc-turus, -a, -urn, 

To teach. 

To have taught. 

To be about to teach 

To have been about to teach 

Pres. Doc-ens, Teaching. 
Fut. Doc-turus, -a, -um, About to teach. 

Nom Doc-endum, Teaching, 
Gen. Doc-endi, Of teaching, 
Dat. Doc-endo, To teaching, 
Jicc, Doc-endum, Teaching, 
Ml. Doc-endo, With teaching. 



Fanner. Doc-tum, 
Latter. Doc-tu, 

To teach 

To teach, or to be taught 





















doc u gram 





esse or fuisse 



Pres. Indie. 

Pres. Injin. Perf. Part. 




doctus. To be taugh 



Sing. Doc-eor, 

Doc-eris or doc-ere, 

Plur. Doc-emur, 



J am taught, 

Thou art taught, 

He is taught; 

We are taught, 

Ye or you are taught, 

They are taught. 


Sing. Doc-ebar, 

Doc-ebaris or doc-ebare, 

Plur„ Doc-ebamur, 



I was taught, 

Thou wast taught, 

He was taught; 

We were taught, 

Ye or you were taught, 

They were taught. 

perfect, have been, was, or am. 

Sing. Doctus sum or fui, 
Doctus es or fuisti, 
Doctus est or fuit, 

Plur. Docti sumus or fuimus, 
Docti estis or fuistis, 

I have been taught, 
Thou hast been taught, 
He has been taught ; 
We have been taught, 
Ye or you have been taught, 

Docti sunt or fuerunt or fuere, They have been taught 


pluperfect, had been. 

Sing. Doctus eram or fueram, I had been taught, 

Doctus eras or fueras, Thou hadst been taught, 

Doctus erat or fuerat, He had been taught; 

Plur. Docti eramus or fueramus, We had been taught, 

Docti eratis or fueratis, Ye or you had been taught 

Docti erant or fuerant, They had been taught. 
future, shall, or will be. 

Sing. Doc-ebor, / shall be taught, 

Doc-eberis or -ebere, Thou ivilt be taught, 

Doc-ebitur, He will be taught; 

Plur Doc-ebimur, We shall be taught, 

Doc-ebimini, Ye or you will be taught, 

Doc-ebuntur, They will be taught. 


present tense, may, or can be. 
Sing. Doc-ear, I may be taught, 

Doc-earis or -eare, Thou mayest be taught, 

Doc-eatur, He may be taught; 

Plur. Doc-eamur, We may be taught, 

Doc-eamini, Ye or you may be taught, 

Doc-eantur, They may be taught. 

imperfect, might, could, ivould, or should be. 
Sing. Doc-erer, J might be taught, 

Doc-ereris or -erere, Thou mightest be taught, 

Doc-eretur, He might be taught; 

Plur. Doc-eremur, We might be taught, 

Doe-eremini, Ye or you might be taught, 

Doc-erentur, They might be taught. 

perfect, may have been. 
Sing. Doctus sim or fuerim, J may have been taught, 

Doctus sis or fueris, Thou mayest have been taught, 
Doctus sit or fuerit, He may have been taught; 
Plur. Docti simus or fuerimus, We may have been taught, 

Docti sitis or fuentis, Ye or you may have been taught, 
Docti sint or fuerint, TJiey may have been taught. 
pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have been 
S. Doctus essem or fuissera, / might have been taught, 

Doctus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been taughz 
Doctus esset or fuisset, He might have been taught; 
P. Docti essemus or fuissemus, We might have been taught, 
Docti essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have been taught, 
Docti essent or fuissent, They might have been taught. 




Sing. Doctus fuero, 
Doctus fueris, 
Doctus fuerit, 

Plur. Docti fuerimus, 
Docti fueritis, 
Docti fuerint, 

shall have been. 
I shall have been taught, 
Thou wilt have been taught, 
He will have been taught ; 
We shall have been taught, 
Ye or you will have been taught, 
They will have been taught. 

Sing. 2. Doc-ere or doc-etor, Be thou taught, 

Let him be taught; 
Be ye taught, 
Let them be taught. 
Pres. Doc-ei, To be taught. 

Perf. Esse or fuisse doctus, -a, -urn, To have been taught. 
Fut. Doctum iri, To be about to be taught 

Perf. Doc-tus, -a, -urn, Taught. 

Fut. Doc-endus, -a, -urn, To be taught. 


3. Doc-etor, 
Plur. 2. Doc-emmi, 
3. Doc-entor, 






sum or fui 


eram or 




doctus sim 
or fuerim 

essem or 

doctus fue- 



esse or fuisse 

doctum iri 






Pres. Ind Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Supine. 
Lego, legere, legi, 


present tense, read, do read, or am reading. 

Sing. Leg-o, I read, 

lectum. To read 

Plur. Leg-Imus, 

Thou readest, 
He reads; 
We read, 
Ye or you read, 
They read 





Sing Leg-ebam, 

J was reading, 


Thou wast reading, 


He was reading; 

Plur Leg-ebamus, 

We were reading, 


Ye or you were readings 


They were reading. 



Sing. Leg-i, 

I have read, 


Thou hast ready 


He has read; 

Plur. Leg-imus, 

We have read, 


Ye or you have ready 

Leg-erunt or 


They have read. 



Sing. Leg-eram, 

I had read, 


Thou hadst read, 


He had read; 

Plur. Leg-eramus, 

We had read. 


Ye or you had read 


They had read 


future, shall, or will. 

Sing. Leg-am, 

I shall read, 


Thou wilt read. 


He will read; 

Plur. Leg-emus, 

We shall read, 


Ye or you will read, 


They will read. 



may, or can. 

Sing. Leg-am, 

I may read, 


Thou mayest read, 


He may read; 

Plur. Leg-amus, 

We may read, 


Ye or you may ready 


They may read. 


might, could, ivould, or should. 

Sing. Leg-erem, 

I might read, 


Thou mightest ready 


He might read; 

Plur. Leg-eremus, 

We might read, 


Ye or you might read 


TJiey might read 



Sing. Leg-erim, 

Plur Leg-erimus, 


Sing. Leg-issem, 

Plur. Leg-issemus, 

Sing. Leg-ero, 

Plur. Leg-erimus, 

perfect, may have. 

I may have read, 
Thou mayest have read, 
He may have read; 
We may have read, 
Ye or you may have read, 
They may have read, 
mighty could, would, or should have. 
I might have read, 
Thou mightest have read, 
He might have read; 
We might have read, 
Ye or you might have read, 
They might have read 
future, shall have. 

I shall have read, 
Thou ivilt have read, 
He will have read; 
We shall have read, 
Ye or you ivill have read, 
They will have read 
Sing. 2. Leg-e or leg-ito, Read thou, 

3. Leg-ito, Let him read; 

Plur. 2. Leg-ite or leg-itote, Read ye or you, 

3. Leg-unto, Let them read. 

Pres. Leg-ere, To read. 

Perf. Leg-isse, To have read. 

Fut. Esse lecturus, -a, -um, To be about to read. 

Fuisse lecturus, -a, -um, To have been about to read 
Pres. Leg-ens, Reading. 

Fut. Lec-turus, -a, -um, About to read. 


Of reading, 
To reading, 
With reading. 

To read. 

To read, or to be read* 

Nom. Leg-endum, 
Gkn. Leg-endi, 
Dat. Leg-endo, 
Rcc Leg-endum, 
Rbl Leg-endo, 

Former Lec-tum, 
Latter. Lec-tu, 

























lege ram 




esse or fuisse 



Pres. Indie 

Pres. Infin. 

Perf. Part. 
lectus. To be read. 



:. am 

Sing. Leg-or, 

Leg-eris or -< 

Plur. Leg-imur, 


I am read, 
Thou art read, 
He is read; 
We are read, 
Ye or you are ready 
They are read. 



Sing. Leg-ebar, 

Leg-ebaris or -ebare, 

Plur. Leg-ebamur, 



I ivas read, 
Thou wast read, 
He ivas read; 
We were read, 
Ye or you were read 
They were read. 

perfect, have been 

, was or am. 

Sing. Lectus sum or fui, 
Lectus es or fuisti, 
Lectus est or fuit, 

Plur. Lecti sumus or fuimus, 
Lecti estis or fuistis, 

I have been read, 
Thou hast been read, 
He has been read; 
We have been read, 
Ye or you have been read 

Lecti sunt or fuerunt or fuere. They have been read. 

had been. 

I had been read, 


bvng. Lectus eram or fueram, 
Lectus eras or fueras, 
Lectus erat or fuerat, 

Plur Lecti eramus or fueramus, 
Lecti eratis or fueratis, 
Lecti erant or fuerant, 

Thou hadst been read, 
He had been read; 
We had been read, 
Ye or you had been read, 
They had been read. 


future, shall, or will be. 


Sing. Leg-ar 

Leg-eris or -ere, 

Plur Leg-emur, 



J shall be read, 
Thou wilt be read, 
He will bz read; 
We shall be read, 
Ye or you will be read, 
They will be read 

present tense, may, or can be. 

Sing. Leg-ar, 

Leg-aris, or 

Plur. Leg-amur, 


J may be read, 
Thou mayest be read, 
He may be read; 
We may be read, 
Ye or you may be read, 
They may be read. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 

Sing. Leg-erer, 

Leg-ereris or -erere, 

Plur. Leg-eremur, 




I might be read, 

Thou might est be read, 

He might be read; 

We might be read, 

Ye or you might be read, 

They might be read. 

may have been. 

I may have been read, 
Thou mayest have been read, 
He may have been read; 
Plur Lecti simus or fuenmus, We may have been read, 

Lecti sitis or fueritis, Ye or you may have been read 
Lecti sint or fuerint, They may have been read. 

Sing. Lectus sim or fuerim, 
Lectus sis or fueris, 
Lectus sit or fuerit, 

pluperfect, might, could, ivould, or should have been. 

Lectus essem or fuissem, I might have been read, 

Lectus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been read, 

Lectus esset or fuisset, He might have been read; 

Lecti essemus or fuissemus, We might have been read, 

Lecti essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have been read, 

Lecti essent or fuissent, They might have been read. 



future, shall have been. 

Sing. Lectus fuero, J shall have been read, 

Lectus fueris, Thou wilt have been ready 
Lectus fuerit, He will have been read; 

Plur. Lecti fuerimus, We shall have been read 9 

Lecti mentis, Ye or you will have been read; 
Lecti fuerint, They will have been read. 


Sing. 2. Leg-ere or -itor, Be thou read, 

3. Leg-itor, Let him be read; 

Plur. 2. Leg-imini, Be ye read, 

3. Leg-untor, Let them be read 


Pres. Leg-i, To be read. 
Perf. Esse or fuisse lectus, -a, -um, To have been read. 
Fut. Lectum iri, To be about to be read 


Perf. Lec-tus, -a, -um, Read. 
Fut. Leg-endus, -a, -um, To be read. 



Imp erf. 




lege bar 

lectus sum 
or fui 

eram or 





lectus sim 
or fuerim 

essem or 

lectus fuero 



esse or fuisse 

lectum iri 




Pres. Ind. Pres. Inf. Perf. Ind. Supine. 

Capio, capere, cepi, captum. To tail 



Singular Plural. 
Capio, Capimus, 
Capis, Capitis, 
Capit; Capiunt 
















Ceperunt, or cepere. 



























Caper etis, 


















2. Cape or 

3. Caplto; 

capito, 2. Capite or capitote, 
3. Capiunto. 

Pres. Capere, 
Perf. Cepisse. 

Fut. Esse capturus, -a, -um. 
Fuisse capturus, -a, -urn. 


Present. Capiens. Future. Capturua. 

Nom. Capiendum, Ace. Capiendum, 

Gen. Capiendi, Abl. Capiendo, 

Dat. Capiendo, 

Former. Captum. Latter. Captu. 


Pres. Indie. Pres. Infin. Perf. Part. 

Capior, Capi, Captus. To ke taken. 


Singular. Plural. 

Capior, Capimur, 

Caperis or capere, Capimini, 

Capitur; Capiuntur. 


Capiebar, Capiebamur, 

Capiebaris or -bare, Capiebamini, 

Capiebatur; Capiebantur. 


Captus sum or fui, Capti sumus or fuimus, 

Captus es or fuisti, Capti estis or fuistis, 

Captus est or fuit; Capti sunt or fuerunt or file** 


Captus eram or fueram, Capti eramus or fuera»*u* 
Captus eras or fueras, Capti eratis or fuer^tis 
Captus erat or fuerat; Capti erant or <li3rant 


Capiar, Capiemur, 

Capieris or capiere, Capiemini, 

Capietur; Capientur. 



Capiar, Capiamur 

Capiaris or capiare, Capiammi 

Capiatur ; Capiantur 


Singular. Plural. 

Caperer, Caperemur, 

Capereris or -erere, Caperemini, 

Caperetur; Caperentur. 


Captus sim or fuerim, Capti simus or fuerimus, 

Captus sis or fueris, Capti sitis or fueritis, 

Captus sit or fuerit; Capti sint or fuerint. 


Captus essem or fuissem, Capti essemus or fuissemus 

Captus esses or fuisses, Capti essetis or fuissetis, 

Captus esset or fuisset; Capti essent or fuissent. 


Captus fuero, Capti fuerimus, 

Captus fueris, Capti fueritis, 

Captus fuerit; Capti fuerint. 

2 Capere or capitor, 2. Capimini, 

3. Capitor; 3. Capiuntor. 

Pres. Capi. Fut. Captum iri. 

Perf. Esse or fuisse captus, -a, -um. 
Perf. Captus, -a, -um. Fut. Capiendus, -a, -um, 



Pres. Indie. Pres. Injin. Perf. Indie. Supine. 

Audio, audire, audivi, auditum. To hear 

present tense, hear, do hear, or am hearing. 
Sing. Aud-io, J hear, 

Aud-is, Thou nearest, 

Aud-it, He hears; 

Plur. Aud-imus, We hear, 

Aud-itis, Ye or you hear, 

Aud-iunt, They hear. 




Sing. Aud-iebam, 

J was hearing, 


Thou wast hearing, 


He was hearing; 

Plur. Aud-iebamus, 

We were hearing, 


Ye or you were hearings 


They were hearing. 

perfect, have. 

Smg. Aud-ivi, 

I have heard, 


Thou hast heard, 


He has heard; 

Plur Aud-ivimus, 

We have heard, 


Ye or you have heard, 

Aud-iverunt or 

-ivere, They have heard. 

pluperfect, had 

Sing. Aud-iveram, 

I had heard, 


Thou hadst heard, 


He had heard; 

Plur. Aud-iveramus, 

We had heard, 


Ye or you had heard, 


They had heard. 

future, shall or will. 

Sing. Aud-iam, 

I shall hear, 


Thou wilt hear, 


He will hear; 

Plur. Aud-iemus, 

We shall hear, 


Ye or you will hear. 


They will hear. 


present tense, may or can. 

Sing. Aud-iam, 

I may hear, 


Thou mayest hear, 


He may hear; 

Plur. Aud-iamus, 

We may hear, 


Ye or you may hear, 


They may hear. 


might, could, would, or should. 

Sing. Aud-irem, 

I might hear, 


Thou mightest hear, 


He might hear; 

Plur. Aud-iremus, 

We might hear, 


Ye or you might hear, 


They might hear 







perfect, may have. 

Aud-iverim, / may have heard, 

Aud-iveris, Thou mayest have heard, 

Aud-iverit, He may have heard; 

Aud-iverlmus, We may have heard, 

Aud-iveritis, Ye or you may have heard t 

Aud-iverint, They may have heard. 
pluperfect, might, could, would, or should have. 

Aud-ivissem, I might have heard, 

Aud-ivisses, Thou mightest have heard, 

Aud-ivisset, He might have heard; 

Aud-ivissemus, We might have heard, 

Aud-ivissetis, Ye or you might have heard 

Aud-ivissent, They might have heard. 

future, shall have. 

Aud-ivero, / shall have heard, 

Aud-iveris, Thou wilt have heard, 

Aud-iverit, He ivill have heard; 

Aud-iverlmus, We shall have heard, 

Aud-iveritis, Ye or you will have heard* 

Aud-iverint, They will have heard. 


2. Aud-i or -ito, Hear thou, 

3. Aud-ito, Let him hear; 

2. Aud-ite or -itote, Hear ye or you, 

3. Aud-iunto, Let them hear. 

Pres. Aud-iens, 
Fut. Aud-iturus, 

Pres. Aud-ire, To hear. 

Perf. Aud-ivisse, To have heard. 

Fut Esse auditurus, -a, -um, To be about to hear. 

Fuisse auditurus, -a,-um, To have been about to hear 

-a, -um, About to heat. 


Of hearing, 
To hearing, 
With hearing. 


To hear. 

To hear, or to be htard. 

Nom Aud-iendum, 
Gen. Aud-iendi, 


Former. Aud-itum, 
Latter. Aud-Itu, 





' Subjunctive. 

Imper . ] Infinitive . 





audi audlre 


Imp erf. 














esse or fuisse 

1 audituru3 



Pres. Indie. Pres. Infin. 

Perf. Part. 



auditus. To be heard. 



Sing. Aud-ior, 

I am heard, 

Aud-iris or -ire, 

Thou art heard 9 


He is heard; 

Plur Aud-imur, 

We are heard, 


Ye or you are heard, 


They are heard. 


Sing. Aud-iebaj*, 

I was heard, 

Aud-iebaris or 


Thou wast heard, 


He was heard; 

Plitr. Aud-iebamur, 

We were heard, 


Ye or you were heard, 


They were heard. 


have been. 

Sing. Auditus sum or fui, 
Auditus es or fuisti, 
Auditus est or fuit, 

Plur. Auditi sumus or fuimus, 
Auditi estis or fuistis, 

J have been heard, 
Thou hast been heard, 
He has been heard; 
We have been heard, 
Ye or you have been heard, 

Auditi sunt or fuerunt or fuere, They have been heard. 
pluperfect, had been. 

Sing Auditus eram or fueram, 
Auditus eras or fueras, 
Auditus erat or fuerat, 

Plur Auditi eramus or fueramus, 
Auditi eratis or fueratis, 
Auditi erant or fuerant, 

I had been heard, 
Thou hadst been heard. 
He had been heard; 
We had been heard, 
Ye or you had been heard. 
They had been heard. 


future, shall, or will be. 

Sing Aud-iar, / shall be heard, 

Aud-ieris or -iere, 1 hou xoilt be heard, 

Aud-ietur, He will be heard; 

Plur. Aud-iemur, We shall be heard, 

Aud-iemmi, Ye or you will be heard, 

Aud-ientur, They will be heard. 

present tense, may, or can be. 
Sing Aud-iar, / may be heard, 

Aud-iaris, or -iare, Thou may est be heard, 

Aud-iatur, He may be heard; 

Plur. Aud-iamur, We may be heard, 

Aud-iammi, Ye or you may be heard, 

Aud-iantur, They may be heard. 

imperfect, might, could, would, or should be. 
Sing Aud-irer, I might be heard, 

Aud-ireris or -irere, Thou mightest be heard, 

Aud-iretur, He might be heard; 

Plur Aud-iremur, We might be heard, 

Aud-iremini, Ye or you might be heard 

Aud-irentur, They might be heard. 

perfect, may have been. 
Sing. Auditus sim or fuerim, I may have been heard, 

Auditus sis or fueris, Thou mayest have been heard, 
Auditus sit or fuerit, He may have been heard; 
Plur Auditi simusorfuenmus, We may have been heard, 

Auditi sitis or fuentis, Ye or you may have been heard, 
Auditi sint or fuerint, They may have been heard. 
pluperfect, might, could, ivould, or should have been. 
S. Auditus essem or fuissem, J might have been heard, 

Auditus esses or fuisses, Thou mightest have been heard t 
Auditus esset or fuisset, He might have been heard; 
P, Auditi essemus or fuissemus, We might have been heard, 
Auditi essetis or fuissetis, Ye or you might have been heard, 
Auditi essent or fuissent, They might have been heard 
future, shall have been. 
Sing. Auditus fuero, I shall have been heard, 

Auditus fueris, Thou wilt have been heard, 

Auditus fuerit, He will have been heard; 

Plur. Auditi fuerimus, We shall have been heard, 

Auditi fueritis, Ye or you will have been heard, 

Auditi fuerint, They will have been heard 




Sing 2. Aud-ire or -Itor, Be thou heard, 

3. Aud-itor, Let him be heard; 

Plur 2. Aud-imini, Be ye heard, 

3. Aud-iuntor, Let them be heard 


Pres. Aud-iri To be heard. 

Perf Esse or fuisse audltus, -a, -urn, To have been heard. 

Fut. Audltum iri. To be about to be heard 


Perf. Aud-Itus, 


Fut. Aud-iendus, 

To be heard. 













Imp erf. 





audTtus sim 

esse or fuisse 


sum or fui 

or fuerirn 



eram or 

essem or 



audltus fue- 

audltum iri 



There are four principal parts of a verb, from which all the 
rest are formed; namely, of the present, J of the perfect in- 
dicative, RE of the infinitive, and TIM of the supine.* A verb 
is commonly said to be conjugated when only these parts are 
mentioned, because from them all the rest are derived. 

The first person of the Present indicative is called the 
Theme, or the Root of the verb; because from it the other 
mree principal parts are formed 

All the letters which come before -are, -ere, -ere, or -Ire, 
9f the infinitive, are called radical letters, because they al- 
ways remain the same. By putting these before the termina* 
{ions, all the parts of any regular verb may be readily formed, 
except the compound tenses. 

* 1. From o are formed a?n and em. 

2 From i; ram, rim ro, sse, and ssem 

3. U, us, and rus, are formed from um 

4. All other parts from re do come 



Indicative Mode. 

The Imperfect is formed from the present by changing o, in 
the first conjugation, into abam; as, am-o, -abam; in the sec- 
ond, into 6am; as, doc-eo, -ebam; in the third and fourth, into 
ebam; as, leg-o, -ebam; audi-o, -ebam. 

The Pluperfect is formed from the perfect by changing i into 
eram; as, amdv-i, -cram; docu-i, -eram. 

The Future is formed from the present by changing o, in the 
first conjugation, into dbo ; as, am-o, -dbo; in the second, into 
bo; as, doc-eo, -ebo ; in the third and fourth into am; as, leg-o, 
-am; audi-o, -am. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

The Present is formed from the present indicative by chang- 
ing o, in the first conjugation, into em; as, am-o, -em; in the 
second, third, and fourth, into am; as, doce-o, -am; leg-o 9 
Him; audi-o, -am. 

The Imperfect is formed from the present infinitive by add- 
ing m; as, amdre, amdrem. 

The Perfect is formed from the perfect indicative by chang- 
ing % into erim; as, amdv-i, -erim. 

The Pluperfect is formed from the perfect indicative by 
changing i into issem; as, amdv-i, -issem. 

The Future is formed from the perfect indicative by chang- 
ing i into ero; as, amdv-i, -ero. 

Imperative Mode. 

The Present is formed from the present infinitive by taking 
away re; as, amare, ama ; docere, doce. 
Infinitive Mode. 

The Present is formed from the present indicative by chang- 
ing o, in the first conjugation, into are; as, am-o, -are; in the 
second and fourth into re; as, doce-o, -re; audi-o, -re; in the 
third by changing o or io into ere; as, leg-o, -ere; cap-to, -ere 

The Future is formed from the supine, by changing m into 
rus and adding esse or fuisse; as, amatu-m, -rus, esse or fuisst 

The Perfect is formed from the perfect indicative by chang- 
ing i into isse; as, amav-i, -isse. 

The Gerunds are formed from the participle present by 
changing s into dum, di, and do. 

The Participle Present is formed from the present indicative 
by changing o in the first conjugation, into ans; as, am-o, 


-am; in the second, into ns; as, doce-o, -ns; in the third and 
fourth, into ens; as, lego, -ens; audi-o, -ens. 

The Participle Future is formed from the Supine by chang 
ing m into rus; as, amatu-m, -rus 


The tenses of the Indicative and Subjunctive modes are 
formed from those of the active that end in o, by adding r; or 
from those that end in m, by changing m into r; as, amo, 
amem; amor, amer. 

The Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative, and the Perfect, Plu- 
perfect, and Future Subjunctive, are composed of the perfect 
participle declined with the tenses of the verb sum. 

The Imperative is the same as the infinitive active. 

The Infinitive Present is formed from the active by changing 
e in the first, second, and fourth conjugations, into i; as, 
amar-e, amar-i; docer-e, doceri; audW-e, aud'tri; and in the 
third, ere, into i; as, leg-ere, legi. 

The Infinitive Future is composed of the former supine and 
in; * as, amatum iri. 

The Perfect Participle is formed from the former supine by 
changing m into s; as, amatum, amdtus. 

The Future Participle is formed from the present active by 
changing s into dus; as, amans } amandus. 


The tenses formed from the present of the indicative or infinitive, sig- 
nify in general the continuance of an action or passion, or represent them 
as present at some particular time : the other tenses express an action 
or passion completed ; but not always so absolutely, as entirely to ex- 
clude the continuance of the same action or passion; thus, Amo, I love, 
do love, or am loving; amdbam, I loved, did love, or was loving, &c. 

Amdvi, I loved, did love, or have loved, that is, have done with lov- 
ing, &c. 

In like manner, in the passive voice; Amor, I am loved, I am in lov- 
ing, or in being loved, &c. 

Past time in the passive voice is expressed several different ways, by 
means of the auxiliary verb sum, and the participle perfect; thus: 

Indicative Mode. 
Perfect. Amdtus sum, I am, or have been loved, or oftener, I was loved. 

Amdtus fui, I have been loved, or I was loved. 
Pluperfect. Amdtus eram, I was, or had been loved. 
Amdtus fuer am, I had been loved. 
Subjunctive Mode. 
Perfect. Amdtus sim, I may be, or may have been loved. 
Amdtus fuerim, I may have been loved. 

* Iri is the infinitive passi\e of eo 


Pluperfect. Amatus essem, I might, could, would, or should be, or have 

been loved. 
Amatus fuisserrij I might, could, would, or should har 8 been 

loved ; or I had been loved. 
Future. Amatus fuiro, I shall have been loved. 

The verb sum is also employed to express future time in the indicative 
mode, both active and passive ; thus : 
Amaturus sum, 1 am about to love, I am to love, I am going to love, 

or I will love. We chiefly use this form, when some purpose or 

intention is signified. 
Amatus ero, I shall be loved. 

Obs. 1. The participles amatus and amatiirus are put before the auxiliary 
verb, because we commonly find them so placed in the classics. 

Obs. 2. In these compound tenses the learner should be taught to vary 
the participle like an adjective noun, according to the gender and number 
of the different substantives to which it is applied ; thus, amatus est, he 
is or was loved, when applied to a man; umdta est, she was loved, when 
applied to a woman ; amdtum est, it was loved, when applied to a thing ; 
amdti sunt, they were loved, when applied to men, &c. The connecting 
of syntax, so far as is necessary, with the inflection of nouns and verbs, 
seems to be the most proper method of teaching both. 

Obs. 3. The past time and participle perfect in English are taken in 
different meanings, according to the different tenses in Latin which they 
are used to express. Thus, "I loved, " when put for amdbam, is taken 
in a sense different from what it has when put for amdvi ; so amor, and 
amatus sum, I am loved ; amdbar and amatus eram, I was loved ; amer, 
and amatus sim, &c. In the one, loved is taken in a present, in the 
other, in a past sense. This ambiguity arises from the defective nature 
of the English verb. 

Obs. 4. The tenses of the subjunctive mode may be variously rendered, 
according to their connexion with the other parts of a sentence. They 
are often expressed in English as the same tenses of the indicative, and 
sometimes one tense is apparently put for another. 

Thus, Quasi intelligant, quails sit, As if they understood, what kind 
of person he is. Cic. In facinus jurdsse putes, You would think, &c. Ov 
Eloquar an sileam? Shall I speak out, or be silent? jXec vos arguerim, 
Teucri, for arguam. Virg. Si quid tefugerit, ego perierim, for peribc. Ter. 
Hunc ego si potui tantmn sperdre dolorem; Et perferre, soror, potero . 
for potuisscm and possem. Virg. Singula quid refer am? Why should 1 
mention every thing'? Id. Prtediccres mihi, You should have told me 
before hand. Ter. "At tu dictis, Albdne, maneres, Ought to have stood to 
your word. Virg. Citius, crediderim, I should sooner believe. Juv. Eau~ 
serit ensis, The sword would have destroyed. Virg. Fuerint irdti, Grant 
or suppose they were angry. Si id fecisset, If he did or should do that. 
Cic. The same promiscuous use of the tenses seems also to take place 
sometimes in the indicative and infinitive ; and the indicative to be pi t 
for the subjunctive ; as, Animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit, for 
rejugit. Virg. Fucrat melius, for fuisset. Id. Invidiai dilapsa erat, for 
fuisset. Sail. Quamdiu in portum venis? for venisti. Plant. Quam 
mox navigo Ephesum, for navigdbo. Id. Tu si hie sis, allter scntias. 
Ter. for esses and sentires. Cato affirmat, se vivo, ilium non trium- 
phdre, for triumphaturum esse. Cic. P&rsuddet Castleo, ut nccupdret, 
for occvpet. Cass. 


Obs. 5. The future of the subjunctive, and also of the indicative, is 
often rendered by the present of the subjunctive in English; as, nisi hoe 
faciet f oifecerit, unless he do this. Ter. 

Obs. 6. Instead of the imperative we often use the present of the sub- 
junctive ; as, valeas, farewell ; hue venias, come hither, &c. And also 
the future both of the indicative and subjunctive; as, non occldes, do not 
kill; ne feceris, do not do; valebis meque amdbis, farewell, and love 
me. Cic. 

The present time and the preter-imperfect of the infinitive are both 
expressed under the same form. All the varieties of past and future time 
are expressed by the other two tenses. But in order properly to exem- 
plify the tenses of the infinitive mode, we must put an accusative, and 
some other verb before each of them ; thus : 

Dicit me scribere; he says that I write, do write, or am writing. 

Dixit me scribere; he said that I wrote, did write, or was writing. 

Dicit me scripsisse ; he says that I wrote, did write, or have written. 

Dixit me scripsisse ; he said that I had written. 

Dicit me scripturum esse ; he says that I will write. 

Dixit n^s scripturos esse; he said that we would write. 

Dicit nos scripturos fuisse ; he says that we would have written. 

Dicit litems scribi; he says that letters are written, writing, or in writing. 

Dixit litems scribi ; he said that letters were writing, or written. 

Dicit liter as scripias esse ; he says that letters are, or were written. 

Dicit literas scriptas fuisse ; he says that letters have been written. 

Dixit literas scriptas fuisse ; he said that letters had been written. 

Dicit literas scriptum iri ; he says that letters will be written. 

Dixit literas scriptum iri; he said that letters would be written. 

The future, scriptum iri, is made up of the former supine, and the in 
finite passive of the verb eo, and therefore never admits of any variation. 

The future of the infinitive is sometimes expressed by a periphrasis, or 
circumlocution ; thus, scio fore or futurum esse ut scribant, — ut litlra 
scribantur ; I know that they will write, — that letters will be written 
Scivi fore or futurum esse ut scriberent, — ut literal, scriberentur ; I knew 
that they would write, &c. Scivi futurum fuisse ut literal scriberentur ; 
1 knew that letters would have been written. This form is necessary in 
verbs which want the supine. 

Obs. 7. The different tenses, when joined with any expediency or ne 
cessity, are thus expressed : 

Scribendum est mild, puero, nobis, &c. literas ; I, the boy, we, &c. must 

write letters. 
Scribendum fuit mihi, puero, nobis, &c. I must have written, &c. 
Scribendum erit mihi ; I shall be obliged to write. 
Scio scribendum esse mihi literas; I know that I must write letters. 

■ — — scribendum fuisse mihi ; that I must have written. 

Dixit scribendum fore mihi; he said that I should be obliged to write. 

Or with the participle in dus : 

Literal sunt scribendai mihi, pulro, hominXbus, &e. or, a me, pu$ro, &c. 
letters are to be, or must be written by me, by the boy, by men, &c. 
So, liUrai scribendai erant, fuerunt, erunt, &c. JSi lit&ne scribenda sint, 
essent, forent, &c. Scio literas scribendas esse; I know that letters 
are to oe, or must be written. Scivi literas scribendas fuisse ; I knew 
that letters ought to have been or must have been written. 



1. Compound and simple verbs form the preterite and su- 
pine in the same manner; as, 

Vbco, vocavi, vocatum, to call; so, revccc i revocavi, revocdr 
turn, to recall. 

Exc. 1. When the simple verb in the preterite doubles the 
first syllable of the present, the compounds lose the former 
syllable; as, pello, pepuli, to beat; repello, repuli, never re- 
pepuli, to beat back. But the compounds of do, sto, disco, 
and po sco, follow the general rule; thus edisc", edidici, to get 
by heart; deposco, depoposci, to demand: so, prcecurro, prcecu- 
curn; repungo, repupugi. 

Exc 2. Compounds which change a of the simple verb 
into i, have e in the supine: as, facio. feci, factum, to make; 
perficio, perfeci, perfectum, to perfect. But compound verbs 
ending in do and go ; also the compounds of hdbeo, pldceo, 
sdpio, sdlio, and sttituo, observe the general rule. 

2. Verbs which want the preterite, want likewise the su- 


First Conjugation. 

Verbs of the first conjugation have dvi in the preterite, and 
atum in the supine ; as, 

Creo, credvi, credtum, to create; pdro, pdrdvi, pdrdtum, to prepare. — So, 
Abundo, to abound. Aro, to plough. Calceo, to put on shoes, 

Accuso, to charge with Ascio, to cut, or hew. to shoe. 

a crime. Assevero, to affirm. Calcitro, to kick. 

Adumbro, to shade, to Ausculto, to listen. Calco, to tread. 

delineate. Auctorc, to engage for Callgo, to be dark, or 

iEdlfico, to build. service. dim-sighted. 

iEstimo, to value. Autumo, to suppose. Carmino, to card wool 

Ambulo, to walk. Averrunco, to avert. Castigo, to chastise. 

Amplio, to enlarge, to Bajulo, to carry. Castro, to cut off. 

put off a cause. Balo, to bleat. Celebro, to make fa- 

Ammo, to encourage. Basio, to kiss. mous. 

Anticipo, to anticipate. Beilo, to war. Celo, to conceal. 

Antique, i. e. antiqua Beo, to bless. Centurio, <^ concentu- 

prooc), to reject a Blatero, to babble. rio, to divide into 

law. Boo, to bellow. companies. 

Appello, to call. Bululo, to hoot like an Certo, to strive, to fight. 

Appropinquo, to ap- owl. Cesso, to cease. 

proach. Caco, to go to stool. Ola mo, to cry. 

Arieto, to push like a Caoco, to blind, or daz- Claudico, to limp. 

ram. zle. Coagulo, to curdle. 

Apto, to fit Caelo, to carve. Cfigito, to think. 





CollTneo, to aim at, to 

hit the mark. 
Colo, to strain. 
Communico, to impart. 
Comparo, to compare. 
Ucmpenso, to make 

Cornperendino, to put 

off a cause to the day 

after to-morrow. 
Oompllo, to pile up, to 

pillage. [reconcile. 

Concilio, to gain, to 
Concordo, to agree. 
Confuto, refuto, to dis 

Congelo, to freeze. 
Considero, to consider. 
Contamlno, to pollute. 
Copulo, to couple. 
Corrugo, to wrinkle. 
Coruseo, to brandish 
Cremo, to burn. 
Creo, to create. 
Cribro, to sift. 
Crispo, to curl. 
Crucio, to torment. 
Curo, to care. 
Darnno, to condemn. 
Decimo, to take the 

tenth part, or punish 

every tenth man. 
Declaro, to declare. 
Dec olio, to loose a thing 

from off the neck, to 

Decoro, to adorn. 
Decurio, to divide sol- 
diers into files or 

small companies, or 

citizens into wards 
DedTco, to dedicate. 
Delecto, to delight. 
Dellbero, to deliberate. 
Delineo, to trace, to 

chalk out. 
Dellro, to doat, to rave. 
Delumbo, to weaken. 
Desidero, to deiire. 
Desolo, to lay waste 
Destino, to destine. 
Dico, to dedicate. 
Discepto, dispute, to 


DissTpo, to scatter. 

Dolo, to hew, or cut. 

Dono, to present. 

Duplico, to double. 

Educo, to bring up. 

Ejulo, to wail, to weep. 

Emancipo, to free a son 
from the power of his 

Emendo, to amend. 

Enucleo, to take out the 
kernel, to explain. 

Enodo, to unknit, to ex- 

Equito, to ride. 

Erro, to wander. 

Ex ami no, to examine, 
to try. 

Exantlo, to empty, to en- 

Exaro, to plough up, to 
scrawl, to write fast. 

Exentero, to take out 
the guts. 

Existlmo, to think. 

Exploro, to search. 

Extrlco, to disentangle. 

Fabrlco, to frame. 

Fasclno, to bewitch. 

Fatlgo, to weary. 

Fermento, to leaven 
with dough, to fer- 

Festlno, to hasten. 

Flag! to, to dun. 

Flagro, to be on fire. 

Flo, to blow. 

Focillo, refocillo, to 
cherish, to warm. 

Fodico, to pierce, or 

Foro, to bore. 

Fortuno, to prosper. 

Fragro, to smell sweetly. 

Fraudo, to defraud. 

Frio, to crumble. 

Frustro, fy -or, to disap- 

Fiico, to colour, to paint. 

Fugo, to put to flight. 

Fundo, to found. 

Genero, to beget 

Gravo, to weigh doton. 

Guberno, to govern. 

Gusto, to taste. 
Habito, to dwell. 
Hsesito, to doubt. 
Halo, to breathe. 
Hio, to gape. 
Honoro, to honour, 
Jacto, to boast, to brag 
Jen to, to breakfast. 
Ignoro, to be ignorant. 
lmmolo, to sacrifice, 
Impero, to command. 
Impetro, to obtain. 
Inauro, to gild. 
Inchoo, to begin. 
Incllno, to incline. 
Indago, to trace out. 
Indico, to shoio. 
Inquino, to pollute. 
Ins pled 7 to sharpen at the 

Instauro, to renew. 
Instlgo, to push on. 
Intercalo, to insert one 

or more days, to make 

the year agree with the 

course of the sun. 
Intro, to enter. 
Invito, to invite. 
Irradio, to shine upon. 
Irrlto, to provoke. 
Itero, to do again. 
Jubilo, to shout for joy. 
Jurgo, <$/* -or, to chide, ot 

Juro, to swear. 
Laboro, to labour. 
Lacero, to tear. 
Lachrymo, fy -or, te 

Laevigo, to smooth, ox 

Lallo, to sing as a mtrst 

to a child. 
Lanio, to tear. 
Latro, to bark. 
Laxo, to loose. 
Lego, to send as an am 

bassador, to bequeath 
Levo, to lighten. 
Llbo, to taste. 
Llbero, tofre? 
Ligo, to ohm 
Ltquo, to melt. 
Lltigo, to quarrel 





Lito, to appease by sa- 

Liicubro, to sit up late to 

Lustro, to survey. 

Luxo, to put out of 

Macto, to slay, to sacri- 

Mando, to command, to 

Mano, to flow. 

Maturo, to hasten. 

Medico, fy -or, to cure. 

Merroro, to tell. 

Meo, to go, or pass. 

Meridio, fy -or, to sleep 
at notyn 

Migro, to remove. 

Milito, to be a soldier. 

Ministro, to serve. 

Mltigo, to pacify. 

Monstro, to show, or 

Mulco, to beat. 

Multo, <$/• -cto, to fine. 

Musso, fy -Ito, to mutter. 

Mutllo, to maim. 

Muto, to change. 

Narro, to tell. 

Nauseo, to be sea-sick. 

Navlgo, to sail. 

Navo, to act vigorously. 

Nego, to deny. 

Nicto, to wink. 

No, to swim. 

Nodo, to knot; rarely 

Nomino, to name. 

No to, to mark. 

Novo, to renew. 

Nitdo, to make bare. 

Numero, to count. 

Nuncupo, to call. 

Nuntio, to tell. 

No to, to nod. 

Obsecro, to beseech. 

Obsero, to lock. 

Obtempero, to obey. 

Obtrunco, to kill. 

Obturo, to stop up. 

Occo, to harrow. 

Odoro, to perfume 

Onero, to load. 

Opto to wish 

Orbo, to deprive. 

Ordino, to put in order. 

Orno, to deck, to adorn. 

Oro, to beg. 

Oscito, fy -or, to yawn, 
to be listless. 

Paco, to subdue. 

Palpito, to beat, or 

Palpo, to stroke, to gain 
by flattery. 

Parento, to perform fu- 
neral rites, to revenge. 

Paro, to prepare. 

Patro, to perform. 

Pecco, to sin. 

Penetro, to pierce. 

Perse vero, to continue 

Pio, to expiate. 

Placo, to appease. 

Ploro, to bewail. 

Porto, to carry. 

Postulo, to demand. 

Prlvo, to deprive. 

Probo, to approve. 

Procrastino, to delay. 

Profligo, to rout. 

Promulgo, to publish. 

Propago, to propagate. 

Propero, to hasten. 

Proplno, to dr^nk to. 

Protelo, to chase aicay. 

Publico, to publish, to 

Pugno, to fight. 

Pullulo, to bud. 

Purgo, to cleanse. 

Puto, to think. 

Quadro, to square. 

Recupero, to recover. 

Recuso, to refuse. 

Refrlgero, to cool. 

Regelo, to thaw. 

Reparo, to repair. 

Repraesento, to resem- 
ble, to show ; to pay 
money in advance. 

Resero, to unlock. 

Rigo, to water. 

Rogo, to ask. 

Roto, to icheel about. 

Ructo, ^ -or, to belch. 

Rumi no, to chew the 

Runco, to weea 
Sacro, to conseoate. 
Saglno, to fatten. 
Sallvo, to spit, or slaver 
Salto, to dance. 
Saluto, to salute. 
Sano, to heal. 
Satio, to satisfy. 
Saturo, to fill, to glut. 
Scarifico, to lance, or 

Screo, to hawk, or retch 

in spitting. 
Secundo, to prosper, 
Sedo, to allay. 
Separo, to sever. 
Servo, to keep. 
Sibilo, to hiss. 
Si ceo, to dry. 
Signo, to mark out. 
Significo, to mean, to 

give notice. 
Simulo, to pretend. 
Socio, to match, to join. 
Solicito, to stir up, tt 

Somnio, to dream. 
Specto, to behold. 
Spero, to hope. 
Splro, to breathe. 
Spolio, to rob. 
Spumo, to foam. 
Stagno, to stand as no*- 

Stdlo, to drop. 
Stimulo, to goad, to 

Stlpo, to stuff, to guard. 
Strangulo, to stifle. 
Strigo, to breathe, or rest 

in work, as oxen or 

horses do. 
Sudo, to sweat. 
Suffoco, to strangle. 
Suffoco to burn incense, 
Sugillo, to taunt, ox jeer. 
Sulco, to furrow. * 

Supero, to overcome. 
Suppedito, to afford 
Susurro, to whisper. 
Tardo, to stop. 
Taxo, to rate, to reprom 
Temero, to defile. 
Tempero, to temper. 
Tenuo, to make imaU. 


TSrebro, to lore. Vaeo, to want, to be at Vigilo, to watch, 
Termino, to bound. leisure. Vindico, to claim, to r& 

Titillo, to tickle. Vasto, to lay waste. venge. 

Titubo, to stagger. Vellico, to pluck, twitch, Violo, to violate, 
Tolero, to bear. or pinch; to taunt, or Vitio, to spoil. 

Trano, to swim over. rait at. Vlto, to shun. 

Tripudio, to caper. Velo, to cover. Vltupero, to blame. 

Triumpho, to triumph. Ventilo, to fan. Voco, to call. 

Trucldo, to kill. Verbero, to whip. Volo, to fly. 

Turbo, to disturb. Vest! go, to search for. Voro, to devour. 

Ululo, to howl. Vibro, to brandish, to Vulgo, to spread 
Umbro, to shade. shake. abroad. 

Vacillo, to waver. Viduo, to deprive. Vulnero to wound. 

Exc. 1. Do, dedi, datum, dare, to give: so, venundo, to sell; 
circundo, to surround; pessundo, to overthrow; satisdo, to give 
surety; venundedi, venundatum, venunddre, &c. The other 
compounds of do are of the third conjugation. 

Sto, steti, statum, to stand. Its compounds have stiti, stitum, 
and oftener statum; as, prcesto, prozstiti, prcestiium, or preestd- 
tum, to excel, to perform. So, ad-, ante-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-, 
per-, pro-, re-sto, 

Exc. 2. Lavo, Ictvi, lotum, laulum, lavdtum, to wash. 

Poto, potavi, pbtum, or potdtum, to drink. 

Juno, juvi, jutum, to help; fut. part, juvaturus. So, adjuvo 

Exc. 3. Cubo, cubui, cubitum, to lie down. So, ac-, ex- 9 
in-, oc-, re-cubo. These and the other compounds insert an 
m, and are of the third conjugation; except ex-cubo. 

Domo, domui, domitum, to subdue. So, e-, per-domo, 

Sono, sonui, sonitum, to sound. So, as-, circum-, con-, dis-, 
ex-, in-, per-, proz-. re-sono. 

Tono, tonui, tonitum, to thunder. So, at-, circum-, in-, 
superin-, re-tono. Horace has intondtus. 

Veto, veiui, vetitum, to forbid. 

Crepo, crepui, crepitum, to make a noise. So, con-, in-, 
per-, re-crepo: discrepo has rather discrepdvi. 

Exc. 4. Frico, fricui, frictum, to rub. So, of-, circum-, 
con-, de-, ef-, in-, per-, re-frico. But some of these have also 

Seco, secui-, sectum, to cut. So, circum-, con-, de-, dis-. ex-, 
in-, inter-, per-, prcz-, re-, sub-seco. 

JYeco, necui, or necdvi, necdtum, to kill. So, inter-, e-neco, 
bat these have oftener ectum; enectum, internectum. 

Mico, micui, to glitter, to shine. So, inter-, prb-mico 

Emico has emicui, emicdtum: dlmico, dimicdvi, dimicdtum, rare- 
y dimtcui, to fight. 


Exc. 5. These three want both preterite and supine; labo, 
to fall, or faint; nexo, to bind; and plico, to fold. 

Plico, compounded with a noun, or with the prepositions 
re-, sub-, has avi, atum; as, duplico, dupltcavi, duplicatum, to 
double. So, multi-, sup-, re-plico. 

The other compounds of plico have either avi and atum, or 
u? and Hum; as, applico, appllcui, applicitum, or -am, -atum, 
to apply. So, im-, com-pltco. Explico, to unfold, has com- 
monly explicui, expllcitum; but when it signifies to explain, 
or interpret, explicavi, explicdtum. 

Second Conjugation. 

Verbs of the second conjugation have ui and itum; as, hoi 
bei\ habui, habitum, to have. So, 
Adhibeo. to admit, to use. Debeo, to owe. 

Cohibeo, inhibeo, to restrain. Mereo, to deserve: Com-, de-, e- 

Exhibeo, to show, to give. P er- > pro-mereo, or mereor. 

Perhibeo, to say, to give out. Mu'neo, to admonish : Ad-, com 

Prohibeo, to hinder. prae-moneo. 

Posthabeo, to value less. Terreo, to terrify: Abs-, con-, de 

Prbebeo, to afford. ex-, per-terreo. 

Redhibeo, to return, or take back a Dirlbeo, to count over, to distribute 
thing that was sold for some fault. 

Neuter verbs which have ui, want the supine; as, area 
drui, to be dry. So, 

Aceo, fy -esco, to be Frondeo, to bear leaves. Putreo, to rot. 

sour. Horreo, to be rough. Ranceo, to be mouldv. 

£ ,be , ' \to be white. Httnwo, to fe «>et. RTgeo, to be stiff. 

Candeo, ) lmmineo, to hang over. Kubeo, to be red. 

Calleo, to be hard,. Langueo, to languish. Squaleo, to befoul. 

Caneo, to be hoary. Liqueo, licui, to melt, to Sordeo, to he nasty. 

Clareo, to be bright. be clear. Studeo, to favour. 

Egeo, indigeo, to want. Maceo, to be lean. Sfupeo, to be amazed. 

Emineo, to stand above Madeo, to be wet. Splendeo, to shine. 

others. Marceo, to icither. Tepeo, to be warm. 

Flacceo, to wither. Muceo, to be mouldy. Torpeo, to be benumbed 

Flo>eo, to flourish. Niteo, to shine. Tumeo, to sic ell. 

Fieteo, to stink. Palleo, to be pale. Ylgeu, fr* be strong. 

Frendeo, to gnash the Pateo, to be open. Vireo, to be green. 

teeth. Puteo, to stink. 

But the neuter verbs which follow, together with their com 
pounds, havo the supine, and are regularly conjugated: Valeo 
to be in health; and cequi-, con-, e-, in-, proz-valeo: Pldcco, to 
please; and ccm-, per-placeo: Displiceo, to displease: Careo^ 
to want: Pareo, to appear, to obey; and ap-, com-pctreo: Jaceo^ 
to lie; and ad-, circum-, inter-, ob-, prce,-, sub-, super-jaceo: Ca* 
leo, to be warm: and con-, in-, ob-, per-, re-cdleo: JYoceo, to 


nurt: Doleo, to be grieved; and con-, de-, in-, per-doleo: Cod* 
lee, to grow together: Liceo, which in the active signifies to 
be lawful, to be valued; and, what is singular, in the passive, 
to bid a price: Ldteo, to lurk, the compounds of which want 
the supine, dellteo, inter-, sub-lateo: as likewise do those of 
Taceo, -cui, -citum, to be silent, con-, ob-, re-ticeo. 

These three active verbs likewise want the supine: Timeo, 
ui, to fear: Sileo, -ui, to conceal: Jlrceo, -cui, to drive away: 
but the compounds of arceo have the supine; as, exerceo, 
exercui exercitum, to exercise. So, coerceo, to restrain. 

Exc 1. The following verbs in BEO and CEO: 

Jiibeo, jussi, jussum, to order. So, fide-jubeo, to bail, or be 
surety for. 

Sorbeo, sorbui, sorptum, to sup. So, ab-sorbeo, to suck in; 
ex-, re-sorbeo. We also find absorpsi, exsorpsi: Exsorptum, 
resorptum, are not in use. 

Dbceo, docui, doctum, to teach. So, ad-, con-, de-, e-, per-, 

Misceo, miscui, mistum or mix turn, to mix. So, ad-, com-, 
im-, inter-, per-, re-mis ceo. 

Mulceo, mulsi, mulsum, to stroke, to soothe. So, ad-, cir- 
*um-, com-, de-, per-, re-mulceo. 

Luceo, luxi, —■ to shine. So, al-, circuin-, col-, di-, e- 

1-, inter-, per-, or pel-, prce-, pro-, re-, sub-, trans-luceo. 

Exc. 2. The following verbs in DEO: 

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, to dine. 

Video, vldi, visum, to see. So, in-, per-, prce-, pro-, re- 

Sedeo, sedi, sessum, to sit. So, as-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, ob-, 
per-, pos-, prce-, re-, sub-sideo: Circumsideo, or circumsedeo, 
super-sedeo. But de-, dis-, per-, prce-, re-, sub-sideo, seem U 
want the supine. 

Strldeo, strldi, to make a noise. 

Pendeo, pependi, pensum, to hang. So, de-, im-, pro-, super 

Mirdeo, momordi, morsum, to bite. So, ad-, com-, de-, ob- 
prce-, re-mordeo. 

Spondeo, spopondi, sponsum, to promise. So, de-, re-spondeo 

Tondto, totondi, tonsum, to clip. So, at-, circum-, de 

But the compounds of these verbs do not double the first 
syllable; thus, dependi, remordi, rtspondi, aitondi, &,c. 


Hideo, risi, visum, to laugh. So, ar-, de-, ir-, sub-rldeo. 

Suddeo, sudsi, suasum, to advise. So, dis-, per-suddeo 

Ardeo, arsi, arsum, to burn. So, ex-, in-, ob-ardeo 

Exc 3 The following verbs in GEO: 

Augeo, auxi, auctum, to increase. So, ad-, ex-augeo. 

Liigeo, luxi, to mourn. So, e-, pro-, sub-lugeo. 

Frlgeo,frixi, to be cold. So, per-, re-frlgeo.m 

Tergeo, tersi, tersum, to wipe. So, abs-, circum-, de-, ex- t 

Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, or mulctum, to milk. So, e-, hfr> 

Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, to grant, to indulge. 

Urgeo, ursi, to press. So, ad-, ex-, in-, per-, sub- 9 


Fulgeo, fulsi to shine. So, of-, circum-, con-, ef- 9 

inter-, proz-, re-, super-fulgeo. 

Turgeo, tursi, to swell. Mgeo, alsi, to be cold. 

Exc. 4. The following verbs in IEO and LEO: 

Vieo, vievi, vietum, to bind with twigs, to hoop a vessel. 

Cieo, (civi) citum, to stir up, to rouse. So, ac-, con-, ex- 9 
m-, per-cieo. Civi comes from cio of the fourth conjugation. 

Fleo, jlevi. jletum, to weep. So, of-, de-fleo. 

Compleo, complevi, completum, to fill. So, the other com- 
pounds ofpleo; de-, ex-, im-, adim-, op-, re-, sup-pleo. 

Deleo, delevi, deletum, to destroy, to blot out. 

Oleo, to smell, has olui, blitum. So, likewise, its compounds 
which have a similar signification; ob-, per-, red-, sub-oleo. 
But such of the compounds as have a different signification 
make evi and etum; thus, exoleo, exblevi, exbletum, to fade. 
So, tnoleo, -evi, -etum, or -Hum, to grow into use; obsoleo, -evi, 
etum, to grow out of use. Aboleo, to abolish, has dbolevi, 
abolUum; and adbleo, to grow up, to burn, adolevi, adidtum. 

Exc. 5. Several verbs in JYEO, QUEO, REO, and SEO. 

Maneo, mansi, mansum, to stay. So, per-, re-mdneo. 

Neo, nevi, netum, to spin. So, per-neo. 

Teneo, tenui, tentum, to hold. So, con-, de-, dis-, ob-, re-, 
$us-tineo. But attineo, pertineo, are not used in the supine; 
and seldom abstineo. 

Torqueo, torsi, tortum, to throw, to twirl, to twist. Thus 
ion-y de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, re-torqueo. 

Hozreo, hozsi, hcesum, to stick. Thus, ad-, con-, in-, ob* 

Torreo, torrui, tostum, to roast. So, ex-torreo 


Censeo, censui, censum, to judge. So, ac-, per-, re-censeo i 
to review; succenseo, to be angry. 

Exc. 6. Verbs in VEO have vi, turn; as, moveo, movt 
motum, to move; Foveo, fovi, fotum, to cherish. So, cow-, 
rc-foveo. So, voveo, to vow, or wish, and devoveo. 

Fdveo, to favour, has fdvi,faulum; and cdveo, to beware of, 
2a»i, caMum. So, prce-cdveo. 

Neuter verbs in veo want the supine; as, pdveo, pdvi, to be 

Feneo, to boil, to be hot, makes ferhui. So, de-, ef-, in- t 
&er~, re-ferveo. 

Conrilveo, to wink, has connlvi and connixi. 

Exc. 7. The following verbs want both preterite and su- 
pine: Lacteo, to suck milk; liveo, to be black and blue; 
scdteo, to abound; reiildeo, to shine; mozreo, to be sorrowful; 
aveo, to desire; polleo, to be able; Jidveo, to be yellow; denseo, 
to grow thick; glabreo, to be smooth, or bare. To thepe add 
calveo, to be bald; ceueo, to wag the tail, as dogs dc when 
they fawn on one; hebeo, to be dull; uveo, to be moist; and 
some others. 

Third Co7ijugation* 

Verbs of the third conjugation form their preterite and su 
pine variously, according to the termination of the present. 


1. Fdcio, feci, factum, to do, to make. So the compounds 
which retain a: lucri-, magni-, are-, call-, made-, tepe-,bene-, 
male-, sdtis-fdcio, &,c. But those which change a into i have 
ectum; as, afficio, ajfeci, affectum. So, con-, de-, ef, in-, inter-,, 
of-, per-, proz-, pro-, re-, suf-ficio. Note: Facio, compounded 
with a noun, verb, or adverb, retains a; but when compound- 
ed with a preposition, it changes a into i 

Some compounds of facio are of the first conjugation; as, 
Jlmpliflco , sacriflco, terrifico, magnifico ; gratificor, to gra- 
tify, or do a good turn, to give up; ludlficor, to mock. 

Jdcio, jeci, jactum, to throw. So, ah-, ad-, circum-, con-, 
de-, dis-, e-, in-, inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, superin- t 
tnt-jlcio ; in the supine -ectum. 

The compounds of specio and lacio, which themselves are 
not used, have exi and ectum; as, aspicio, aspexi, aspectum l 
to behold. So, circum-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, intro-, per-, pro 
re*, retro-, su-sptcio. 


Alltcio, allexi, allectum, to allure. So, il-, pel-ltcio; but 
elicio, to draw out, has elicui, elicitum. 

2. Fodio,fodi, fossum, to dig, to delve. So, ad-, circum- 
con- ef-, in,- inter-, per-, prce-, re-, suf-, trans-fodio. 

Fugio, fugi, fugitum, to fly. So, au-, (for ab-,) con-, de- } 
dif-, ef-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, subter-, trans-fugio. 

3. Cdpio, cepi, captum, to take. So, ac-, con-, de-, ex-, in*, 
inter-, cc-, per-, prce-, re-, sus-cipio, (in the supine -ceptum;) 
and ante-cdpio. 

Rdpio, rdpui, raptum, to pull, or snatch. So, ab-, ar-, cor-, 
de-, di-, e-, prce-, pro-, sur-ripio, -ripui, -reptum. 

Sdpio, sdpui, to savour, to be wise. So, conslpio, to 

be well in one's wits; desipio, to be foolish; resipio, to come 
to one's wits. 

Cupio, cupivi, cupltum, to desire. So, con-, dis-, per-cupio. 

4. Pario, peperi, paritum, or partum, to bring forth a child, 
to get. Its compounds are of the fourth conjugation. 

Qudtio, quassi, quassum, to shake; but quassi is hardly used 
Its compounds have cussi, cussum; as, concutio, concussi, con- 
cussum. So; de-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-, reper-, suc-cutio 

UO has ui, utum; as, 

Jirguo, argui, argutum, to show, to prove or argue, to re- 
prove. So, co-, red-arguo, to confute. So, 

Acuo, Exacuo, to sharpen. Statuo, to set or place, to ordain 

Batuo, or battuo, to beat, to fight , to Con-, de-, in-, prae-, pro-, re-, sub- 

fence with foils stituo. 

Induo, to put on clothes. Sternuo, to sneeze. 

Exuo, to put off clothes. Suo, to sew or stitch, to tack togeth 

Imbuo, to wet or imbue,, to season or er : As-, circurn-, con-, dis-, in- 

instruct. P ra9 -? re-suo. 

Minuo, to lessen: Com-, de-, di-, Tribuo, to give, to divide: At-, con- 

im-minuo. [spuo. dis-, re-tribuo. 

Spuo, to spit: Con-, de-, ex-, in- 

Exc. 1. Fluo, jluxi,jluxum, to Row. So, a f-,cir cum-, ccn~, 
de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-, per-, prceter-, pro-, re-, subter-, super-, 
trans -fluo. 

Struo, siruxi, structum, to put in order, to build. So, ad-, 
ctrcunt,-, con-, de~, ex-, in-, ob-, prcz-, sub-, super-struo. 

Exc. 2. Luo, lui, luitum, to pay, to wash away, to suiTei 

punishment. Its compounds have utum; as, abluo, -ui, -iitum s 

to wash away, to purify. So, al-, circurn-, col-, de-, di-, e- t 

inter-, p:r-, pol-, pro-, sub-luo. 

Ruo, rui, mitum, to rush, to fall. Its compounds have utuwtij 


as, diruo, dirui, dirutum, to overthrow. So, e-, ob-, pro-, sub* 
ruo. Corruo, and irruo, want the supine; as likewise do metuo 
to fear; pluo, to rain; ingruo, to assail; congruo, to agree; res* 
puo, to reject, to slight; annuo, to assent; and the other com- 
pounds of the obsolete verb nuo; abnuo, to refuse; innuo, to 
nod, or beckon with the head; renuo, to deny; all which have 
eu in the preterite. 

BO has bi, bituin; as, 

Bibo, bibi, bibitum, to drink. So, ad-, com-, e-, im-, per-, 

Exc. 1. Scribo, scripsi, scripium, to write. So, ad- circum-, 
con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, per-, post-, prce-, pro-, re-, sub-, 
super-, supra-, trans-scribo. 

JYitbo, nupsi, nuptum, to veil, to be married. So, de-, e-, in- 
ob-nubo. Instead of nupsi, we often find nupta sum. 

Exc. 2. The compounds of cubo in this conjugation insert 
an m before the last syllable; accumbo, accubui, accubitum, 
to recline at table. So, con-, de-, dis-, in-, oc-, pro-, re-, sue-, 
superin-cumbo, -cubui, -cubitum 

These two verbs want the supine; sedbo, scahi, to scm'ch; 
lambo, Iambi, to lick. So, ad-, circum-, de-, prce-lambo. 

Glubo, anddeglubo, to strip, to flay, want both pret. and snip. 


1. Dico, dixi, dictum, to say. So, ab-, ad-, con-, contra- 
e-, in-, inter-, prce-, pro-dlco. 

Duco, duxi, ductum, to lead. So^ ab-, ad-, circum-, con-, de-, 
di-, e-, in-, intro-, ob-, per-, prce-, pro-, re-, se-, sub-, tra-, 01 

2. Vinco, vici, victum, to overcome So, con-, de-, e-, per-, 

Par co, peperci, parsum, seldom parsi, parsitum, to spare. 
So, comparco, or comperco, which is seldom used. 

Ico, ici, ictum, to strike. 

SCO has vi, turn; as, 

Nosco, novi, notum, to know; fut. part, noscitiims. So, 
Dignosco, to distinguish; ignosco, Scisco, -Ivi, -Itum, to ordain; a<3 

to pardon ; also inter-, per-, pras- or ascisco, to take, to associate 

nosco. concisco, to vote, to commit 

Cresco, -evi, -etum, to grow: Con-, also, pra?-, re-cisco; decisco, U 

de-, ex-, re , and without the su- revolt. 

pine, ac-, n , per-, pro-, sue-, Suesco, to be accustomed: As-, cor 

super-cresco. de-, in-suesco, -evi, -etum. 

Quiesco, -evi, -etum, to rest: Ac-, 

con-, inter-, re-quiesco. 


Exc. 1. Agnosco, agnbvi, agnitum, to own; cognosco, og 
novi, cognitum, to know. So, recognosco, to review. 

Pasco, pari, pastum, to feed. So, com-, de-pasco. 

Exc. 2. The following verbs want the supine: 

Disco, didici, to learn. So, ad-, con-, de-, e-, per-, prce- 
disco, -didici. 

Posco, poposci, to demand. So, ap-, de-, ex-, re-posco. 

Compesco, compescui, to stop, to restrain. So, dfspesco, dis* 
pescui, to separate. 

Exc. 3. Glisco, to grow; fatisco, to be weary; and likewise 
inceptive verbs, want both preterite and supine; as, aresco, to 
become dry. But these verbs borrow the preterite and supine 
from their primitives; as, ardesco, to grow hot, arsi, arsum, 
from ardeo. 

DO has di, sum; as, 

Scando, scandi, scansum, to climb; edo, edi, esum, to eat. 

Ascendo, to mount. Cudo, to forge, to stamp, Mando, to chew: Prae-, 

Descendo, to go down : or coin : Ex-, in-, re-mando. 

Con-, e-, ex-, in-, per-, pro-, re-cudo. Prehendo, to take hold 

tran-scendo. Defendo, to defend. of: Ap-, com-, de-, 

\ccendo, to kindle: In-, Offendo, to strike prehendo. 
suc-cendo. against, to offend, to 

Exc. 1. Dlmdo, divisi, divlsum, to divide. 

Rddo, rdsi, rasum, to shave. So, ab-, circum-, cor-, de-, c-, 
v-Uer-, prce-, sub-rado. 

Claudo, clausiy clausum, to close. So, circum-, con-, dis-, 
ex-, in-, inter-, prce-, re-, se-cludo. 

Plaudo, plausi, plausum, to clap the hands for joy. So, ap-, 
cir.cum-plaudo : also, com-, dis-, ex-, sup-plbdo, -plosi, -plbsum. 

Liido, licsi, lusum, to play. So, ab-, al-, col-, de-, e-, il-, 
inter-, ob-, prce-, pro-, re-,ludo. 

Trudo, trusi, trusum, to thrust. So, abs-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, 
ob-, pro-, re-trudo. 

Lcedo, Icesi, Icesum, to hurt. So, al-, col-, e-, il-lido, -llsi, 

Rddo, rosi, rbsum, to gnaw. So, ab-, ar-, circum-, cor-, 
de-, 6-, ob-, per-, prcc-rodo. 

Vado, to go, wants both preterite and supine; but its com 
pounds have si, sum; as, invcido, invasi, invdsum, to invade, to 
fall upon. So, circum-, e-, super-vado. 

Cedo, cessi, cessum, to yield. So, abs-, ac-, ante-, con-, 
de-, dis- ex-, in-, inter-, prce-, pro-, re-, retro-, se-, suc-cedo. 


Exc. 2. Pando, pandi, passum, and sometimes pansum, to 
open, to spread. So, dis-, ex-, op-, prce-, re-pando. 

Comedo, comedi, come sum, or comestum, to eat. But edo 
itself, and the rest of its compounds, have always esum; as, 
ad-, amb-, ex-, per-, sub-, super-edo, -edi, -esum. 

Fundo, fudi, fusum, to pour forth. So, of-, circum-, con-, 
de-, dif-, ef-, in-, inter-, of-, per-, pro-, re-, suf-, super-, superin-, 

Scindo, scidi, scissum, to cut. So, as-, circum-, con-, ex- 9 
inter-, per-, prce-, pro-, tran-scindo. 

Findo, ftdi, fissum, to cleave. So, con-, dif-, in-findo. 

Exc. 3. Tundo, tutudi, tunsum, and sometimes tiisum, to 
beat. The compounds have tudi, tusum; as, contundo, con- 
tiidi, contusum, to bruise. So, ex-, ob-, per-, re-tundo. 

Cddo, cecidi, cdsum, to fall. The compounds want the 

supine; as, ac-, con-, de-, ex-, inter-, pro-, suc-cido, -cldi, : 

except, incido, incidi, incdsum, to fall in; recido, recidi, reed' 
sum, to fall back; and occido, occidi, ocedsum, to fall down. 

Cozdo, cecidi, ccesum, to cut, to kill. The compounds change 
ce into i long; as, accido, accidi, acclsum, to cut about. So, 
abs-, con-, circum-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, oc-, per-, prce-, re-, 

Tendo, tetendi, tensum, or tentum, to stretch out. So, at-, 
con-, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, proz-, pro-tendo, -iendi, -tensum, or 
-tentum. But the compounds have rather tentum, except os- 
tendo, to show; which has commonly ostensum. 

Pedo,pepedi, peditum, to break wind backwards. So, op-pedo. 

Pendo, pependi, pensum, to weigh. So, ap-, de-, dis-, ex-, 
im-, per-, re-, sus-pendo, -pendi, -pensum. 

Exc. 4. The compounds of do have didi, and ditum; as, 
abdo, abdidi, abditum, to hide. So, ad-, con-, de-, dl-, e-, ob-, 
per-, pro-, red-, sub-, tra-do: also, decon-, recon-do: and coad- % 
superad-do ; and deper-, disper-do. To these add credo, ere* 
didi, creditum, to believe; vendo, ^endidi, venditum, to sell. 
Jlbscondo, to hide, has abscondi, abs^onditum, rarely abscondidi t 

Exc. 5. These three want the supine: str'ido, stridi, ta 
creak; rudo, rudi, to bray like an ass; and sldo, sldi, to sink 
down. The compounds of sldo borrow the preterite and su- 
pine fiom sedeo; as, cons~do, consedi, consessum, to sit down 
So, as , circum-, de-, in-, ob-, per-, re-, sub-sldo. 

Note. Several compounds of verbs in do and deo y in some 
respects, resemble one another and therefore should be care- 


fully distinguished; as, concido, concido, concido; consido and 
consideo; conscindo, conscendo, &,c. 

GO, GUO, has xi, ctum; as, 
Rego, rexi, rectum, to rule, to govern; dTrigo, -exi, -e,dum 
to direct; arrigo, and erlgo, -exi, -ectum, to raise up; cvrrigo, 
to correct; porrlgo, to stretch out; subrlgo, to raise up. So, 

Cingo, cinxi, cinctum, to gird, to Emungo, to wipe, to cheat* 
surround : Ac-, dis-, circum-, in-, Plango, to beat, to lament. 
pras-, re-, suc-cingo. Stingo, or Stinguo, to dash out, to 

Fllgo, to dash, or beat upon : Af-, extinguish : Bi-, ex-, in-, inter- 
con-, in-fllgo; also, profllgo, to prse-, re-stinguo. 
rout, of the first conjug. Tego, to cover: Circum-, con-, de- 

Jungo, to join; ab-jungo, to sepa- in-, ob-, per-, prae-, pro-, re-, sub-, 
rate: Ad-, con-, de-, dis-, in-, super-tego. 
inter-, se-, sub-jungo. Tingo, or Tinguo, to dip, or dye: 

Lingo, to lick: De-, e-ljiigo^ and Con-, in-tingo. 

pollingo, to anoint a dead t<aay. Ungo, or Unguo, to anoint. Ex-, 

Mungo, to wipe or clean the note, in-, per-, super-ungo. 

Exc. 1. Surgo, to vise, has surrexi, surredum. So, as-, 
tircum-, con-, de-, ex-, %n+ y re-Wtgo. 

Pergo, perrexi, perrectum, 'r< go forward. 

Stringo, strinxi, strictum, to bind, to strain, to lop. So, ad-, 
con-, de-, dis-, ob-, per-, prae-, re-, sub-stringo. 

Fingo, finxi, fictum, to feign. So, af-, con-, ef-, re-Jingo. 

Pingo, pinxi, pictum, to paint. So, ap-, de-pingo. 

Exc. 2. Frango, fregi, fractum, to break. So, con-, de-, 
dif-, ef-, in-, per-, prce-, re-, suf-fringo, -fregi, -fractum. 

Ago, egi, actum, to do, to drive. So, ab-, ad-, ex-, red-, sub-, 
trans-, transad-igo, and circum-, per-ago: cbgo, for codgo, 
coegi, coactum, to bring- together, to force. 

These three compounds of ago want the supine: satdgo, 
sategi, to be busy about a thing; prbdigo , prodegi, to lavish, or 
spend riotously ; dego for dedgo, degi, to live or dwell. Am- 
bigo, to doubt, to dispute, wants the preterite and supine. 

Lego, legi, tectum, to gather, to read. So, al-, per-, prce-, 
re-, sub-lego: also, col-, de-, e-,recol-, se~ligo, which change e 
into t. 

DUigo, to love, has dilexi, dilectum. So, negligo, to neglect; 
and intelligo, to understand; but negligo has sometimes neg- 
legi. Sail/ Jug. 40. 

Exc. 3. Tango, tetigi, tactum, to touch. So, at-, con-, 06- 
per-tingo; thus, attingo, attigi, attactum. &c. 

Pungo, pupii gi, punctum, to prick, or sting. The compounds punxi; as, compungo, compunxi, compunctum. So, dis- t 
ex-, inter-pungo : but repungo has repunxi, or repiipiigi. 


Pango, panxi, pactum, to fix, to drive in, to compose; or 
pepigi, which comes from the obsolete verb pdgo, to bargain, 
for which we use paciscor. The compounds of pango have 
pegi; as, compingo, compegi, compacium, to put together. So, 
im-, 06-, sup-pingo, 

Exc. 4. Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, to spread. So, ad-, ctr* 
cum-, con-, di-, in-, inter-, per-, pro-, re-spergo. 

Mergo, mersi, mersum, to dip, or plunge. So, de- 3 e-, im-, 
sub -mergo. 

Tergo, tersi, tersum, to wipe, or clean. So, abs-, de-, ex-, 

Flgo, fixi, Jixum, to fix, or fasten. So, af- } con-, de-, in- of-, 
per-, prcs-, re-, suf-, trans-figo. 

Frlgo,frixi,frixum, or frictum, to fry 

Exc. 5. These three want the supine: clango, clanxi, to 
sound a trumpet; ningo, or ninguo, ninxi, to snow; ango, anxi, 
to vex. Vergo, to incline, or lie towards, wants both preterite 
and supine. So, e-, de-, in-vergo. 

HO, JO. 

1. Traho, traxi, tr actum, to draw. So, abs-, at-, circum-, 
con-, de-, dis-, ex-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-trdho. 

Veho, vexi, vectum, to carry. So, a-, ad-, circum-, con-, di-, 
e-, in-, per-, proz-, prceter-, pro-, re-, sub-, super-, trans-veho. 

2. Mejo, or mingo, minxi, mictum, to make water. So, 

1. Colo, colui, cultum, to adorn, to inhabit, to honour, to 
till. So, ac-, circum-, ex-, in-, per-, proz-, re-colo: and like* 
wise occulo, occului, occidtum, to hide. 

Consulo, consului, consultum, to advise, or consult. 

Alo, dlui, allium, or contracted altum, to nourish c 

Mblo, molui, molitum, to grind. So, com-, e-, per-molo. 

The compounds of cello, which itself is not in use, want the 
supine; as, ante-, ex-, prce-c ell 0,-cellui, to excel. Percello, to 
strike, to astonish, has perculi, percidsum; recello, to push 
down, wants both preterite and supine. 

Pello, pepuli, pulsum, to thrust. So, ap-, as-, com-, de- 9 
dis-, ex-, im-, per-, pro-, re-pello ; appidi, appulsum, &c. 

Fallo, ftfelli, falsum, to deceive. But refello, refelli, to 
confute, wants the supine. 

3. Velio, velli, or vulsi, vidsum, to pull, or pinch. So, a-, 
con-, e-, inter-, proz-, re-vello. But de-, di-, per-vello, have 
*ather velli, 


Sallo, salli, salsum, to salt. Psallo, psalli, , to play on 

a musical instrument, wants the supine. 

Tollo, to lift up, to take away, in a manner peculiar to it- 
self, makes sustuli, and subldtum; extollo, extuli, datum; but 
ettollo, to take up, has neither preterite nor supine. 

MO has ui, itum ; as, 

Gemo, gemui, gemitum, to groan. So, ad-, or ag- y circum-, 
con-, e-, in- re-gemo. 

Fremo , fremui, fremitum, to rage, or roar, to make a great 
noise. So, af-, circum-, con-, in-, per-fremo. 

Vbmo, evomo, -ui, -itum, to vomit, to spew, to cast up. 

Exc. 1. Demo, dempsi, demptum, to take away. 

Promo, prompsi, promptum, to bring out. So, de-, ex-promo. 

Siimo, sumpsi, sumptum, to take. So, ab-, as-, con-, Ac-, 
in-, pros-, re-, tra?i-sumo. 

Como, compsi, comptum, to deck or dress. 

These verbs are also used without the p; as, demsi, dem- 
turn; sumsi, sumtum, &c. 

Exc. 2. Emo, emi, emptum, or emtum, to buy. So, ad-, 
dir-, ex-, inter-, per-, red-imo, and co-lmo, -emi, -emptum, or 

Premo, pressi, pressum, to press. So, ap-, com-, de-, ex-, 
im-, op-, per-, re-, sup-primo. 

Tremo, tremui, to tremble, to quake for fear, wants the su- 
pine. So, at-, circum-, con-, in-tremo. 


1. Pono, posui, positum, to put or place. So, ap-, ante-, 
circum-, com-, de-, dis-, ex-, im-, inter-, ob-, post-, prcB-, pro-, 
re-, se-, sup-, super-, superim-, trans-pono. 

Gigno, genui, genitum, to beget. So, con-, e-, in-, per-, 
pro-, re-gigno. 

Cdno, cecini, cantum, to sing. But the compounds have 
cinui and centum; as, accino, accinui, accentum, to sing in con- 
cert So, con-, in-, prce-, suc-clno; oc-cino, and oc-cdno; re- 
czno, and re-cdno; but occanui, recanui, are not in use. 

Temno, to despise, wants both preterite and supine; but its 
compound contemno, to despise, to scorn, has contempsi, con* 
temptum; or without the p, contemsi, contemtum. 

2. Sperno, sprevi, spretum, to disdain, or slight. So, 

Sterno. strdvi, stratum, to lay flat, to strovv. So, ad-, con- t 
in-, pne-, pro-, sub-sterno. 


Stno, sivi, or sii, sttum, to permit. So, desino, desivi, 
oftener desii, desitum, to leave off. 

Lino, livi, or levi, litum,to anoint, to daub. So, al-, circum- t 
col-, de-, il-, inter-, ob-, per-, prce-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, 

Cerno, crevi, seldom cretum, to see, to decree, to enter upon 
an inheritance. So, de-, dis-, ex-, in-, se-cerno. 


Verbs in po, havepsi andptum; as, Carpo, carpsi, carptum % 
to pluck or pull, to crop, to blame. So, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, 
prce-cerpo, -cerpsi, -cerptwn. 

Clepo, -psi, -ptum, to steal. Sealpo, to scratch or engrave : So, 

Repo, to creep : Ad-, or ar-, cor-, circum-, ex-scalpo. 

de-, di-, e-, ir-, intro-, ob-, per-, Sculpo, to grave, or carve: So, ex-, 

pro-, sub-repo, -psi, -ptum. in-sculpo. 

Serpo, to creep as a serpent. 

Exc. 1. Strepo, strepui, strepitum, to make a noise So, 
ad-, circum-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-strepo. 

Exc. 2 Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, to break. So, ab-, cor-, di-, 
e-, inter-, intro-, ir-, ob-, per-, prce-, pro-rumpo. 

There are only two simple verbs ending in QUO, viz. 

Cuquo, coxi, coctum, to boil. So, con-, de-, dis-, ex-, ifk- % 
per-, re-coquo. 

Linquo, liqui, , to leave. The compounds have tictumi 

as, relinquo, reliqui, relicium, to forsake. So, de-, and dere- 


1. Qucero makes quceslvi, qucesltum, to seek. So, ac-, an^ 9 
con-, dis-, ex-, in-, per-, re-qulro, -quisJvi, -quisitum. 

Tero, trlvi, trltum, to wear, to bruise. So, at-, con-, de- % 
dis-, ex-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, sub-tero. 

Verro, verri, versum, to sweep, brush, or make clean. So > 
a-, con-, de-, e-, prce-, re-verro. 

Uro, ussi, ustuin, to burn. So, ad-, amb-, comb-, de-, ex~ % 
in-, per-, sub-uro. 

Qero, gessi, gestum, to carry. So, ag-, con-, di-, in~, pro-^ 
re-, sug-gero. 

2. Curro, cucurri, cursum, to run. So, ac-, con-, de-, dis-, 
ex-, in-, oc-, per-, prce-, prb-curro, which sometimes double the 
first syllable, and sometimes not: as, accurri, or accucurri, 
&c. Chcum-, re-, sue-, trans-curro^ hardly ever double th$ 
first syllable. 


3. Sero, sevi, sdtum, to sow. The compounds whicn sig- 
nify planting or sowing, have sevi, silum; as, consero, consevi, 
con-situm, to plant together. So, as-, circum-, de-, dis-, in-, 
inter-, ob-, pro-, re-, sub-, tran-sero. 

Sero, , to knit, had anciently serui, sertum, which its 

compounds still retain; as, asset o, asserui, assertum, to claim. 
So, con-, circum-, de-, dis-, edis-, ex-, in-, inter-sero. 

4 Furo, to be mad, wants both preterite and supine. 

SO has slvi, sltum; as, 

Arcesso, arcesswi, arcessllum, to call, or send for. So, ca- 
pesso, to take; fdcesso, to do, to go away; lacesso, to provoke 

Exc. 1. Viso, visi, , to go to see, to visit. So, in-, 

re-viso. Incesso, incessi, , to attack, to seize. 

Exc. 2. Depso, depsui, depstum, to knead. So, con-, per-, 

Pinso, pinsui, or pinsi, pinsum, pistum, or pinsttum, to bake. 


1. Flecto has jlexi, jiexum, to bow. So, circum-, de- y in-, 
re-, retro-jlecto. 

Flecto, plexi, and plexui, plexum, to plait. So, implecto. 

JYecto, nexi, and nexui, nexum, to tie, or knit. So, ad-, or 
an-, con-, circum-, in-, sub-necto. 

Pecto, pexi, and pexui, pexum, to dress, or comb. So, de- 9 
ex-, re-pedo. 

2. Melo, messui, messum, to reap, mow, or cut down. So, 
de-, e-, prce-meto. 

3. Peto, petlvi, petltum, to seek, to pursue. So, ap-, com-, 
tx-, im-, op-, re-, sup-peto. 

Mitto, mlsi, missum, to send. So, a-, ad-, com-, circum-, 
de-, di-, e-, im-, inter-, intro-, o-, per-, prce-, prceter-, pro-, re-, 
sub-, super-, trans-mitto. 

Verto, verti, versum, to turn. So, a- y ad-, animad-, ante-, 
circum-, con-, de-, di-, e-, in-, inter-, ob-, per-, prce-, proztzr-, 
re-, sub-, trans-verto. 

Sterto, siertui, — — , to snore. So, de-sterto. 

4. Sisto, an active verb, to stop, has stiti, stdlum: but sisto, 
a neuter verb, to stand still, has steti, stdlum, like sto. The 
compounds have stiti, and stitum; as, assisto, astiti, astitum, 
to stand by. So, ab-, circum-, con-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, ob-, 
per-, re-, sub-sisto. But the compounds are seldom used In 
the supine. 



VO, XO. 

There are three verbs in vo, which are thus conjugated 

1. Vivo, vixi, victum, to live. So, ad-, con-, per-, pro-, re- : 

Solvo, solvi, solutum, to loose. So, absolvo, to acquit; dis- t 
ex-, per-, re-solvo. 

Volvo, volvi, volidum, to roll. So, ad-, circum-, con-, de- t 
e-, in-, ob-, per-, pro-, re-, sub-volvo. 

2. Texo, to weave, (the only verb of this conjugation end* 
ing in xo) has texui, textum. So, at-, circum-, con-, de- y in- 9 
mter-s ob-, per-, proz-, pro-, re-, sub-texo. 

Fourth Conjugation. 
Verbs of the fourth conjugation make the preterite in ivi, 
and the supine in itum; as, 

Mimio, munlvi, munitum, to fortify. So, 

Balbatio, to stammer, to Insanio, to be mad. Redimio, to bind. 

lisp, to stutter. Irretio, to ensnare. Rugio, to roar like a lion. 

Bullio, to boil, or bubble Lascivio, to be wanton. Ssevio, to rage. 
Condio, to season. JLenio, to ease, or miti- Sagio, prassagio, to 

Crocio, to croak. gate. guess, to foresee. 

Custodio, to keep. Ligurio, to eat delicious- Sarrio, to weed, to rake. 

Dormio, to sleep. ly, to slabber up. Scio, to know. 

Effutio, to babble, or blab Lippio, to be dim-sight- Nescio, not to know. 

out. ed. Scaturio, to gush out. 

Erudio, to instruct. Mollio, to soften. Servio, to serve. 

Expedio, to disentangle, Mtigio, to bellow. Sitio, to thirst. 

to free. Mutio, to mutter. Sopio, to lull asleep. 

Gannio, to yelp, or Nutrio ? to nourish. Stabilio, to establish. 

whine. Obedio, to obey. Superbio, to be proud. 

Garrio, to prate. Pavio, to beat. Suffio, to perfume 

Glutio, to swallow. Plpio, to peep like a Tinnio, to tinkle. 

Grunnio, to grunt. chicken. Tussio, to cough. 

Hnmio, to neigh. Polio, to polish. Vagio, to cry or squeal 

Impedio, to entangle, to Prurio, to itch, to tickle. as a child. 

hinder. Punio, to punish. Vestio, to clothe. 

Exc. 1. Singultio, singultlvi, singultum, to sob. 

Sepelio, sepellvi, sepultum, to bury. 

Venio, veni, ventum, to come. So, ad-, ante-, circum-, con~ f 
contra-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, intro-, ob-, per-, post-, prce-, re- f 
§ub-, super-venio. 

Vdnco, venii, , to be sold. 

Salio, salui and salii, saltum, to leap. The compounds 
have commonly silui, sometimes silii, or sillvi and sultum; as, 
transilio, transilui, transitu, and transilivi, trunsultum, to leap 
over. So, ab-, as-, circum-, con-, de-, dis- a ex-, in-, re-, stib-j 


Exc. 2. Amicio has amicui, amictum, seldom amixi, to cover, 
er clothe. 

Vincio, vinxi, vinctum, to tie. So, circum-, de-, e-, re-vincio. 

Sancio, sanxi, sanctum, and sanctvi, sancitum, to establish, 
or ratify. 

Exc. 3. Cambio, campsi, campsum, to change money. 

Sepio, sepsi, septum, to hedge, or inclose. So, circum-, dis- s 
inter-, ob-, proz-sepio. 

Haurio, hausi, haustum, rarely hausum, to draw out, to 
empty, to drink. So, de-, ex-haurio. 

Sentio, sensi, sensum, to feel, to perceive, to think. So, as-, 
con-, dis-, per-, proz-, sub-sentio. 

Raucio, rausi, rausum, to be hoarse. 

Exc. 4. Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, to mend, or repair. So, ear-, 

Farcio, farsi, fartum, to cram. So, con-fercio, ef-fercio 9 cr 
ef-farcio ; in-fercio , or in-far cio ; re-fercio. 

Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, to prop, or uphold. So, con-, ef-, in-, 
per-, suf-fulcio. 

Exc. 5. The compounds of par io have perui, pertum; as, 
aperio, aperui, apertum, to open. So, operio, to shut, to cover. 
But comperio has comperi, compertum, to know a thing for cer- 
tain. Reperio, reperi, repertum, to find. 

Exc. 6. The following verbs want the supine. Ccecutio^ 
ccecutivi, to be dim-sighted. Gestio, gestivi, to show one's joy 
by the gesture of his body. Glocio, glocivi, to cluck, or 
cackle as a hen. Dementio, demenfivi, to be mad. Inepiio, 
ineptlvi, to play the fool. Prosilio, proszlui, to leap forth. 
Ferocio , ferbclvi, to be fierce. 

Ferio, to strike, wants both preterite and supine. So 
referio, to strike again. 


A deponent verb is that which, under a passive form, has 
an active or neuter signification; as, Loquor, I speak; morior, 
I die. 

A common verb, under a passive form, has either an active 
or passive signification; as, Criminor, I accuse, or I am ac- 

Most deponent verbs of old were the same with common 
verbs. They are called Deponent, because they have laid 
aside the passive sense. 

Deponent and common verbs form the participle perfect in 
the same manner as if they had the active voice; thus, Lcetor, 


Icetari, lcetdtus, to rejoice; vereor, vereri, veritus, to fear; fun- 
go?*, fungi, functus, to discharge an office; potior, potlri, poti 
tus, to enjoy, to be master of. 

The learner should be taught to go through all the parts of deponent 
and common verbs, by proper examples in the several conjugations ; thus, 
Lxtor, of the first conjugation, like amor : 

Indicative Mode. 
Pres. Lcetor, I rejoice; loztaris or -are, thou rejoicest, &,c. 
Imp. Lcetdbar, I rejoiced, or did rejoice; Icetabams, &c. 
Perf. Lcetdtus sum or fui* I have rejoiced, &c. 
Pluperf. Lcetdtus eram or fu tram, I had rejoiced, &c. 
Fut. Lcetdbor, I shall or will rejoice; Icetaberis or -ab ere, &,c% 
Lcetaturus sum, I am about to rejoice, or I am to rejoice 9 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Pres. Letter, I may rejoice; [ceteris or -ere, Sec. 
Imp. Lcetdrer, I might rejoice; Icetdreris or -rere, &c. 
Perf. Lcetdtus sim or fuerim, I may have rejoiced, &c. 
Pluperf. Lcetdtus essem or f ids s em, I might have rejoiced, &c. 
Fut. Lcztdtus fuero , I shall have rejoiced, &c. 

Imperative Mode. 
Pres. Lcetdre or -ator, rejoice thou; Icetdtor, let him rejoice, &,c. 

Infinitive Mode. 
Pres. Lcetari, '.o rejoice. 
Perf. Lcetdtus esse or fuisse, to have rejoiced. 
Fut. Loz'caturus esse, to be about to rejoice. 

JLcetaturus fuisse, to have been about to rejoice* 

Pres. Lcetans, rejoicing. 
Perf. Lcetdtus, having rejoiced. 
Fut. Lcetaturus, about to rejoice. 
Lcetandus, to be rejoiced at. 

In like manner conjugate, in the First Conjugation, 

Abominor, to abhor. Aprlcor, to bask in the Aucupor, 4-* -o, to hunt 

Adulor, to fatter. sun. after. 

iEmulor, to vie with, to Arbitror, to think. Auguror, <^ -o, to fort- 

envy. Aspernor, to despise. bode, or presage by 

Altercor, to dispute, to Aversor, to dislike. augury. 

make a repartee. Auctionor, to sell by auc- Auspicor, to take an 

tion. omen, to begin. 

* Fui, fueram, &c. are seldom joined to the participles of deponent 
verbs ; and not so often to those of passive verbs, as, sum, eram, &c. 



Auxilior, to assist. 
Bacchor, to rage, to revel, 

to riot. [falsely. 

Calurnnior, to accuse 
Cavillor, to scoff. 
Cauponor, to huckster, to 

Causor, to plead in ex- 
cuse, to blame. 
Circulor, to meet in com- 

panics, to stroll t to 

Comessor, to revel. 
Com! tor, to accompany. 
Oommentor, to meditate 

on, or write what one 

is to say. 
Concionor, to harangue. 
Conflictor, to struggle. 
Conor, to endeavour. 
Conspicor, to spy, to see. 
Contemplor, to view. 
Convlvor, to feast. 
Cornlcor, to chatter like 

a crow. 
Crlminor, to blame. 
Cunctor, to delay. 
Detestor, to abhor. 
Duminor, to rule. 
Epulor, to feast. 
Exsecror, to curse. 
Famulor, to serve. 
Fenor, to keep holy-day. 
Frustror, to disappoint. 
Furor, to steal. 
Glorior, to boast. 
Gratulor, to rejoice, to 

wish one joy. 
Gravor, to grudge. 
Hariolor, to conjecture. 
Helluor, to guttle, or 

gormandize, to waste. 
Hortor, to encourage. 
Hallucinor, to speak at 

random, to err. 

Imaginor, to conceive. 

Imitor, to imitate. 

IndiiTnor, to disdain. 

Inf Icior, to deny. 

Insector, to pursue, to 
inveigh against. 

Insldior, to lie in wait. 

Interpreter, to explain. 

Jaculor, to dart. 

Jocor, to jest. 

Lamentor, to bewail. 

Lucror, to gain. 

Luctor, to wrestle. 

Machinor, to contrive. 

Medicor, to cure. 

M editor, to muse, or 

Mercor, to purchase. 

Me tor, to measure. 

Minor, to threaten. 

Mlror, to wonder. 

Mlseror, to pity. 

Moderor, to rule. 

Modulor, to play a tune. 

Morigeror, to humour. 

Moror, to delay. 

Muneror, to present. 

Mutuor, to borrow. 

Nugor, to trifle. 

Obtestor, to beseech. 

Odor or, to smell. 

Gperor, to work. 

Oplnor, to think. 

Opitulor, to help. 

Osculor, to kiss. 

Otior, to be at leisure. 

Pa lor, to stroll, or strag- 

Palpor, or -o, to stroke, 
or soothe. 

Patrocinor, to patronize. 

Percontor, to inquire. 

Peregrlnor, to go 
abroad. [g er ; 

Periclitor, to be in dan- 

Pigngror, to pledge. 
Pis cor, to fish. 
Populor, 4^ °y to lay 

Prsedor, to plunder. 
Praelior, to fight. 
Prsestolor, to wait for. 
Prajvaricor, to go crook* 

ed, to shuffle, or pre* 

Precor, to pray. 
Deprecor, to entreat, to 

pray against. 
Procor, to ask, to woo. 
Recordor, to remember. 
Refragor, to be against. 
Rimor, to search. 
Rixor, to scold, or brawl. 
Rusticor, to dwell in the 

Scrutor, to search. 
Solor, to comfort. 
Spatior, to walk abroad. 
Speculor, to view, to 

Stipulor, to stipulate, or 

Storaachor, to be angry. 
Suavior, to kiss. 
Suffragor, to vote for one, 

to favour. 
Suspicor, to suspect. 
Tergiversor, to boggle, 

to put off. 
Testor, to witness. 
Tutor, to defend. 
Vador, to give bail, te 

force to give bail. 
Vagor, to wander. 
Vatlclnor, to prophesy. 
Velitor, to skirmish. 
Veneror, to uwrship. 
Venor, to hunt. 
Versor, to be employed. 
Vocif eror, to bawl. 

In the Second Conjugation, 

MSreor, meritus, to deserve. 
Tueor, tultus, or tutus, to defend. 

PollTceor, pollicitus, to promise. 
Liceor, licltus, to bid at an auction 

In the Third Conjugation, 

Amplector, amplexus ; and complector, complexus, to embrace* 
Revertor, reversus, to return. 


In the Fourth Conjugation, 

Blandior, to soothe, to flatter. Partior, to divide. 

Mentior, to lie. Sortior, to draw ;>r cast lots. 

Molior, to attempt something difficult. Largior, to give liberally. 

Part. Perf. Blanditus, mentltus, molltus, partltus, sortltus, largltus* 

There are no exceptions in the First Conjugation. 

EXCEPTIONS in the Second Conjugation. 

Reor rdtus, to think. 

Mis&reor, miser tus, or not conti acted, miseritus, to pity. 

Fdteor , fassus , to confess. The compounds of fdteor have fessus ; aa. 
vrofiteor, professus, to profess. So, confiteor, to confess, to own or a©* 

EXCEPTIONS in the Third Conjugation. 

Labor j lapsus, to slide. So, al-, col-, de-, di-, e-, il-, inter-, per-, prceltT* 
pro-, re-, sub-, subter-, super-, trans-labor. 

Ulciscor, ultus, to revenge. 

Utor, Hsus, to use. So, ab-, de-utor. 

Loquor, loquutus, or locutus, to speak. So, al-, col-, circum-, e-, inter-) 
ob-, prai-, pro-loquor. 

Sequor, sequutus, or secutus, to follow. So, as-, con-, ex-, in-, ob-,per-, 
pro-, re-, sub-sequor. 

Queror, questus, to complain. So, con-, inter-, pra-queror. 

Nitor, nisus, or nixus, to endeavour, to lean upon. So, ad-, or an-, con- 9 
e-, in-, ob-, re-, sub-nltor : but the compounds have oftener nixus. 

Pdciscor,pactus, to bargain. So, de-paciscor. 

Grddior, gressus, to go. So, ag-, ante-, circum-, con-, de-, di-, e~ in- } 
intro-, pr&-, pr&ter-, pro-, re-, retro-, sug-, super-, trans- gredior. 

Proflciscor, profectus, to go a journey. 

Nanciscor, nactus, to get. 

Patior, passus, to suffer. So, per-petior. 

Apiscor, aptus, to get. So, adipiscor, adeptus ; and indlpiscor, indeptus. 

Comminiscor, ccmmentus, to devise, or invent. 

Fruor,fruitus, or fructus, to enjoy. So, per-fruor. 

Obliviscor, oblitus, to forget. 

Expergiscor, exper rectus, to awake. 

Morior, mortuus, to die. So, com-, de-, e-, in-, inter- , pra-morior. 

JVascor, ndtus, to be born. So, ad-, circum-, de-, e-, in-, inter-, re-, svJh 

Orior, oriri, ortus, to rise. So, ab-, ad-, co-, ex-, ob-, sub-orior. 

The three last form the future participle in Iturus ; thus, morUHru^ 
Hasviturus, orlturus. 

EXCEPTIONS in the Fourth Conjugation. 

Metior, mensus, to measure. So, ad-, com-, di-, e-, pr&-, re-mltwr 
Ordior, orsus. to begin. So, ex-, led-ordior. 
Ezpgrior, cxpertus, to try. 

Opplrior, oppertus, and opperltus, to wait, or tarry for one. 
The following verbs want the participle perfect : 
Vescor, vesci, to feed. Medeor, mederi, to heal. 

Liquor, liqui, to melt, or be dis- Remmiscor, re minisci, to rememfaf 

solved. Irascor, irasci, to be angry. 


Ringor, ringi, to grin like a dog. Divertor, diverti, to turn aside, to 

Prsevertor, prceverti, to get before, to take lodging. 

outrun. Defetiscor, defetisci, to be weary, or 

Diffiteor, diff iteri, to deny. faint. 

The verbs which do not fall under any of the foregoing rules are called 


The irregular verbs are commonly reckoned eight; sum, eo t 
queo, volo, nolo, mdlo,fero, and fw, with their compounds. 

But properly there are only six; nolo and malo being com- 
pounds of volo. 

SUM has already been conjugated. After the same man- 
ner are formed its compounds, ad-, «&-, de-, inter-, ob-, pros,-, 
sub-, super-sum, and insum, which wants the preterite; thus, 
adsum, adfui, adesse, &,c. 

Prosum, to do good, has a d where sum begins with e. 
Prosum, prodesse, profui. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Pro-sum, prod-es, prod-est; pro-sumus, prod-estis, fyc. 
Imp. Prod-eram, prod-eras, prod-erat; prod-eramus, fyc. 
Per. Pro-fui, pro-fuisti, pro-fuit; pro-fuimus, pro-fuistis, fyc 
Plu. Pro-fueram, pro-fueras, pro-fuerat; pro-fueramus, fyc 
Fut. Prod-ero, prod-eris, prod-erit; prod-erimus, fyc. 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Pr. Pro-sim, pro-sis, pro-sit; pro-slmus, pro-sitis, pro-sint. 
Imp. Prod-essem, prod-esses, prod-esset; prod-essemus, fyc 
Per. Pro-fuerim, pro-fueris, pro-fuerit; pro-fuerimus, fyc. 
Plu. Pro-fuissem, pro-fuisses, pro-fuisset: pro-fuissemus, fyc. 
Fut. Pro-fuero, pro-fueris, pro-fuerit; pro-tuenmus, fyc 

Imperative Mode. 
Pr. 2. Prod-es or prod-esto, 2. Prod-este or prod-estote, 

3. Prod-esto; 

3. Pro-sunto. 

Pr. Prod-esse. 
Per. Pro-fuisse 

Infinitive Mode. 

Fut. Esse pro-futurus, -a, "-urn, 
Fuisse pro-futurus. 

Fut. Pro-futurus. 

Possum is compounded ofpotis, able, and sum: and is thus 
conjugated : 



Possum, posse, potui. To be able. 
Indicative Mode. 
Possum, potes, 
Pot-eram, -eras, 

Pot-ui, -uisti, 

■uistis, , 

I or -uere, 

Pot-ueram,-ueras, -uerat; -ueramus, -ueratis, -uerant 








Pr. Posse 

potest; possumus, potestis, possunt 

-erat; -eramus, -eratis, -erant 

... - • A . ) -uerunt 

-uit, -uimus, 

is, J 

-eritis, -erunt 

-u entis, 









-ens, -ent; -erimus, 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Pos-sim, -sis, -sit; -simus, 
Pos-sem, -ses, -set; -semus, 
Pot-uerim, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, 
Pot-uissem,-uisses,-uisset; -uissemus,-uissetis, -uissent 
Pot-uero, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint. 
Infinitive Mode. 

Per. Potuisse. The rest wanting. 

EO, ire, Ivi, ltum. To go. 

Indicative Mode. 

is, it; Imus, itis, eunt. 

ibas, ibat; ibamus, ibatis, ibant. 

ivisti, ivit; ivimus, ivistis, iverunt or lvere 
Iveram, iveras,iverat; iveramus,iveratis,iverant. 
Ibo, ibis, ibit; ibimus, ibitis, ibunt. 

Subjunctive Mode. 
Earn, eas, eat; eamus, 
Irem, ires, iret; iremus, 
Iverim, iveris, iverit; iverimus, 
Ivissem, ivisses, ivisset; ivissemus, ivissetis, ivissent. 
Ivero, iveris, iverit; iverimus, iveritis, iverint. 




eatis, eant. 
iretis, irent. 
iveritis, iverint. 



Imperative Mode. 


. f ite, 
' \ itote, 


Infinitive Mode. 
Pr. Ire. 

Per. Ivisse. 

Fut. Esse iturus, -a, -urn. 

Fuisse iturus, -a, -urn. 

Gerunds. Supines. 

Eundum. 1. Itum, 

Eundi. 2. Itu. 

Eundo, &c. 
The compounds of Eo are conjugated after the same manner; arf-, 
db-, ex-, co-, In-, inter-, 6b-, r£d-, sub-, per-, prce-, ante-, prod-eo ; only in 
the perfect, and the tenses formed from it, they are usually contracted 
thus, Adeo, adii, seldom adivi, adltum, adlre, to go to ; perf. Adii, adiisti, 
or adistiy &c. adieram, adi£rim y &c. So likewise veneo, vend, -. — ^-, to 

lens, Gen. euntis. 

Fut. Iturus, -a, -um. 


be sold, (compounded of venum and en.) But ambio, -Ivi, -Uum, -ire, to 
surround, is a regular verb of the fourth conjugation. 

Eo, like other neuter verbs, is often rendered in English under a pas- 
sive form ; thus, it, he is going ; ivit, he is gone ; iverat, he was gone ; 
iverit, he may be gone, or shall be gone. So, venit, he is coming ; venit, 
he has come ; verier at, he was come, &c. In the passive voice these 
verbs for the most part are only used impersonally ; as, itur ah Mo, he ia 
going ; ventum est ab Mis, they are come. We find some of the com- 
pounds of co, however, used personally; as, pericula adeuntur, are under- 
gone. Cic. Libri sibyllini adxti sunt, were looked into. Liv. Flumtn 
pedlbus translri potest. Caes. Inimiciticc subeantur. Cic. 

QUEO, I can, and NEQUEO, I cannot, are conjugated the same way as 
to ; only they want the imperative and the gerunds ; and the participle* 
are seldom used. 

VOLO, velle, volui. To will, or to be willing. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Vol-o, vis, vult; volumus, vultis, volunt. 
Imp. Vol-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 

Per. Vol-ui, -uisti, -uit; -uimus, -uistis, > " 

' 5 5 ) or -uere. 

Plu. Vol-ueram,-ueras, -uerat; -ueramus,-ueratis, -uerant 

Fut. Vol-am, -es, -et; -emus, -etis, -ent 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Velim, velis, velit; velimus, velitis, velint. 
Imp. Vellem, velles, vellet; vellemus, velletis, vellent 
Per. Vol-uerim, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, uerint 
Plu. Vol-uissem,-uisses, -uisset; -uissemus, -uissetis,-uissent 
Fut. Vol-uero, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint. 

Infinitive Mode. Participle. 

Pr Velle. Per. Voluisse. Pr. Volens 

The rest not used. 

NOLO, nolle, nolui. To be unwilling. 
Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Nolo, non-vis, non-vult; nolumus, non-vultis, nolunt 
Imp. Nol-ebam,-ebas, -ebat; -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 

Per. Nol-ui, -uisti, -uit; -uimus, -uistis, \ " uer . un 

' ' ' ' ' \ or -uere. 

Plu. Nol-ueram,-ueras,-uerat; -ueramus,-ueratis, -uerant 

Fut. Nolam, noles, nolet; nolemus, noletis, no ent. 



Subjunctive Mode 

Pr Nolim, nolis, nolit; nolimus, nolitis, rolint 
Imp. Nollem, nolles, nollet; nollemus, nolletis, nollent. 
Per Nol-uerim, -ueris, uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint. 
Plu. Nol-uissem,-uisses,-uisset; -uissemus, -uissetis.-uissent 
Fut. Nol-uero, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint. 

Imperative. Infinitive Participle. 

2. Sing. 2. Plur. 

p ( Noli or ( nolite or Pr. Nolle. Pr. Nolens. 

" ( Nolito. ( nolitote. Per Noluisse The rest wanting 

MALO, malle, malui To be more wilfaig. 

Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Mai-o, mavis, mavult; malumus, rnavultis, malunt 

Imp Mal-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 

Per. Mal-ui, -uisti, -uit : -uimus, -uistis. < " 

' ' 5 ' ( or -uere 

Plu. Mal-ueram, -ueras, -uerat; -ueramus, -ueratis, -uerant 

Fut. Mal-am, -es, -et; fyc. This is scarcely in use. 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Malim, malis, malit; malimus, malitis, malint 

Imp. Mallem, malles, mallet; mallemus, malletis, mallent 
Per. Mal-uerim, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint 
Plu. Mal-uissem,-uisses,-uisset; -uissemus,-uissetis,-uissent 
Fut. Mal-uero, -ueris, -uerit; -uerimus, -ueritis, -uerint. 

Infinitive Mode. 

Pr. Malle. Per. Maluisse. The rest not used 

FERO, ferre, tuli, latum. To carry, to bring, or suffer 

Indicative Mode. 

Pr. Fero, fers, fert; ferimus, fertis, ferunt. 

Imp. Fer-ebam, -ebas, -ebat; ebamus, ebatis, -ebant. 

Per. Tuli, tulisti, tulit; tulimus, tulistis, < u e r un 

Put. Tul-eram, -eras, -erat, eramus, -eratis, -erant. 
Fut. Feram, feres, feret; feremus, feretis, ferent. 



Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Feram, feras, ferat; feramus, 

Imp. Ferrem, ferres, ferret; ferremus, 

Per. Tul-erim, -ens, -erit; -erirnus, 

Plu. Tul-issem, -isses, -isset; -issemus, 

Fut. Tul-ero, -eris, -erit ; -erirnus, 

Imperative Mode. 

Ferto, ferto; { fer'tlte, ferunt0 - Per. Tulisse. 

Fut. Esse laturus, -a, -um. 
Fuisse laturus, -a, -um 

Gerunds. Supines. 


ferat is, ferant 

ferretis, ferreiu. 

-eritis, -erint. 

-issetis, -issent. 

-eritis, -erint 

Infinitive Mode. 
Pr. Ferre. 



Fut. Laturus, -a, -um 

Ferendum, 1. 

Ferendi, 2. 

Ferendo, &c. 

Feror, ferri, latus. To be brought. 

Indicative Mode. 





> fertur ; ferimur, 

C ferris 
I or ferre, 

Fer-6bar, J^Sare, }- ebatur > -ebamur, 

Per. Latus sum, &c. latus fui, &c. 

Plu. Latus eram, &c. latus fueram, &c. 

ferens }f er etur; feremur 
or fere re, ) 

Subjunctive Mode. 

> feratur ; feramur, 

Fut. Ferar, 

ferimini, feruntu?. 
-ebamini, -ebantu/. 

feremini, ferentu?. 

Pr. Ferar, 
Imp. Ferrer, 

feramini, ferantur. 

or ferare, 

C ferrens > f err etur ; ferremur, ferremini, ferrentur. 

( or ferrsre, $ 
Per. Latus sim, &c. latus fuerim, &c. 
Plu. Latus essem, &c. latus fuissem, &c. 
Fut. Latus fuero, &c. 

Imperative Mode. 
Pr Ferre or fertor, fertor; ferimini, feruntor. 

Infi7iitive Mode. Participles. 

Pr. Ferri. Per. Latus, -a, -um. 

Per. Esse or fuisse latus, -a, -um. Fut. Ferendus, -a, -um- 

In like manner are conjugated the compounds oifero; as, affero, attuli, 
alldtum; aufero, absiuli, abldtum; differo, distUli, dilatum; confero, con 
tuli, collatum ; infero 7 intuit, illatum; offero, obtfdi, oblatum; efflro, extuli, 
datum. So, circum-,per- } trans-, de-,pro-, ante-,pra- } re-ftro. In some 



writers we find adflro, adtuli, adlatum; conlatum; inlatum, obfiro, &c 
for affero, &c. 

Obs. 1. Most part of the above verbs are made irregular by contraction. 
Thus, nolo is contracted for non nolo; malo for magis colo ; fero, fers^ 
fert, &c. forferis,ferit, &c. Feror,ferris or j err e,fertur, for ferreris, &c. 

Obs. 2. The imperatives of dico, duco, and facio, are contracted in the 
game manner with fer : thus we say, die, due, fac; instead of dice, dvce t 
face. But these often occur likewise in the regular form. 

FIO, fieri, factus. To be made or done, to become 
Indicative Mode. 
Pr. Flo, fis, fit; fimus, fitis, fiunt 

Imp. Fiebam, fiebas, fiebat; fiebamus, fiebatis, fiebant. 
Per. Factus sum, &c. factus fui, &c. 
Plu. Factus eram, &c. factus fueram, &c. 
Fut. Fiam, fies, fiet; fiemus, fietis, fient 

Subjunctive Mode. 

Pr. Fiam, fias, fiat; fiamus, fiatis, fiant. 
Imp. Fierem, fieres, fieret; fieremus, fieretis, fierent. 
Per. Factus sim, &c. factus fuerim, &c. 
Plu. Factus essem, Sec. factus fuissem, &lc. 
Fut. Factus fuero, &c. 


Imperative Mo de . 

&, fito: &, fiunto ' 

Infinitive Mode 
Pr. Fieri. 

Per. Esse or fuisse factus, -a, -um. 
Fut. Factum iri. 


Per. Factus, -a, -um. 
Fut. Faciendus, -a, -um. 

The compounds of facio which retain a, have alsoj^o in the passive, and 
fac in the imperative active ; as, calefacio, to warm, calefio, calefac : but 
those which change a into i, form the passive regularly, and have flee in 
the imperative ; as, conficio, confice ; conficior, confici, confectus. We 
find, however, confit, it is done, and confieri; deft, it is wanting; infit, he 

To irregular verbs may properly be subjoined what are 
commonly called Neuter Passive Verbs, which, like fio> 
form the preterite tenses according to the passive voice, and 
the rest in the active. These are, sole®, soltre, solltus, to use; 
audeo, audere, ausus, to dare; gaudeo, gaudere, gavlsus, to 
rejoice; fido, fidere, fisus, to trust. So, confldo, to trust; 
and diffido, to distrust; which also have confidi, and diff'idi. 
Some add mcereo, mozrere, mcestus, to be sad; but mxstus is 
generally reckoned an adjective. We likewise say juratus 


sum and coznatus sum, for juravi and coznavi, but these may 
also be taken in a passive sense. 

To these may be referred verbs wholly active in their ter- 
mination, and passive in their signification; as, vapido, -dvi, 
-atum, to be beaten or whipped; vcneo, to be sold; exulo, to be 
banished, &c. 


Verbs are called Defective, which are not used in certain 
tenses, numbers, and persons. 

These three, odi, coepi, and memini, are only used in the 
preterite tenses; and therefore are caJed Preteritive Verbs } 
though they have sometimes likewise a present signification, 

Odi, I hate, or have hated, oderam, oderim, odissem, odero, 
odisse. Participles, osus, osurus ; exbsus, perosus. 

Ccepi, I begin, or have begun, cozperam, -erim, -issem, -ero, 
-isse. Supine, cc&plu. Participles, cozptus, cozptitrus. 

Memini, I remember, or have remembered, memineram, 
-mm, -issem, -ero, -isse. Imperative, memento, mementote. 

Instead of odi, we sometimes say, osus sum: and always 
exbsus, perosus sum, and not exodi, perodi. We say, opus 
ccepit fieri, or cozptum est. 

To these some add novi, because it frequently has the sig- 
nification of the present / know, as well as, / have known, 
though it comes from nosco, which is complete. 

Fiiro, to be mad, dor, to be given, and for, to speak, as also 
der and fer, are not used in the first person singular; thus 
we say, daris, datur; but never dor. 

Of verbs which want many of their chief parts, the follow 
ing most frequently occur: Jlio, I say; inquam, I say; forem i 
I should be; ausim, contracted for ausus sim, I dare; faxim 
I'll see to it, or I will do it; ave and salve, save you, hail, 
good-morrow: cedo, tell thou, or give me; auceso, I pray. 

Ind. Pr. Aio, ais, ait; aiunt. 

Imp. Aiebam, -ebas, -ebat ; -ebamus, -ebatis, -ebant. 

Per. aisti, 

Sub Pr. aias, aiat; aiatis, aiant. 

imp Ai. Part. Pr. Aiens. 

ind. Pr. Inquam, -quis, -quit; -quimus, -quitis, -quiunt 

Imp. inquiebat; inquiebant 

Per. inquisti, 

Fut. inquies, inquiet; 

[mp. Inque. inquito. Part. Pr. Inquions. 

*p > Furem, fores, foret ; foremus, forStis, forent 



*nf. Fore, to be hereafter, or to be about to be, the same with esse futurus. 

Sub. Pr. Ausim, ausis, ausit; 

Per. Faxim, faxis, faxit; faxint. 

Fut. Faxo, faxis, faxit ; faxitis, faxint 

Note. Faxim and faxo are used instead offecerim and fecero. 
Imp. Ave or aveto; plur. avete or avetote. Inf. avere. 

Salve or salveto ; -=• salvete or salvetote. — salvere. 

Ind. Fut. Salvebis. 

Imp. second pers. sing. Cedo, plur. cedite. 

Ind. PR-ES.jirst pers. sing. Quseso, plur. quaesumus. 

Most of the other Defective verbs are but single words, and rarely to 
be found, but among the poets : as, infit, he begins ; defit, it is wanting 
Some are compounded of a verb and the conjunction si ; as, sis, for si vis. t 
if thou wilt ; sidtis, for si mdtis ; sodes, for si audes ; equivalent to quceso, 
I pray ; capsis, for cape si vis. 


A verb is called Impersonal, which has only the terminations of the 
third person singular, but does not admit any person or nominative before 

Impersonal verbs, in English, have before them the neuter pronoun it, 
which is not considered as a person; thus, delectat, it delights; decet % it 
becomes ; contingit, it happens ; evenit, it happens : 

1st. Conj. 

2d. Conj. 

3d. Conj. 

4th. Conj 


Pr. Delectat, 




Imp. Delectabat, 




Per. Delectavit, 




Plu. Delectaverat, 




Fut. Delectabit. 





Pr. Delectet, 




Imp. Delectaret, 




Per. Delectaverit, 




Plu. Delectavisset, 




Fut. Delectaverit. 





Pr. Delectare. 



E venire. 

Per. Delectavisse. 




Most Latin verbs may be used impersonally in the passive voice, espe 
cially Neuter and Intransitive verbs, which otherwise have no passive, 
as. pugnatur, fdvetur, curritur, venitur ; from pugno, to fight; faveo, ta 
favour ; curro, to run ; venio, to come : 

Ind. Pr. Pugnatur, 
Imp. Pugnabatur, 
Per. Pugnatum est, 
Plu. Pugnatum erat, 

Fautum est, 
Fautum erat, 

Cursum est, 
Cursum era,t, 

Ventura est, 
Ventum erat, 

•Sub Pr. Pugnetur, P'aveatur, Curratur, Veniatur, 

Imp Pugnaretur, Faveretur, Curreretur, Veniretur, 

Per Pugnatum sit, Fautum sit, Cursum sit, Ventum sit, 

Plu. Pugnatum esset, Fautum esset, Cursum esset, Ventum esset ; 

Iut. Pugnatum fuerit. Fautunr r * ^rit Cursum fuerit Ventum fu^nt 


Inf. Pr. Pugnari. Faveri. Curri. VenTri. 

Per. Pugnatum esse. Fautum esse. Cursum esse. Ventum esse. 
Fut. Pugnatum iri. Fautum iri. Cursum iri. Ventum iri. 

Obs. 1. Impersonal verbs are scarcely used in the imperative ; but in- 
Btea.d of that we use the subjunctive ; as, delectet, let it delight ; &c. nor 
in the supines, participles, or gerunds, except a few ; as, pamitcns, -dam, 
-dus, &c. Induct ad pudendum et pigendum. Cic. In the preterite tenses 
of the passive voice, the participle perfect is always put in the neuter gen- 

Obs. 2. Grammarians reckon only ten real impersonal verbs, and ail in 
the second conjugation ; decet, it .becomes; p&nitet, it repents; oportet, it 
behoves; miseret, it pities; piget, it irketh; pudet, it shameth ; licet, it is 
lawful ; libct or lubct, it pleaseth ; tcedet, it wearieth ; liquet, it appears. 
Of which the following have a double preterite ; miseret, miseruit, or 
misertum est; piget, piguit, or pigitum est; pudet, puduit, or puditum est; 
licet, licuit, or licltum est ; libet, libuit, or libitum est ; tcedet, taiduit, t&sum 
est, oftener pertasum est. But many other verbs are used impersonally in 
all the conjugations. 

In the first, Juvat, spectol, vdcat, stat, constat, pr&stat, restat, &c. 

In the second, Apparet, attinet, pertinet, debet, dolet, nocet, latet, liquet, 
oatet, placet, displicet, sedet, solet, &c. 

In the third, Accidit, incipit, desinit, sufficit, &c. 

In the fourth, Convenit, ejpcdit, &c. 

Also, irregular verbs, Est, obest, prodest, potest, interest, superest ; jit, 
pr&terit,, and nequltur, subit, confert, refert, &c. 

Obs. 3. Under impersonal verbs may be comprehended those which ex- 
press the operations or appearances of nature ; as, Fulgurat, fulminat, 
tonat, grandinat, gelat, pluit, ningit, lucescit, advesperascit, &c. 

Obs. 4. Impersonal verbs are applied to any person or number, by put 
ting that w T hich stands before other verbs, after the impersonals, in the 
cases which they govern ; as, placet mihi, tibi, illi, it pleases me, thee, 
him ; or I please, thou pleasest, &c. pugnatuf a me, a te, ab illo, I fight. 
thou tightest, he fighteth, &c. So, Curritur, venitur a me, a te, &c. I run, 
thou runnest, &c. Favetur tibi a me, Thou art favoured by me, or I fa 
vour thee, &c. 

Obs. 5. Verbs are used personally or impersonally, according to the par- 
ticular meaning which they express, or the different import of the words 
with which they are joined : thus, we can say, ego placeo tibi, I please 
you ; but we cannot say, si places audire, if you please to hear, but si pla- 
cet tibi audire. So we can say, multa liomlni contingunt, many things 
happen to a man ; but instead of ego contigi esse domi, we must either say > 
me contigit esse domi, or mihi contigit esse domi, I happened to be at home. 
The proper and elegant use of Impersonal verbs can onlv be acquired by 


Those are called Redundant Verbs, which have different 
forms to express the same sense: thus, assentio and assentior, 
to agree; fabrico and fabrtcor, to frame; mereo and mereor, to 
deserve, &c These verbs, however, under the passive form 
have likewise a passive signification. 

Several verbs are used in different conjugations 


1. Some are usually of the first conjugation, and rarely of the third as, 
lavo, lavas, lavare; and lavo, lavis, lavere, to wash. 

2 Some are usually of the second, and rarely of the third; as, 
Ferveo, ferves ; and fervo, fervis, to boil. 
Fulgeo, fulges ; and fulgo, fulgis, to shine. 

Strideo, strides ; and strldo, stridis, to make a hissing noise, to creak. 
Tueor, tueris, and tuor, tueris, to defend. 

To these add tergeo, terges ; and tergo, tergis, to wipe, which are equal!} 

3. Some are commonly of the third conjugation, and rarely of the fourth * 

Fodio, fodis, fodere, and fodio, fodis, fodire, to dig. 
Sallo, sallis, sallere, and sallio, sallis, salllre, to salt. 
Arcesso, -is, arcessere, and arcessio, arcessire, to send for. 
Morior, moreris, mori, and morior, morlris, morlri, to die. 
So, Orior, oreris, and orior, orlris, orlri, to rise. 
Potior, poteris, and potior, potiris, potlri, to enjoy. 

There is likewise a verb, which is usually of the second conjugation 
and more rarely of the fourth, namely, cieo, ties, ciere; and do, cis, clre, to 
rouse ; whence, acclre and accltus. 

To these we may add the verb EDO, to eat, which, though regularly 
formed, also agrees in several of its parts with sum; thus, 

Ind. Pres. Edo, edis or es, edit or est ; ediiis or estis 

Sab. Imperf. Ederem or essem, ederes or esses, &c. 

Imp. Ede or es, edlto or esto ; edite or este; editote or estate. 

Inf. Pres. Edere or esse. 

Passive Ind. Pres. Editor or estur. 

It may not be improper here to subjoin a list of those verbs which re- 
semble one another in some of their parts, tnough they differ in significa- 
tion. Of these some agree in the present, some in the preterite, and 
others in the supine. 

1. The following agree in the present, but are differently 

Aggero, -as, to heap up. Aggero, -is, to hring together. 

\ppeilo, -as, to call. Appello, -is, to drive to, to arrive- 

Uompello, -as, to address. Compello, -is, to drive together. 

Colligo, -as, to bind. Colligo, -is, to gather togethei. 

Consterno, -as, to astonish. Consterno, -is, to strew. 

EfTero, -as, to enrage. Effero, -fers, to bring out. 

Fundo, -as, to found. Fundo, -is, to pour out. 

Mando, -as, to command. Mando, -is, to chew. 

Obsgro, -as, to lock. Gbsero, -is, to beset. 

Volo, -as, to fly. Volo, vis, to will. 

Of this class some have a different quantity; as, 

Colo, -as, to strain. Colo, -is, to till. 

Dico, -as, to dedicate. Dico, -is, to say. 

Educo, -as, to train up* Educo, -is, to lead forth. 

Legro, -as, to send on an embassy. I^go> -is, to read. 

Vp.cU, -as, to wadt. Vado, -is, to go. 


2. The following verbs agree in the preterite: 

Aceo, acui, to be sour. Acuo, acui, to sharpen. 

Cresco, crevi, to grow. Cerno, crevi, to see. 

Frigeo, frixi, to be cold. Frigo, frixi, to fry. 

Fulgeo, fuJsi, to shine. Fulcio, fulsi, to prop. 

Luceo, luxi, to shine. Lugeo, luxi, to mourn. 

Paveo, pavi, to be afraid. Pasco, pavi, to feed. 

Pendeo, pependi, to hang. Pendo, pependi, to weigh. 

3. The following agree in the supine: 

Cresco, cretum. to grow. Cerno, cretum, to behold. 

Maneo, mansum, to stay. Mando, mansum, to chew 

Sto, statum, to stand. Sisto, statum, to stop. 
Succenseo, -censum, to be angry. Succendo, -censum, to kindle. 

Teneo, tentum, to hold. Tendo, tentum, to stretch out. 

Verro, versum, to siceep. Verto, versum, to turn. 

Vinco, victum, to overcome. Vivo, victum, to live. 


This chiefly occurs in old writers, and only in particular conjugations 
and tenses. 

1. The ancient Latins made the imperfect of the indicative active of 
the fourth conjugation in I BAM without the e; as, audlbam, sclbam, for 
audiebam, sciebam. 

2. In the future of the indicative of the fourth conjugation, they used 
IBO in the active, and ibor in the passive voice; as, do?'mlbo } dormlbor y 
for dormiam, dormiar. 

3. The present of the subjunctive anciently ended in IM ; as, edim for 
edam ; duim for dem. 

4. The perfect of the subjunctive active sometimes occurs in SSTM, 
and the future in SSO ; as, levassim, levasso, for levaverim, levavero ; 
capsim, capso, for ceperim, cepero. Hence the future of the infinitive was 
formed in ASSERE ; as, levassere, for levaturus esse. 

5. In the second person of the present of the imperative passive, we 
find MIJYO in the singular, and minor in the plural ; as,y amino, foi fare, 
and progredimlnor , for progredimini. 

6. The syllable ER was frequently added to the present of the infinitive 
passive; as , farier , for fari ; dicier, for dici. 

7. The participles of the future time active, and perfect passive, when 
joined with the verb esse, were sometimes used as indeclinable ; thus, 
credo inimicos dicturum esse, for dicturos. Cic. Cohortes ad me missum 
facias for missas. Cic. ad. Attic, viii. 12. 


I. Verbs are derived either from nouns or from other 

Verbs derived from nouns are called Denominative; 

as, Cozno, to sup ; laudo, to praise ; fraudo, to defraud ; lapldo, to throw 
stones; operor, to work; frumentor, to forage; lignor, to gather fuel; 
&c. from coma, laus, fraus, &c. But when they express imitation or 
resemblance, they ai^ called Imitative; as, Patrisso t Grctcor, bubulo, 


cornlcor, &c. I imitate or resemble my father, a Grecian, an owl, a crow 
<fcc. from pater, Gracus, bubo, comix. 

Of those derived from other verbs, the following chiefly deserve atten 
tion ; namely, Frequentatives, Inceptives, and Desideratives. 

1. FREQUENTATIVES express frequency of action, and are all of the 
first conjugation. They are formed from the last supine, by changing 
dtu into Uo, in verbs of the first conjugation; and by changing u into 
o, in verbs of the other three conjugations ; as, clamo, to cry, clamito, to 
cry frequently ; terreo, territo; verto, verso; dormio, dormito. 

In like manner, Deponent verbs form Frequentatives in or, as, mino*, 
to threaten ; minitor, to threaten frequently. 

Some are formed in an irregular manner; as, nato; nosciCo 
from no sco ; scitor, or rather sciscitor, from scio ; pavlto, from pavto, 
sector, from sequor ; loquitor, from loquor. So, qucerito, fundito, aglto, 
jiulto, &c. 

From Frequentative verbs are also formed other Frequentatives ; as, 
curro, cur so, cur si to ; pello, pulso, pulsito, or by contraction pulto ; capio, 
capto, captito ; cano, canto, cantito ; defcndo, defenso, defensito ; dico, 
dicto, dictlto ; gero, gesto, gestito ; jacio, jacto, jactito ; venio, vento, 
ventlto ; mutio, musso, (for mutlto), mussito, &c. 

Verbs of this kind do not always express frequency of action. Many 
of them have much the same sense with their primitives, or express the 
meaning more strongly. 

2. INCEPTIVE Verbs mark the beginning or continued increase of 
any thing. They are formed from the second person singular of the pre- 
sent of the indicative, by adding co : as, caleo, to be hot, coles, calesco, to 
grow hot. So in the other conjugations, tabasco, from labo ; tremisco 
from tremo ; obdormisco, from obdormio. Hisco, from hio, is contracted 
for Masco. Inceptives are likewise formed from substantives and ad- 
jectives; as, puerasco, from puer ; dulcesco, from dulcis ; juvenesco, from 

All Inceptives are neuter verbs, and of the third conjugation. They 
want both the preterite and supine ; unless very rarely, when they bor 
row them from their primitives. 

3. DESIDERATIVE Verbs signify a desire or intention of doing a 
thing. They are formed from the latter supine by adding rio, and short- 
ening the u; as, cosndturio, I desire to sup, from coindtu. They are all 
of the fourth conjugation; and want both preterite and supine, except 
these three, tsurio, -ivi, -iturti, to desire to eat; parturio, ivi, — to be in 
travail ; nupturio, -ivi, — , to desire to be married. 

There are a few verbs in LLO, which are called Diminutive ; as, can- 
tillo, sorbillo, -are, I sing, I sup a little. To these some add albico, and 
candico, -are, to be, or to grow whitish ; also, nigrico, fodico, and vellico. 
Some verbs in SSO are called Intensive ; as, Capesso, facesso, petesso^ 
or petisso, I take, I do, I seek earnestly. 

II. Verbs are compounded with nouns, with other verbs, with abverbs, 
and chiefly with prepositions. Many of the simple verbs are not in use ; 
as, Futo, fendo, specio, gruo, &c. The component parts usually re- 
main entire. Sometimes a letter is added ; as, prodeo, for pro-eo ; or 
taken away ; as, asporto, omitto, trado, pejero, pergo, debeo, praibeo, &c. 
for ahsporto, obmitto, transdo, perjuro, perrego, dehibeo, pr&hibeo, &c. 
So, demo, promo, sumo, of de, pro, sub, and emo, which anciently signi- 
fied, to take, or to take away. Often the vowel or diphthong of the 
simple verb, aid the last consonant of the preposition is changed; as 


tiamnoy condemno ; calco, conculco : Icedo, collldo; audio, obedio, <fcc 
Afflro, aufgro, Maudo, impVico, &c. for adfero, abfero, conlaudo, in* 
ylicOy &c. 


A Participle is a kind of Adjective formed from a verb, 
which in its signification implies time 

It is so called, because it partakes both of an adjective and of a verb 
having, in Latin, gender and declension from the one, time and significa- 
tion from the other, and number from both. 

Participles in Latin are declined like adjectives ; and their significa- 
tion is various, according to the nature of the verbs from which they 
come , only participles in dus, are always passive, and import not so 
much future time, as obligation or necessity. 

Latin verbs have four Participles, the present and future 
active; as, Amans, loving; amatiirus, about to love; and the 
perfect and future passive; as, ambitus, loved; amandus, to be 

The Latins have not a participle perfect in the active, nor a participle 
present in the passive voice ; which defect must be supplied by a circum- 
locution. Thus, to express the perfect participle active in English, we 
use a conjunction, and the pluperfect of the subjunctive in Latin, or some 
other tense, according to its connexion with the other words of a sen- 
tence ; as, he having loved ; quum amavisset, &c. 

Neuter verbs have commonly but two Participles; as, 
Sedens, sessurus ; starts, staturus. 

From some Neuter verbs are formed Participles of the perfect tense ; 
as, Errdtus, festindtus, jurdtus, labordtus, vigildtus, cessdtus, suddtus, 
triumphdtus, regndtus, decursus, desitus, emeritus, emersus, obitus, pla- 
cltus, successus, occdsus, &c. and also of the future in dus ; as, Jurandus, 
vigilandus, regnandus, carcndus, dormiendus, erubescendus, &c. Neuter 
passive verbs are equally various. Veneo has no participle : Fido, only 
fidens and fisus ; soleo, solens, and solitus ; vapulo, vapulans, and vapu- 
laturus ; Gaudeo, gaudens, gavlsus, and gavisurus ; Audeo, audens, ausus, 
ausiirus, audendus. Ausus is used both in an active and passive sense ; 
as, Ausi omnes immdne nefas, ausoque potlti. Virg. JEn. vi. 624. 

Deponent and Common verbs have commonly four Par- 
ticiples; as, 

Loquens, speaking ; locuturus, about to speak ; locv.tus, having spoken ; 
loquendus,to be spoken. Dignans, vouchsafing; dignatvrus , about to 
vouchsafe ; digndtus, having vouchsafed, being vouchsafed, or having 
been vouchsafed ; dignandus, to be vouchsafed. Many participles of the 
perfect tense from Deponent verbs have both an active and passive sense ; 
as, Abomindtus , condtus, confcssus, adortus, amplexus, blandxtus, largltus^ 
mentltus, oblltus, testdtus, venerdtus, &c. 

There are several Participles, compounded with in, sig- 
nifying not, the verbs of which do not admit of such compo- 
sition, as, 


Insciens, insperans, indicens for non dicens, inoplnans and necoplnans, 
immerens ; Illaisus, impransus, inconsvltus, incustoditus, immetdtus, im 
punltus, impardtus, incomitdtus, incomptus, indemndtus, indotdtus, in- 
corruptus, intcrritus, and imperterritu^, intestdtus, inausns, inopindtus 1 
inultiis, incensus for non census, not registered ; infectus for non f actus , 
inuis^j-s for non visits ; indictus for non dictus, &c. There is a different 
incensus from incendo ; infectus from injicio ; invlsus from invideo ; indie- ' 
tus from indlco, &c. 

If from the signification of a Participle we take away timt e 
it becomes an adjective, and admits the degrees of compari-^ 
son; as, 

Amans, loving, amantior, amantissimus ; doctus, learned, doctior, doc- 
tissimus : or a substantive ; as, Prccfectus, a commander or governor j 
consonans, f. sc. litera, a consonant ; continens, f. sc. terra, a continent , 
confluens, m. a place where two rivers run together ; oriens, m. sc. sol, 
the east) occidens, m. the west ; dictum, a saying ; scriptum, &c. 

There are many words in ATUS, ITUS, 'and UTUS, which, although 
resembling participles, are reckoned adjectives, because they come from 
nouns, and not from verbs ; as, aldtus, barbdtus, corddtus, cauddtus, cris- 
tdtus, auritus, pellitus, turrltus ; astutus, cornutus, nasutus, &c. winged, 
bearded, discreet, &c. But aurdtus, cerdtus, argentdtus, ferrdtus, plum- 
bdtus, gypsdtus, calcedtus, clypedtus, galedtus, tuniedtus, larvdtt&s, palli- 
dtus, lymjmdtus, purpurdtus, prcetextdtus , &c. covered with gold, brass, 
silver, &c. are accounted participles, because they are supposed to come 
from obsolete verbs. So perhaps calamistrdtus, frizzled, crisped, or curl- 
ed, crinltus, having long hair, perltus, skilled, &c. 

There is a kind of Verbal adjectives in BUNDUS, formed from the 
imperfect of the indicative, which very much resemble Participles in their 
signification, but generally express the meaning of the verb more fully, 
or denote an abundance or great deal of the action ; as, vitabundus, the 
same with valde nitans, avoiding much. Sal. Jug. 60. and 101. Liv. xxv 
13. So, errabundus, ludibundus , papulabundus , moribundus, &c. 

Gerunds and Supines. 
GERUNDS are participial words, which bear the significa- 
tion of the verb from which they are formed; and are declined 
like a neuter noun of the second declension, through all the 
cases of the singular number, except the vocative. 

There are, both in Latin and English, substantives derived from the 
verb, which so much resemble the Gerund in their signification, that fre- 
quently they may be substituted in its place. They are generally used, 
however, in a more undetermined sense than the Gerund, and in English 
have the article always prefixed to them. Thus, with the Gerund, Detec- 
tor legendo Ciceronem, I am delighted with reading Cicero. But with 
the substantive, B elector lectione Ciceronis, I am delighted with the read- 
ing of Cicero. 

The Gerund and Future Participle of verbs in io, and some others, 
often take u instead of e; as, faciundum, -di, -do, -dus ; experiundum, 
votiundum, gerundum, petundum, duevndum, &c. fox faciendum, &c. 

SUPINES have much the same signification with Gerunds- 
and may be indifferently applied to any person or number 



They agree in termination with nouns of the fouitn declen- 
sion, having only the accusative and ablative cases. 

The former Supine is commonly used in an active, and the 
latter in a passive sense, but sometimes the contrary; as, coc- 
tum non vapulatum, dudum conductus fui, i. e. ut vapuldrem, or 
verberarer, to be beaten. Plaut. 


An adverb is an indeclinable part of speech, added to a verb, 
adjective, or other adverb, to express some circumstance, 
quality, or manner of their signification. 

All adverbs may be divided into two classes, namely, those 
which denote Circumstance ; and those which denote Quality, 
Manner y &c. 

I. Adverbs denoting CIRCUMSTANCE are chiefly those 
of Place, Time, and Order. 

1. Adverbs of Place are five-fold, namely, such as signify, 

1. Motion or rest in a place. 




Where f 







Illic, ) 



Isthic, > 




Ibi, ) 


Towards the right. 




Towards the left. 




Every where. 

4. Motion from a place 


No where. 

Unde ? 

Wience f 

Alicubi , 

Some where. 




Else where. 

Illinc, } 


Any where. 

Isthinc, > 



In the same place 

Inde, ) 


From the same place. 


Motion to a place. 


From elsewhere. 


Whither ? 


From some place. 




If from any place. 

liluc, ) 
Isthuc, y 



On both sides. 


From above. 




From below. 

For as, 



From heaven. 


To that place. 


From the ground. 


To another place. 


To some place. 

5. Motion through or by a place. 


To the same place 

Qua ? 

Which way? 


This xoay. 

3. Motion towards a place. 
Quorsum t Whitherward f 


That way. 




Another toay. 


Hither ward. 




2. Adverbs of Time are three-fold, namely, such as sig- 

1 . Some particular time, either pres 

- Nunquam, 


ent , past, future, or indefinite. 


In the mean timt. 







2. Continuance of time 

Tunc, ) 
Turn, 5 




Quamdiu ? 

How long ? 




So long. 

Dudum, ) 
Pride m, ) 


Jamdiu, } 
Jumdudum, > 

Long ago. 


The day before. 

Jampri'dem, } 

Nudius tertius, 

Three days ago. 

3. Vicissitude 

or repetition of time. 



Quoties : 

How often ? 

Jamjam, ^ 




Mox, > 




Statim, 3 

By and by. 


So often. 




For several times 

Illi co, 


Vicissim, ) 
Alternatim, ) 

By turns. 


The day after. 

Rursus, ) 
Iterum, 5 



Two days hence. 


Not yet. 

Subinde, ) 
Identidem, $ 

Ever and anon. 

Quando ? 


now and then. 

Aliquando, ' 




> Sometimes. 







Ever, always. 


Four times, &c. 

3. Adverbs of Order. 



D em que, 



After that. 





Primo, -urn, 




Secundo, -urn, 



So forth. 

Tertio, -um, 




Quarto, -um, 

Fourthly, &c. 

II. Adverbs denoting QUALITY, MANNER, &c. are either Absolutt 
or Comparative. 

Those called Absolute denote, 

1. QUALITY, simply ; as, bene, well ; malh, ill ; fortiter, bravely ; and 
innumerable others that come from adjective nouns or participles. 

2. CERTAINTY ; as, profectd, certh, sanh, plant, nee, uiique, ita, ltiam, 
trul} , verily, yes ; quidni, why not ? omnino, certainly. 

3. CONTINGENGE ; as, forte, forsan, fortassis, fors, haply, perhaps, 
by chance, peradventure. 

4. NEGATION; as, non, haud, not; nequdquam, not at all, neuti- 
quam, by no means ; minime, nothing less. 

5. PROHIBITION ; as, ne, not. 

6. SWEARING ; as, hercle, pol, edepol, mecastor, by Hercules, by Pol- 
lux, &c. 

7. EXPLAINING; as, utpote, videlicet, scilicet, nlmlrum, nempe, to 
wit namely. 


8. SEPARATION ; as, seorsum, apart ; sepdratim, separately ; slgil- 
latim, one by one ; vtrltim, man by man ; oppiddtim, town by town, &c. 

9 JOINING TOGETHER; as, slmul, una, pdfiter, together; gen£~ 
rahter, generally ; universaliter , universally ; plerumque, for the most 

10. INDICATION or POINTING OUT; as, en, ecce, lo, behold. 

11. INTERROGATION ; as, cur, qudre, quamobrcm, why, wherefore? 
num, en, whether ? quomodo, qui, how? To which add, Ubi, quo, quor- 
sum, unde, qua, quando, quamdiu, quoties. 

Those adverbs which are called Comparative denote, 

1. EXCESS ; as, valde, maxime, magnopere, inazimopere, summopere, 
admodum, opjndo, perquam, longd, greatly, very much, exceedingly 
nimis, nimiuin, too much ; prorsus, penitus, omnlno, altogether, wholly 
magis, more ; melius, better ; pejus, worse ; fortius, more bravely ; and 
optimk, best; pesslmb, worst; fortissime, most bravely; and innumera- 
ble others of the comparative and superlative degrees. 

2. DEFECT; as, Fermb, fere, propemodum, penh, almost; pdrum 
little; paulb , paululunx, very little. 

3. PREFERENCE; as, potiiis, sdtius, rather; potissimum, prcecipub, 
prccsertim, chiefly, especially; imo, yes, nay, nay rather. 

4. LIKENESS or EQUALITY; as, tta, sic, aded, so; ut, uti, sicut, 
sicuti, velut, veluti, ecu, tanquam, quasi, as, as if; quemadmddum, even 
as ; satis, enough ; Itldem, in like manner; juxta, alike, equally. 

5. UNLIKENESS or INEQUALITY; as, aliter, secus, otherwise; 
alioqui or alioquin, else ; nedum, much more, or much less. 

6. ABATEMENT; as, sensini, pauldtim, pedetentim, by degrees, piece- 
meal; vix, scarcely; cegre, hardly, with difficulty. 

7. EXCLUSION; as ? tantum, solum, modd, tantummodo, duntazat, 
demum, only. 


Adverbs are derived, 1. from Substantives, and end commonly in TIM 
or TUS ; as, Partim, partly, by parts; nomindtim, by name; generdtim, 
by kinds, generally ; specidtim, viedtim, gregdtim ; radlcltus, from the 
root, &c. 2. From adjectives : and these are by far the most numerous. 
Such as come from Adjectives of the first and second declension usually 
end in E; as, Mere, freely; plend, fully: some in O, UM, and TER; 
KS,falsd,tantmri, graviter : a few in A, ITUS, and IM ; as, recta, anti- 
qultus, privdtim. Some are used two or three ways; as, primum, or -d , 
purl, -iter; certe, -6 ; caute,-tim; humanb, -iter, -itus ; publice, publici- 
tus, &c. Adverbs from Adjectives of the third declension commonly end 
in TER, seldom in E; as, turplter , feliciter , acriter , parlter ; facilk, , re* 
pente : one in O, omnlno. The neuter of Adjectives is sometimes taken 
adverbially; as, recens natus, for recenter ; perfidum ridens, for perfide, 
Her. multa reluctans, for multum or valde, Virg. So in English we say, 
to speak lo-ud, high, &c. for loudly, highiy, &c. In many cases a substan- 
tive is understood; as, primd, sc. loco: optatd advenis, sc. tempore; hac, 
sc. vid, &c. 

3.. From each of the pronominal adjectives, Me, iste, hie, is, idem, &c 
are formed adverbs, which express all the circumstances of place; as, 
from ille, illic, illuc, illorsum, Mine, and Mac. So from quis, ubi, quo^ 
quorsum, unde, and qua also of time ; thus, quando, quamdiu, &c. 

4. From verbs and participles ; as, caisim, with the edge ; punctim 
With tne point , strictivi, closely ; from ccedo, pungo } stringo ; amanUr 

160 ADVZJt . 

properanter, dubitanter ; distincte*, emendate* ; meritd , inopin&to , &c. But 
these last are thought to be in the ablative, having ex understood. 

5. From prepositions ; as, intus, intro > from in; clanculum, from dam\ 
mbtus, from sub, &c. 

Adverbs derived from adjectives are commonly compared 
like their primitives. The positive generally ends in e, or ter; 
as, dure, facile, acriter: the comparative, in ius ; as, duriits, 
faciliiis, acriiis: the superlative, mime; as, durissime, facilli 
me, acerrime 

If the comparison of the adjective be irregular or defective, the com- 
parison of the adverb is so too, as, bent, melius, optimb ; malt, pejus, 
r/essi?ub ; pariim, minus, minime, fy -um ; multum, plus, plurimum ; prope, 
propiiis, proxime ; ocyiis, ocyssime; priiis, primb, -um ; nuper, nuperrl- 
mb ; novb, fy noviter , novissimb ; meritd, meritissimo, &c. Those adverbs 
also are compared whose primitives are obsolete ; as, scepe, scepiiis, scepis 
slme ; peniliis, penitius, venitissime ; satis, satius ; secus, seciiis, &c. Ma~ 
2*25, maximd ; and potius, potissimum, want the positive. 

Adverbs are variously compounded with all the different parts of 
speech ; thus, postridie, magnopere, maximopere, summopere, tantoplre 
multimodis, omnimodis, quomodo, quarc ; of postero die, magno opere, 
&c. Ilicet, scilicet, videlicet, of ire, scire, videre, licet ; illico, of in loco , 
quorsum, of quo versum; commlnus, hand to hand, of cum or con and ma- 
ins , eminus, at a distance, of e and manus ; quorsum, of quo versum', 
denuo, anew, of de novo ; quin, why not, but, of qui ne ; cur, of cui rei ; 
pcdetentim, step by step, as it were, of pedem tendendo ; perendie, for 
perempto die; nimirum, of ne, i. e. non, and mirum; antea, postea, pra- 
terea, &c. of ante and ea, &c. Ubivis, quovis, undelibet, quousque, sicut, 
sicuti, velut, veluti, desuper, insuper, quamobrem, &c. of uoi and vis, &c. 
nudiustertius , of nunc dies tertius ; identidem, of idem et idem; imprasen- 
tidrum, i. e. in tempore reru.n, pr&sentium, &c. 

Obs. 1. The Adverb is not an essential part of speech. It only serves 
to express shortly, in one word, what must otherwise have required two 
or more; as, sapienter, wisely, for cum sapientid ; hie, for in hoc loco; 
semper, for in omni tempore; semel, for und vice; bis, for duabus viclbus : 
Mehercule, for Hercules mejuvet, &c. 

Obs. 2. Some adverbs of time, place, and order, are frequently used 
the one for the other; as, ubi, where, or when; inde, from that place, 
from that time, after that, next ; hactenus, hitherto, thus far, with respect 
to place, time, or order, &c. 

Obs. 3. Some adverbs of time are either past, present, or future; as, 
jam, already, now, by and by; olim, long ago, some time, hereafter. 
Some adverbs of place are equally various; thus, esse peregrb, to be 
abroad; ire peregrb, to go abroad; redlre peregre, to return from 

Obs. 4. Interrogative adverbs of time and place doubled, or compound- 
ed with cunque, answer to the English adjection soever ; as, ubiubi, oi 
ubicunque, wheresoever; quoqud, qudcunque, whithersoever, &c. The 
same holds also in interrogative words ; as, quotquot, or quotcunque, how 
many soever ; quuntusquantus, or quantus cunque, how grreat soever ; utut* 
or utcunque, however or hovrsoever &,a. 




A Preposition is an indeclinable word, which shows the re- 
lation of one thing to another. 

There are twenty-eight prepositions in Latin, which govern 
the accusative; that is, have an accusative after them. 








Nigh to. 





Ad versus, 

> Against, towards. 


For, hard by. 
By, through. 




Besides, except. 

Cis, > 
Citra, 5 

On this side. 



In the power of. 

After. . 

Circa, > 
Circum, ) 





By, along 




According to 






Between, among. 


On the farther side 





The Prepositions which govern 

the ablative are 

fifteen ; name 1 y : 

A, ) 


Of, concerning. 

Ab, V 
Abs, ) 

From or by. 

E, > 
Ex, 5 

Of, out of. 










C Without the knowl- 
{ edge of. 


i With tfte knowledge 
I of. 

(^jfivft m 

i Before, in thepres- 
( ence of. 



\J*Jl. Chill, 


Up to, as far as. 

These four govern sometimes the accusative, and sometimes the abla- 

In, In, into. Sub, Under. Super, Above. Subter, Beneath. 

Obs. 1. Prepositions are so called, because they are generally placed 
before the word with which they are joined. Some, however, are put 
after ; as, cum, when joined with me, te, se, and sometimes with juo, qui, 
and quibus : thus, mecum, tecum, &c. Tenus is always placed after; as, 
vtcnto tenus, up to the chin. So likewise are versus and usque, and 
ward, in English; as, toward, eastward, &c. 

Obs. 2. Prepositions, both in English and Latin, are often compound- 
ed with other parts of speech, particularly with verbs ; as, sulfite, to 
undergo. In English, they are frequently put after vt hs ; as, to go in, to 
go out, to hok to, &c. 

Prepositions are also sometimes compounded together; ! . Ex adver- 
sus cum locum. Cic. Ex adversum Athenas. C. Nep. In i nte diem 
(jtiiirtum Kalendarum decembris distulit, i. e. usque in eum div»i- Cic. 
buii/Mcatio indicta est ex ante diem quintum idus Octob. i. e. ab eo die, Liv. 
Ex ante pridie ldus Septembris. Plin. But prepositions compounded 




together commonly become adverbs or conjunctions; as, propalam, pro 
tlnus, insuper, <fcc. 

Obs. 3. Prepositions in composition usually retain their primitive sig- 
nification ; as, adeo, to go to : pr&pono, to place before. But from this 
there are several exceptions. 1. In, joined with adjectives generally de- 
notes privation ; as, infidus, unfaithful : but when joined with verbs, 
increases their signification ; as, induro, to harden greatly. In some 
words in has two contrary senses ; as, invocdtus, called upon, or not 
called upon. So, inframdtus, immutdtus, insu&tus, impensus, inhumdf as , 
intentdtus, &c. 2. Per commonly increases the signification ; as, Per- 
cdrns, perceler, percomis, percuriosus, perdifficilis, pcrelegans, pergrdtus, 
pergrdvis, perhospitdlis, perillustris, perlcetns, &c. very dear, very swift 
&c. 3. Pr^: sometimes increases; as, Pr (Belarus, praidlv^s, pradulcis, 
pr ccdiir us, prcepinguis, praivcdi dits ; prcevdleo, prazpolleo ; and also Ex; 
as, Excldmo, exaggero, exaugeo, excalefacio, extenuo, exhildro ; but ex 
sometimes denotes privation ; as, Exsa~,iguis, bloodless, pale : excors, 
exariimis, -mo, &c. 4. Sub often diminishes ; as, Subalbzdus, subabsur- 
dus, subamdms, subdulcis, subgrandis, subgrdvis, subniger ; &c. a little 
white or whitish, &c. De often signifies downward ; as, Decido, de- 
curro, degrdvo, despicio, deldbor : sometimes increases ; as, dedmor, 
demiror ; and sometimes expresses privation ; as, Demens, decolor, def&gh 
mis, &c. 

Obs. 4. There are five or six syllables, namely, am, di 
or dis, re, se, con, which are commonly called Inseparable 
Prepositions, because they are only to be found in compound 
words: however, they generally add something to the sig- 
nification of the words with which they are compounded; 

Di, > 
Dis, 5 

round about. "; 




aside, or apart. 




to surround, 
to pull asunder, 
to draw asunder. 
to read again, 
to lay aside, 
to grow together. 


An Interjection is an indeclinable word thrown in between 
the parts of a sentence, to express some passion or emotion 
of the mind. 

Some Interjections are natural sounds, and common to all language^ 
as, Oh! Ah! 

Interjections express in one word a whole sentence, and thus fitly re pie 
§ent the quickness of the passions. 

The differen* passions have commonlv different words to express theia 

1. JOV , as, evax! hey, brave, lo ! 

2. C aEF ; as, ah, hei, heu, eheu! ah, alas, woe is me ! 
3 .YONDER; &s,papai! O strange ! vah! hah' 

4. P R A I SE ; as, enge ! well done ! 

5. AVERSION ; as, apdge ' away, begone, avaunt, orT 3 lie, tush 9 


6. EXCLAIMING; as. Oh,proh! O! 

7. SURPRISE or FEAR; as, atat! ha, aha' 

8. IMPRECATION; as,wB.' woe, poxonV 

9. LAUGHTER; as, ha, ha, he! 

10. SILENCING; as, au, 'st, pax! silence, hush, 'st! 

11. CALLING; as, eho, ehodum, io, ho! soho, ho, O ! 

12. DERISION; a.s.hui! away with! 

13. ATTENTION; as, hem! ha! 

Some interjections denote several different passions ; thus, Vah is used 
to express joy, and sorrow, and wonder, &c. 

Adjectives of the neuter gender are sometimes used for interjections; 
%s, Malum! with a mischief ! Infandum! O shame ! fy, ly ! Miserum' 
O wretched ! Kef as ! O the villany ! 


A conjunction is an indeclinable word, which serves to join 
sentences together. 

Thus, " You and / and the boy read Virgil," is one sentence made up 
of these three, by the conjunction and, twice employed; / read Virgil, 
You read Virgil; The boy reads Virgil. In like manner, "You and I 
read Virgil, but the boy reads Ovid," is one sentence, made up of three, by 
the conjunctions and and but. 

Conjunctions, according to their different meaning, are divided into the 
following classes : 

1. COPULATIVE; as, et, at, atque, que, and; etiam, quoque, item^ 
also ; cum, turn, both, and. Also their contraries,, nee, nlque, neu, neve, 
neither, nor. 

2. DISJUNCTIVE ; as, aut, ve, vel, seu, sive, either, or. 

3. CONCESSIVE; as, etsi, etiamsi, tametsi, licet, quanquam, quamvis } 
though, although, albeit. 

4. ADVERSATIVE ; as, sed, verum, autem,, at, ast, atqui, but; tamen t 
attamen, veruntdmen, vcrumenimvero , yet, notwithstanding, nevertheless. 

5. CAUSAL; as, nam, namque, enim, for ; quia, quippe, quoniam, be- 
cause ; qudd. that, because. 

0. ILLATIVE or RATIONAL; as, ergo, tdeo, igitur, idcirco, itaque, 
therefore ; quapropter, quocirca, wherefore ; proinde, therefore ; cum, quum, 
seeinar, since ; quandoquidem, forasmuch as. 

7. FINAL or PERFECTIVE ; as, ut, uti; that, to the end that. 

8. CONDITIONAL ; as, si, sin, if; d!um, modo, dummodo, provided, 
upon condition that; siquidem, if indeed. 

9. EXCEPTIVE or RESTRICTIVE ; as, ni, nisi, unless, except. 

10. DIMINUTIVE ; as, saltern, certe, at least. 

11. SUSPENSIVE or DUBITATIVE; as, an, anne, num. whether , ne t 
aniwn, whether, not ; necne, or not. 

12. EXPLETIVE ; as, autem, vero, now, truly ; quidem, eqiddem, in- 

13. ORDINATIVE; as, deinde, thereafter; denlque, finally; insuper. 
moreover; cceterum, moreover, but, however. 

14. DECLARATIVE ; as, videlicet, scilicet, nempe,nimirum, &c. to wit, 

Obs. 1. The same words, as they are taken in different views, are both 
adverbs and conjunctions. Thus, an, anne, &c. are either interrogative 


fidvzrbs; as, An scribit? Does he write ? or t suspensive conjunctions ; as, 
Viscio an scribat, I know not if he writes. 

Obs. 2. Some conjunctions, according to their natural order, stand first 
in a sentence ; as, Ac, atque, nee, neque, aut, vel, sive, at, sed, veruin, nam, 
auandoquidem, quocirca, quare, sin, siquidem, prater quam, &c. ; some stand 
in the second place ; as, Autem, vero, quoque, quidem, enim : and some may 
indifferently be put either first or second ; as, Etiam, equidem. licet, quam- 
vis, quanquam, tamen, attdmen, namque, quod, quia, quoniam, quippe, utpote f 
ut, uti, ergo, ideo, igltur, idcirco, itdque, prow ie, -propter ca, si, ni, nisi, &c. 

Hence arose the division of them into Prepositive, Subjunc- 
tive, and Common. To the subjunctive may be added these 
three, que, ve, ne, which are always joined to some other word, 
and are called Enclitics ; because, when put after along sylla- 
ble, they make the accent incline to that syllable; as in the 
following verse, 

Indoctusque pilce, discive, trochlve, quiescit. Horat. 
But when these enclitic conjunctions come after a short 
vowel, they do not affect its pronunciation; thus, 

Arhuteos foetus , montanaque fraga legebant. Ovid 





A Sentence is any thought of the mind expressed by 
two or more words put together ; as, J read. The boy reads 

That part of grammar, which teaches to put words rightly 
together in sentences, is called Syntax or Construction. 

Words in sentences have a twofold relation to one another; 
namely, that of Concord or Agreement; and that of Govern- 
ment or Influence. 

Concord, is when one word agrees with another in some 
accidents; as, in gender, number, person, or case. 

Government is when one word requires another to be put 
in a certain case, or mode. 


1. In every sentence there must be a verb and a nomina- 
tive expressed or understood. 

2. Every adjective must have a substantive expressed or 

3. All the cases of Latin nouns, except the nominative and 
vocative, must be governed by some other word. 

4. The genitive is governed by a substantive noun express- 
ed or understood: or by a verbal adjective. 

5. The dative is governed by adjectives and verbs. 

6. The accusative is governed by an active verb, or by a 
preposition; or is placed before the infinitive. 

7. The vocative stands by itself, or has an interjection join 
ed with it. 

8. The ablative is governed by a preposition expressed oi 

9. The infinitive is governed by some verb or adjective. 
All sentences are either Simple or Compound. 

Syntax therefore may be divided into two parts, according 
to the general division of sentences. 



A simple sentence is that which has but one nominative 
and one finite verb; that is, a verb in the indicative, subjunc- 
tive, or imperative mode. 

In a simple sentence, there is only one Subject and one 

The Subject is the word which marks the person or thing 
spoken of. 

The Attribute expresses what we affirm concerning the 
subject; as, 

The boy reads his lesson. Here, " the boy." is the Subject of discourse, 
or the person spoken of: " reads his lesson," is the Attribute, or what we 
affirm concerning the subject. The diligent boy reads his lesson carefully 
at home. Here we have still the same subject, " the boy," marked by the 
character of " diligent," added to it; and the same attribute, " reads his 
lesson," with the circumstances of manner and place subjoined, •' careful- 
ly," " at home." 


The following words agree together in sentences. 1. A 
substantive with a substantive. 2. An adjective w T ith a sub- 
stantive. 3. A verb with a nominative. 

1. Agreement of one Substantive ivith another. 

Rule I. Substantives signifying the same thing 
agree in case ; as, 

Cicero orator, Cicero the orator ; Ciceronis oratoris, Of Cicero the orator. 
Urbs Athena, The city Athens; Urbis Athendrum, Of the city Athens. 

2. Agreement of an Adjective with a Substantive. 

II. An adjective agrees with a Substantive in 
gender, number, and case ; as. 

Bonus vir, a good man ; Boni viri, good men. 

Fo?7iilna casta, a chaste woman ; Foemmce casta, chaste women. 
Duice pomum, a sweet apple ; Dulcia yonia, sweet apples. 

And so through all the cases and degrees of comparison. 

This rule applies also to adjective pronouns, and to partici- 
p es: 

as, Mens liber, my book ; ager colendus, a field to be tilled ; Plur. Mei 
likri, agri colendi, &c. 

Obs. 1. The substantive is frequently understood, or its 
place supplied by an infinitive; and then the adjective is put in 
the neuter gender; as, triste, sc. negoiium, a sad thing. Virg. ; 
Tuum scire, the same with tua scientia, thy knowledge. Pers 
We sometimes, however, find the substantive understood in 
the feminine; as, JYon posterior es fer am, sup. partes. Ter 


Obs. 2. An adjective often supplies the place of a substan- 
tive; as, Certus amicus, a sure friend; Bonaferlna, good veni- 
son; Summum bonum, the chief good: Homo being understood 
to amicus, caro Xoferlna, and negotium to bonum. A substan- 
tive rs sometimes uaed as an adjective; as, media iurbavocant, 
the inhabitants. Ovid. Fast. 3. 582. 

Obs. 3. These adjectives, primus, medius, ultimus, extremus, 
infhnus, imus, summus, supremus, relzquus, ccetera, usually sig- 
nify the first part, the middle part J &c. of any thing; as, Media 
nox, the middle part of the night; Summa arbor, the highest 
part of a tree. 

Obs. 4. Whether the adjective or substantive ought to be placed first in 
Latin, no certain rule can be given. Only if the substantive be a mono- 
syllable, and the adjective a polysyllable, the substantive is elegantly put 
first; as, vir clarisslmus, res pr&stantisslma ; &.c. 

3. Agreement of a Verb with a Nominative. 

III. A Verb agrees with its Nominative in num- 
ber and person ; as, 

Egv lego, I read ; JVos Uglmus, We read. 

Tu scribis, Thou writest or you write ; Vos scrihttis, Ye or you write. 
Praceptor docet, The master teaches ; Prceceptores docent, Masters teach 
And so through all the modes, tenses, and numbers. 

Obs. 1. Ego and nos are of the first person; tu and vos, of 
the second person; ille and all other wo:*ds, of the third. The 
nominative of the first and second person in Latin is seldom 
expressed, unless for the sake of emphasis or distinction; as, 
Tu es patronus, tu pater. Ter. Tu legis, ego scribo. 

Obs. c 2. An infinitive, or some part of a sentence, often sup- 
plies the place of a nominative; as, Mentlri est turpe, to lie is 
base; Diu non perlitatum tenuit dictator em ; the sacrifice, not 
being attended with favourable omens, detained the dictator 
for a long time. Liv. 7, 8. Sometimes the neuter pronoun id 
or illud is added, to express the meaning more strongly; as 
Facere quoz libet, id est esse regem. Sallust. 

Obs. 3. The infinitive mode often supplies the place of the 
third person of the imperfect of the indicative; as, Milites fu- 
%ere, the soldiers fled, for fugie bant, or fugere cceperunt. Invi- 
dere omnes mihi, for invidebant. 

Obs. 4. A collective noun may be joined with a verb either 
of the singular or of the plural number; as, Multitudo stat, or 
stant; the multitude stands, or stand. 

A collective noun, when joined with a verb singular, expresses many 
f onsidered as one whole ; but when joined with a verb plural, signifies 


many separately, or as individuals. Hence if an adjective or participle be 
subjoined to the verb, when of the singular number, they will agree both 
in gender and number with the collective noun ; but if the verb be plural, 
the adjective or participle will be plural also, and of the same gender with 
the individuals of which the collective noun is composed; as, Pars erant 
ccesi : Pars obnixce trudunt, sc. formica. Virg. iEn. iv. 406. Magna pars 
ravice, sc. virgines. Liv. 1, 9. Sometimes, however, though more rarely, 
the adjective is thus used in the singular; as, Pars arduus, Virg. Mn. vii. 

•Accusative before the Infinitive. 

IV. The infinitive mode has an accusative be- 
fore it ; as, 

Gaudeo te valere, I am glad that you are well. 

Obs. 1. The particle that in English, is the sign of the ac- 
cusative before the infinitive in Latin, when it conies between 
two verbs, without expressing intention or design. Some- 
times the particle is omitted; as, Jiiunt regem adventure, They 
say the king is coming, that being understood. 

Obs. 2. The accusative before the infinitive always depends upon some 
other verb, commonly on a neuter or substantive verb ; but seldom on a 
verb taken in an active sense. 

Obs. 3. The infinitive, with the accusative before it, seems sometimes 
to supply the place of a nominative; as, Turpe est milltem fugtre. That 9 
soldier should fly is a shameful thing. 

Obs. 4. The infinitive esse or fuisse, must frequently be supplied, espe- 
cially after participles; as, Hostium exercituvi ccssum fusumque cogndvL 
Cic. Sometimes both the accusative and infinitive are understood ; as, 
Pollicitus suscepiurum. scil. me esse. Ter. 

Obs. 5. The infinitive may frequently be otherwise rendered by the 
conjunctions, quod y ut, ne f or quirt ; as, Gaudeo te valere, i. e. quod x>aleas y 
or propter tuam honam valetudinem : Jubeo vos bene sperure, or ut bene 
speretis ; Prohibeo eum exire, or ne exeat: J\"on dubito eum fecisse, or 
much better, quin fecerit. Scio quodfdius amet. Plaut. foYJilzum amare* 
Miror, si potuit, for eum potuisse. Cic. JYemo dubitat, ut popidus Romdnus 
omnes virtiite super drit, for populum Romdnum super dsse. Nep. Ex animi 
scntentid juro, ut ego rempubhcam non deseram, for me non deserturum 
esse. Liv. xxii. 53. 

The same Case after a Verb as before it. 

V. Any Verb may have the same Case after it 
as before it, when both words refer to the same 
thing; as, 

Ego sum, dhcipulusy I am a scholar. 

Tu vocdns Joannes, You are named John. 

Ilia incedit regina, She walks as a queen. 

Scio ilium habtri sapientem, I know that he is esteemed wis©- 

hcio vos esse discipulos, I know that you are scholars. 

So Redeo iratus, jaceo supplex ; Evddmt digni, they will become wos* 


thy; RempubUcam defendi adolescens ; nolo esse longus, I am nmtriltfng 
to be tedious ; Malim videri timldus, quam parum prudens. Ci^. JS'cn 
licet mihi esse negligcnti. Cic. Natura dedit omnibus esse bedtis. Claud, 
Cupio me esse clementem ; cupio non putari meuddcem ; Vult esse ?mdi- 
um, sc. se, He wishes to be neuter. Cic. Disce esse pater ; Hoc est esse 
pattern? sc. eum. Ter. Id est,domlnum, non imperatorem esse. Sailust. 

Obs. 1. This rule implies nothing else but the agreement 
of an adjective with a substantive, or of one substantive with 
another ; for those words in a sentence which refer to the 
same object, must always agree together, how much soever 

Obs. 2. The verbs which most frequently have the same 
case after them as before them, are : 

1. Substantive and neuter verbs; as, Sum, jio, for em, and 
existo ; eo> venio, sto, sedeo, evddo, jaceo, fugio, &,c. 

2. The passive of verbs of naming, judging, &c. as, Picor, 
appellor, vocor, nominor, nuncupor ; to which add, videor, ex- 
istimor, creor, constituor, salutor, designor, &,c. 

These and other like verbs admit after them only the nominative, ac- 
cusative, or dative. When they have before them the genitive, they 
have after them an accusative ; as, Interest omnium esse borws, scil. se, 
it is the interest of all to be good. In some cases we can use either the 
nom. or accus. promiscuously ; as, Cupio diet doctus or doctum, sc. me 
did ; Cupio esse clemens, non putari mendax ; vult esse medius. 

Obs. 3. When any of the above verbs are placed between two nomina- 
tives of different numbers, they commonly agree in number with the for- 
mer; as, Dos est decern talenta, Her dowry is ten talents. Ter. Omnia 
pontus erunt. Ovid. But sometimes with the latter ; as, Amantium irai 
amoris integrdtio est, The quarrels of lovers is a renewal of love. Ter. 
So when an adjective is applied to two substantives of different genders, 
it commonly agrees in gender with that substantive which is most the 
subject of discourse ; as, Opjndum est appelldtum Posidonia. Plm. Some- 
times, however, the adjective agrees with the nearer substantive; as, 
JYon omnis error stultitia est dicenda. Cic. 

Obs. 4. When the infinitive of any verb, particularly the substantive 
verb esse, has the dative before it, governed by an Impersonal verb, or 
any other word, it may have after it either the dative or the accusative ; 
as, Licet mihi esse bedto, I may be happy ; or, licet mihi esse bedtum, me 
Deing understood ; thus, licet mihi (me) esse bedtum. The dative before 
esse is often to be supplied ; as, Licet esse bedtum. One may be happy, 
scil. alicui, or homini. 

Obs. 5. The poets use certain forms of expression, which are not to be 
imitated in prose ; as, Rettulit Ajax Jovis esse pronepos, for se esse pro* 
nepotem. Ovid. Met. xii. 141. Cum pateris sapiens emendatvsquevocdri 
for te vocdri sapientem, &e. Horat. Ep. 1. 16. 30. Acceptum refero ver* 
sihus esse nocens. Ovid. Tutumque putdvit jam bonus esse socer. Lu 




VI . One Substantive governs another in the 
genitive, (token the latter Substantive signifies a 
different thing from the former ;) as, 

Amor Dei, The love of God. Lex natural, The law of nature. 

Domus Cmsdris, The house of Ceesar, or Csssar's house. 

Obs. 1. When one substantive is governed by another in the genitive, 
it expresses in general the relation of property or possession, and there- 
fore is often elegantly turned into a possessive adjective ; as, Domus pa- 
tris, or paterna, a father's house ; Filius keri or herllis, a master's son : 
and among the poets, Labor Herculeus, for Her culls ; Ensis Evandrius, 
for Evandri. 

Obs. 2. When the substantive noun in the genitive signifies a person 
it may be taken either in an active or a passive sense ; thus, Amor Dei 
the love of God, either means the love of God towards us, or our love 
towards him : So carxtas patris, signifies either the affection of a father 
to his children, or theirs to him. But often the substantive can only be 
taken either in an active or in a passive sense : thus, Timor Dei, always 
implies Dcus timetur ; and Providentia Dei, Deut, providet. So, carllas 
ipsius soli, affection to the very soil. Liv. ii. 1. 

Obs. 3. Both the former and latter substantive ~ j re sometimes to be 
understood; as, Hectoris Andrornache, scil. uxor; Ventum est ad Vesta, 
scil. cedem or templum; Ventum est tria millia, scil. passuum; three 

Obs. 4, We find the dative often used after a verb for the genitive, 
particularly among the poets ; as, cui corpus porrigitur, whose body is 
extended. Virg. iEn. vi. 596. 

Obs. 5. Some substantives are joined with certain prepositions ; as, 
Amicitia, inimicitia, pax, cum aliquo ; Amor in, vel erga, aliquem ; Gau~ 
dium de re ; Cura de aliquo ; Mentio illius, vel de illo ; Quies ah armis , 
Fumus ex incendiis ; Pradator ex sociis, for sociorum. Sail. &c. 

Obs. 6. The genitive in Latin is often rendered in English by several 
other particles besides of: as, Descensus Averni, the descent to Avernus ; 
Prudcntia juris, skill in the law. 

SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS are governed in the geni- 
tive like substantive nouns ; as, pars mei, a part of me. 

So also adjective pronouns, when used as substantives, or having a 
noun understood ; as, Liber ejus, illius, hujus, &c. the book of him, or 
his book, sc. hominis ; the book of her, or her book, sc fcemlruB. Libri 
eorum, or edrum, their books; Cujus liber, the book of whom, or whose 
book ; Quorum libri, whose books, &.c. But we always say. mevs liber 
not m.ei : pater noster, not nostri ; suum jus, not sui. 

When a passive sense is expressed, we use mei, tui, sui, nostri, restri, 
nostrum, vestrum ; but we use their possessives when an active sense ia 
expressed j as, Amor mei, The love of me, that is, The love wherewith I 
am loved ; Amor mens, My love, that is, the love wherewith I love. We 
find, however, the possessives sometimes used passivelv, and their primi- 


tives taken actively ; as, Odium tuum, Hatred of thee. Ter. Phorm. y. 8. 
27. Labor met, My labour. Plaut. 

The possessives mens, tuus, suns, noster, vester, have sometimes nouns, 
pronouns, and participles after them in the genitive, as, Pectus tuum 
homlnis simplicis. Cic. Phil. ii. 43. Noster duorum eventus. Liv. Tuum 
ipsius studium. Cic. Meet scripta, timentis, &c. Hor. Solius meum pec- 
cdtum corrigi non potest. Cic. Id max\mh quem,que decet, quod est cujus" 
que suum maxlme. Id. 

The reciprocals SUI and SUUS are used, when the action of the verb 
is reflected, as it were, upon the nominative ; as, Cato interfecit se, Miles 
defendit suam vitam : Dicit se scripturum esse. We find, however, is or 
Me sometimes used in examples of this kind ; as, Deum agnosclmus ex 
operibus ejus. Cic. Persuddent Raurdcis, ut una cum Us prcjiciscanlur, 
for una secum. Caes. 

VII. If the latter Substantive have an Adjective 
of praise or dispraise joined with it, they may be 
put in the genitive or ablative ; as, 

Vir summa prudential, or summd, prudentid, A man of great wisdom. 
Puer probm mdolis, or probd indole, A boy of a good disposition. 

Obs. 1. The ablative here is not properly governed by the foregoing 
substantive, but by some preposition understood ; as, cum, de, ex, in, &c. 
Thus, Vir summd, prudentid is the same with vir cum summd, prudentid. 

Obs. 2. In some phrases the genitive is only used ; as, Magni for- 
mica laboris, the laborious ant ; Vir imi subsellii, homo minimi pretii a 
person of the lowest rank. Homo nullius stipendh, a man of no expe; i- 
ence in war. Sallust. Non multi cibi hospitem accipies, sed multi J0( i, 
Cic. Ager trium juggrum. In others only the ablative; as, Es bowo 
animo, Be of good courage. Mird, sum alacritdte ad litigandum. Cic. 
Capite aperto est, His head is bare ; obvoluto, covered. Capite et supcr- 
cilio semper est rasis. Id. Mulier magno natu. Liv. Sometimes dlJi 
are used in the same sentence ; as, Jidolescens, eximid spe, summce 
virtutis. Cic. The ablative more frequently occurs in prose than the 

Obs. 3. Sometimes the adjective agrees in case with the former sub- 
stantive, and then the latter substantive is put in the ablative : thus, we 
say, either, Vir praistantis ingenii, or prcestanti ingenio ; or, Vir prcestans 
ingenio, and sometimes prcestans ingenii. Among the poets the latter 
substantive is frequently put in the accusative by a Greek construction, 
secundum, or quod ad being understood by the figure commonly called 
Synecdoche ; as, Miles fractus membra, i. e. fractus secundum or quod ad 
membra, or habens membra fracta. Horat. Os humcrosque dco simllis. 

Adjectives taken as Substantives. 

VIII. An adjective in the neuter gender with- 
out a substantive governs the genitive ; as, 

Multum pecuniae, Much money. Quid rei est? What is the matter f 

Obs. 1. This manner of expression is more elegant than Multa pecw> 
nia t and therefore is much used by the best writers ; as, Plus eloquertr 


tics, minus sapiential, tantumfidei, id negotii ; Quicquia erat patrum, leos 
diceres. Liv. Id loci ; Ad hoc cetdtis. Sallust. 

Obs. 2. The adjectives which thus govern the genitive like substan- 
tives, generally signify quantity ; as, multum, plus, plurimum, tautum, 
quantum, minus, minimum, &c. To which add, hoc, illud, istud, id, quid } 
aliquid, quidvis, quiddam, &c. Plus and quid almost always govern the 
genitive, and therefore by some are thought to be substantives. 

Obs. 3. Nihil, and these neuter pronouns quid, aliquid, &c. elegantly 
govern neuter adjectives of the first and second declension in the geni- 
tive ; as, nihil sinceri, no sincerity ; but seldom govern in this mannei 
adjectives of the third declension, particularly those which end in is and 
e , as, Nequid hostile timer ent, not hostilis : we find, however, quicquid 
civilis. Liv. v. 3. 

Obs. 4. Plural adjectives of the neuter gender also govern the geni 
tive, commonly the genitive plural ; as, Augusta vidrum, Opdca locorum, 
Telluris operta, loca being understood. So, Amdra curdrum, acuta belli, 
sc. negotia. Horat. An adjective, indeed, of any gender may have a 
genitive after it, with a substantive understood; as, Amicus Cwsaris, 
Patria Ulyssis, &c. 

Opus and Usus. 

IX. Opus and Usus, signifying need, require 
the ablative ; as, 

Est opus pecunid, There is need of money ; Usus viribus, Need oi 

Obs. 1. Opus and ?<sus are substantive nouns, and do not govern the 
ablative of themselves, but by some preposition, as pro or the like, un- 
derstood. They sometimes also, although more rarely, govern the geni- 
tive ; as, Lectionis opus est. Quinct. Opera, usus est. Liv. 

Obs. 2. Opus is often construed like an indeclinable adjective ; as, 
Dux nobis opus est. We need a general. Cic. Dices nummos mihi opus 
esse, Id. Nobis exempla opus sunt, Id. 

Obs. 3. Opus is elegantly joined with the perfect participle ; as, Opus 
maturdto, Need of haste ; Opus consulto, Need of deliberation ; Quid 
facto usus est? Ter. The participle has sometimes a substantive joined 
with it ; as, Mihi opus fait Hirtio convento, It behoved me to meet with 
Hirtius. Cic. 

Obs. 4. Opus is sometimes joined with the infinitive, or the subjunc- 
tive with ut ; as, Siquid forte, sit, quod opus sit sciri. Cic. Nunc tibi 
opus est, agram ut te adsimides. Flaut. Sive opus est imperitdre equis. 
Horat. It is often placed absolutely, i. e. without depending on any othel 
word ; as, sic opus est ; si opus sit, &c. 


1. Adjectives governing the Genitive. 

X Verbal adjectives, or such as imply an op- 
eration of the mind, govern the genitive ; as, 

Jlvidus gloria, Desirous of glory. Tgndrus fraudis, Ignorant of fraud. 
Memor beneficiorum, Mindful of favours. 

To this rule belong, I. Verbal adjectives in AX ; as, capaz< 


tdaz 9 ferax, tenax, pertinax, &c. and certain participial adjec- 
tives in NS and TUS ; as, amans, appetens, cupiens, insolens, 
sciens ; consultus, doctus, expertus, insuetus, insoUtus, &,c. II. 
Adjectives expressing various affections of the mind ; 1. De- 
sire, as, avdrus, cupidus, studiosus, &,c. 2. Knowledge, igno- 
rance, and doubting ; as, callidus, certus, certior, conscius, 
gnarus, peritus, prudens, &c. Igndrus, incertus, inscius, im- 
prudens, imperitus, immemor, rudis : amhiguus, dubius, suspen- 
sus, &,c. 3. Care and diligence, and the contrary ; as, anxius, 
curiosus, solicitus, providus, diligens ; incuriosus, securus, 
negligens, &c. 4. Fear and confidence ; as, formidofams, 
pavidus, timidus, trepidus ; impavidus, interritus, intrepidus. 
5. Guilt and innocence ; as, noxius, reus, suspectus, compertus ; 
innoxius, innocens, insons. 

To these add many adjectives of various significations ; as, ager ani 
mi; ardens, audax, aversus, diversus, egregius, erectus, falsus, felix, fes 
sus, fur ens, ingens, integer, Icetus, prccstans anlmi ; modicus voti ; inte- 
ger vita; seri studiorum. Hor. But we say, ceger pedibus, ardens in 
cupiditatibus, prcestans doctrind, modicus cultu; Lcetus negotio, de re, or 
propter rem, &c. and never ceger pedum, &c. 

Obs. 1. Verbals in NS are used both as adjectives and 
participles ; thus, pattens, dig oris, able to bear cold ; and pa- 
tiens algorem, actually bearing cold. So, amans virtutis, and 
amans virtutem ; doctus grammatical, skilled in grammar ; doc- 
tus grammaticam, one who has learned it. 

Obs. 2. Many of these adjectives vary their construction ; as, avtdus 
in pecuniis. Cic. Avidior ad rem. Ter. Jure consultus & peritus, or 
juris. Cic. Rudis literdrum, in jure civlli. Cic. Rudis arte, ad mala. 
Ovid. Doctus Latine, Latinis Uteris. Cic. Assuetus labdre, in omnia, 
Liv. Mensce herili. Virg. Tnsuetus moribus Romanis, in the dat. Liv 
Laboris, ad onera portanda. Cses. Desueius bello et triumphis, in tb; 
dat. or abl. rather the dat. Virg. Anxius, solicitus, secilrus, de re aliqud; 
diligens, in, ad, de. Cic. Negligens in aliquem, in or de re : Reus de vi 9 
criminibus. Cic. Certior f actus de re, rather than rei. Cic. 

Obs. 3. The genitive after these adjectives is thought to be governed 
by causd, in re, or in negotio, or some such word understood ; as, Cupidus 
laudis, i. e. causd or in re laudis, desirous of praise, that is, on account 
of, or in the matter of praise. But many of the adjectives themselves 
may be supposed to contain in their own signification the force of a sub- 
stantive ; thus, studiosus pecunicc, fond of money, is the same with ha* 
bens studium pecunice, having a fondness for money. 

XL Partitives, and words placed partitively, 
comparatives, superlatives, interrogatives, and 
some numerals, govern the genitive plural ; as, 

AUquis philosophorum, Some one of the philosophers. 

Senior fratrum, The elder of the brothers. 

Dcctisslmus Romandrum, The most learned of the Romans, 


Quis nostrum ? Which of us ? 

Una mfisdrum, One of the muses 

Octdvus sapientum, The eighth of the wise men. 

Adjectives are called Partitives, or are said to be placed 
partitively, when they signify a part of any number of persons 
or things, having after them in English, of or among; as, 
alius, nullus, solus, &c. quis and qui, with their compounds . 
also Comparatives, Superlatives, and some Numerals ; as, unus 9 
duo, tres ; primus, secundus, &c. To these add multi, pauci, 
vlerique, medius. 

Obs. 1. Partitives, &c. agree in gender with the substantive which 
they have after them in the genitive ; but when there are two substan- 
tives of different genders, the partitive, &c. rather agrees with the for- 
mer ; as, Indus fluminum maximus. Cic. Rarely with the latter ; as, 
Delphlnus animalium velocissimum. Plin. The genitive here is govern- 
ed by ex numero, or by the same substantive understood in the singular 
number ; as, Nulla sororum, scil. soror, or ex numero sororum. 

Obs. 2. Partitives, &c. are often otherwise construed with the prepo- 
sitions de, e, ex, or in; as, Unus defratribus ; or by the poets, with ante 
or inter ; as, Pulcherrimus ante omnes, for omnium. Virg. Primus inter 
omnes. Id. 

Obs. 3. Partitives, &c. govern collective nouns in the genitive singu 
lar, and are of the same gender with the individuals of which the collec- 
tive noun is composed ; as, Vir fortissimus nostrce civitatis. Cic. Maxi- 
mus stirpis. Liv. Ultinws orbis Britannos. Horat. Od. i. 35, 29. 

Obs. 4. Comparatives are used, when we speak of two; Superlatives 
when we speak of more than two ; as, Major fratrum, The elder of the 
brothers, meaning two ; Maximus fratrum, the eldest of the brothers, 
meaning more than tioo. In like manner, uter, alter, neuter, are applied 
with regard to two ; quis. unus, alius, nullus, with regard to three or 
more; as, Uter vestrum, Whether or which of you two; Quis vestrum, 
Which of you three ; but these are sometimes taken promiscuously, the 
one for the other. 

2. Adjectives governing the Dative. 

XII. Adjectives signifying profit or disprofit, 
likeness or imlikeness, &c. govern the dative ; as, 

Utilis hello, Profitable for war. 

Perniciosus reipublica, Hurtful to the commonwealth. 

Similis patri, Like to his father. 

Or thus, Any adjective may govern the dative in Latin, 
which has the signs TO or FOR after it in English, 

To this rule belong ; 

1. Adjectives of profit cr disprofit; as, Bemgnus, bonus, commodus, 
felix, fructuosus, prosper, saliiber. — Calamitosus, damnosus, dirus, cxi* 
tiosus.funestus. incommodus, malus, noxius, perniciosus, pestifer. 

2. Of pleasure or pain ; as, Acceptus, dulcis, gratus, gratidsus, jucun- 
dus, IrRtus, suavis. — Jicerbus, amdrus, insudvis, injucundus, ingrdtus, mo* 
lestus, tristis. 


3. Of friendship or hatred ; as, Addictus, aiquus, amicus, benevdlus, 
blandus, cams, dedltus, Jidus, Jidclis, Imis, mitis, propitius. — Advcrsus, 
mmulus, a&per, crudelis, contrarius, infensus, infestus, infidtts, immitis 
inimicus, inlquus, invlsus, invidus, irdtus, odidsus, suspectus, trux. 

4. Of clearness or obscurity ; as, Apertus, certus, compertus, conspicuu* 

manifcstus, notus, perspicuus. Ambiguus, dubius, igndtus, incertus 


5. Of nearness ; as, Finitimus, propior, proxlmus, propinquus, socius, 

6. Of fitness or unfitness; as, Aptus, appositus, accommoddtus, habllis, 
idoneus, opportunus. Ineptus, inhabilis, importunus, inconvenicns. 

7. Of ease or difficulty ; as, Facilis, Levis, obvius, pervius. Difficl* 

lis, arduus, gravis, laboridsus, periculosus, invius. To these add such as 
signify propensity or readiness ; as, Pronus, procllvis, propensus, promp- 
tus, pardtus. 

8. Of equality, or inequality ; as, JEqudlis, aquawus, par, compar 

suppar. Inequdlis, impar, dispar, discors. Also of likeness or un 

likeness ; as, Similis, aimulus, geminus. Dissimilis, absonus, alienus, 

diver sus, discolor. 

9. Several adjectives compounded with CON ; as, Cogndtus, concblor 
concors, conflnis, congruus, consanguineus , consentaneus, consonus, con- 
veniens, contiguus, continuus, continens, contiguous ; as, Mari aer conti- 
nens est. Cic. 

To these add many other adjectives of various significations; as, 
obnoxius, subjectus, supplex, credulus, absurdus, decdrus, deformis, prasto, 
indecl. at hand, secundus, &c. — particularly 

Verbals in bilis and dus govern the dative ; as, 

Amandus or amabilis omnibus, To be loved by all men. 

So Mors est terribilis malis , OptaMlis omnibus pax; Adhibenda est 
nobis diligentia. Cic. Semel omnibus calcanda est via letki. Hor. Also 
some participles of the perfect tense ; as, Bella matribus detestdta, hated 
by. Hor. 

Verbals in dus are often construed with the prep, a; as, Deus est ve- 
nerandus et colendus a nobis. Cic. Perfect participles are usually so ; as, 
Mors Crassi est a multis defleta, rather than multis defleta. Cic. A te 
invitdtus, rogdtus, proditus, &c. hardly ever tibi. 

Obs. 1. The dative is properly not governed by adjectives, 
nor by any other part of speech ; but put after them, to ex- 
press the object to which their signification refers. 

The particle to in English is often to be supplied ; as, Simi- 
lis patri, Like his father, to being understood. 

Obs 2. Substantives have likewise sometimes a dative 
after them ; as, Hie est pater, dux, or jilius mihi, He is father, 
leader, or son to me ; so, Presidium reis, decus amicis, &x. 
Hor. Exitium pecori. Virg. Virtutibus hoUis. Cic. 

Obs. 3. The following adjectives have sometimes the da- 
tive after them, and sometimes the genitive ; Affinis, similis, 
communis, par ,proprius,jinitimus, jidus, conterminus, suj)erstes t 
conscius, <Bqudlis y contrarius t and adversus ; as, Similis tibi t 01 


tui; Super stes patri, or patris ; Conscius facinori, e r facino* 
ris. Comcius and some others frequently govern x>th the 
genitive and dative ; as, Mens sibi conscia recti. We say, 
Similes, dis similes, pares, dispdres, cequdles, communes, inter 
se : Par &, communis cum aliquo. Cioitas secum ipsa discors ; 
discordes ad alia. Liv. 

Obs. 4. Adjectives signifying usefulness, or fitness, and 
the contrary, have after them the dative or the accusative 
with a preposition ; as, 

Utilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus, accommoddtus , idoneus, liabilis, inhabilis, 
opportunus, conveniens, &c. alicui rei, or ad aUquid. Many other adjec- 
tives governing the dative are likewise construed with prepositions ; as, 
attentus quxBsitis. Hor. Attentus ad rem. Ter. 

Obs. 5. Of adjectives which denote friendship or hatred, or any other 
affection of the mind towards any one. I. Some are usually construed 
with the dative only ; as, Affabilis, arrogans, asper, cams, difficilis % 
fidelis, invisus, irdtus, offensus, suspectus, alicui. II. Some with the 
preposition in and the accusative ; as, Acerbus, animdtus, beneficus, 
gratiosus, injuridsus, liberdlis, mendax, misericors, qfficiosus, plus, impius, 
prolixus, severus, sordidus, torvus, vehemens, in aliquem. III. Some 
either with the dative, or with the accus. and the preposition in, erga. 
or adversus, going before; as, Contumax, crimindsus, durus, exitiabilis, 
gravis, hospitdlis. implacabilis , (and perhaps also inexorabilis & intolera 
bills) iniquus, s&vus, alicui or in aliquem. Benevolus, benignus, mo- 
lestus, alicui or erga aliquem. Mitis, comis ; in, or erga aliquem 
and alicui. Pervicax adversus aliquem. Crudelis, in aliquem, sel- 
dom alicui. Amicus, cemulus, infensus, infestus, alicui, seldom in ali- 
quem. Gratus alicui, or in, erga, adversus aliquem. We say alie- 
nus alicui or alicujus ; but ofiener ab aliquo, and sometimes aliquo with- 
out the preposition. 

AUDIENS is construed with two datives; as, Regi dicto audiens crat, 
he was obedient to the king; not regis ; Dicto audiens fuit jussis magis- 
tratuum. Nep. A r obis dicto audientes sunt, not dictis. Cic. 

Obs. 6. Adjectives signifying motion or tendency to a 
thing, have usually after them the accusative with the prepo- 
sition ad or in, seldom the dative; as, 
Pronus, propensus, procllvis, celer, tardus, piger, &c. ad iram, or in iram. 

Obs. 7. Propior and proxzmus, in imitation of their primi- 
tive prope, often govern the accusative ; as, Propior montem, 
scil. ad. Sail. Proximus Jinem. Liv. 

Obs. 8. IDEM sometimes has the dat've, chiefly in the poets; as, 
invitum qui scrvat, idem facit occidenti. Hor. Jupiter omnibus idem. 
Virg. Eddem Mis censemus. Cic. But in prose we commonly find, idem, 
qui, ct, ac, atque, and also ut, cum; as, Peripatetici, quondam iidem erant 
qui Acadcmici. Cic Est animus erga te, idem ac fuit. Ter. Didnam et 
Lunam eandem esse putant. Cic. Idem faciunt, ut, &c. In eddem loco 
mccum. Cic. But it would be improper to say of the same person oi 
thing under different names, idem cum; as, Luna eddem est cum Didrta. 

We likewise say, alius, ac, atque, or et; and sometimes simUis & par. 


3. Adjectives governing the Ablative. 

XIII. These adjectives, dignus, indignus, con- 
tentus, prcedilus, captus, and fretus ; also natus f 
satusj ortus, edltus, and the like, govern the abla- 
tive ; as, 

D ignus honor e, Worthy of honor. Captus ociilis, Blind. [strength 
Contentus parvo, Content with little. Fretus virlbus, Trusting to his 
Prccdltus virtute, Endued with virtue. Ortus reglbus, Descended of kings 

So generdtus, credtus, cretus, progndtus, oriundus, procredtus regibus. 

Obs. 1. The ablative after these adjectives is governed by some pre- 
position understood ; as, Contentus parvo, scil. cum ; Fretus virlbus, 
scil. in, &c. Sometimes the preposition is expressed ; as, Ortus ex con~ 
cubina. Sallust. Editus de nymphd. Ovid. 

Obs. 2. Dignus, indignus, and contentus, have sometimes the genitive 
after them ; as, dignus avorum. Virg. So Made esto or macti estate vir- 
tiitis or virtiite, Increase in virtue, or Go on and prosper; Juberem macte 
virtute esse, sc. te. Liv. ii. 12. In the last example macte seems* to be 
used adverbially. 

4. Adjectives governing the Genitive or Ablative. 

XIV. Adjectives of plenty or want govern the 
genitive or ablative ; as, 

Plenus irce or ird, Full of anger, Inops rationis or ratidne, Void of reason. 

So Non inopes tempdris, sed prodigi sumus. Sen. Lentulus non verbis 
inops. Cic. Dei plena sunt omnia. Cic. Maxima quaique domus sei-vis 
est plena superbis. Juv. Res est soliclti plena timdris amor. Ovid. Amor 
et melle et felle est fozcundissimus . Plaut. Fmcunda virorum paupertas 
fugltur. Lucan. Gmnium consiliorum ejus partlceps. Curt. Homo ra- 
tidne partlceps. Cic. Nihil insidiis vacuum. Id. Vacuas cadis habete 
manus. Ovid. 

Some of these adjectives are construed, 1. with the genitive only ; as, 
Benignus, exsors, impos, impotens, irritus, liberdlis, muniflcus, pr&lar 

2. With the ablative only ; Bedtus, differtus, frugifer, mutllus, tentus 
distentus, tumldus, turgidus. 

3. With the genitive more frequently; Compos, consors, egenus, er 
hares, expers,fertilis, indlgus, parens, pauper, prodigus, sterllis. 

4. With the ablative more frequently; Abundans, cassus, extorris, 
faitus,frequens, gravis, gr avians, jejunus, liber, locuples, nudus, oner a- 
tus, onustus, orbus, pollens, solutus, truncus, viduus, and captus. 

5. With both promiscuously ; Copiosus, dives, fcecundus ferax, immu 
nis* indnis, inops, largus, modicus, immodicus, nimius, opulentus, plenus 
potens, refertus, satur, vacuus, ubtr. 

6. With a preposition ; as, Copiosus,Jirmus, pardms, impardtus, inops t 
instructus, a re aliqud ; for quod ad rem aliquam attlnct, in or with re- 
spect to any thing. Extorris ab solo patrio, banished ; Orba ab optima- 
tibus concio. Liv. So pauper, tenuis, fozcundus, modicus, parens, in rt 
aliqud Immunis, indnis, liber, nudus, solutus, vacuus, a **e aliqud- Po- 
tens ad i em &< in re. 




1. Verbs which g over v the Genitive, 

XV. Sum, when it signifies possession, proper- 
ty, or duty, governs the genitive ; as, 

Est regis , It belongs to the king ; It is the part or property of a king. 

So Insipientis est dicer e, Non putdram, It is the part or property of a 
fool, &c. Militum est suo duci parere. It is the part or duty of soldiers, 
&c. Lauddre se vani, vituperdre stulti est. Sen. Hominis est err are ; 
Arrogantis est negligere quid de se quisque sentiat. Cic. Pecus est Me- 
libcei. Virg. Hcec sunt hominis. Ter. Pauperis est numerdre pecus 
Ovid. Temeritas est fiorentis cetdtis , prudentia senectutis. Cic. 

fl Ileum, tuum, suum, nostrum, vestrum, are excepted ; as, 

Tuum est, It is your duty. Scio tuum esse, I know that it is your duty. 

Obs. 1. These possessive pronouns are used in the neuter 
gender instead of their substantives, mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri. 
Other possessives are also construed in this manner ; as, Est 
regium, est humdnum, the same with est regis, est hominis. Et 
facer e et pati fortia, Romdnum est. Liv. ii. 12. 

Obs. 2. Here some substantive must be understood j as, ojjicium, mu- 
aus, res, negotium, opus, &c. which are sometimes expressed ; as, Mu- 
nus est principum ; Tuum est hoc munus. Cic. Keutlquam ojjicium liberi 
esse hominis puto. Ter. In some cases the preceding substantive may 
be repeated ; as, Hie liber est (liber) fratris. In like manner, some sub- 
stantive must be supplied in such expressions as these ; Ea sunt modo 
gloriosa, neque patrandi belli, scil. causa or facta. Sail. Nihil tarn 
aequandce libertdtis est, for ad cequandam libertdtem pertlnet. Liv. 

Obs. 3. We say, Hoc est tuum munus, or tui muneris ; So 
mos est or fuit, or moris, or in more. Cic. 

XVI. Miser gor, miser esco, and satago, govern 
the genitive ; as, 

Miserere civium tuorum, Pity your countrymea. 

<Zn*z„i* *.z>*.„™ ™,;7™,™ ( He has his hands full at home, or has 

oatagit rerum suarum. < i_ a j v,r- m • 

° \ enough to do about his own affairs. 

Obs. 1. Several other verbs among the poets govern the genitive by 
a Greek construction, particularly such as signify some affection of the 
mind ; as, Jingo, decipior, desipio, discrucior, excrucio, folio & fallor, 
fastidio, invideo, laitor, miror, pendeo, studeo, vereor ; as, Ne angas te 
animi. Plaut. Laborum decipitur. Hor. Discrucior ariimi. Ter. Pen- 
det mihi animus, pendeo animi vel animo ; but we always say, Pendemus 
animis, not animorum, are in suspense. Cic. Justitice prius mirer. Virg. 
In like manner, Abstineo, deslno, desisto, quiesco, regno : likewise, adipis* 
tor, condico, credo, frustror, furo f laudo, lib^ro, levo, particlpo, prohibee 


as, Abstineto irdrum ; Desine quereldrum ; Rcgndvit populdrum Hor 
Dcsistere pugnaz. Virg. Quarum rerum condixit. Liv. 

But all these verbs are for the most part differently construed thus, 
,ingor, desipio, discrucior, jailor, aril-mo. Hoc animum meurn excruciat. 
Fasridio, miror, vereor, allquem, or allquid. Laitur allqud re. Some 
of them are joined with the infinitive ; or with quod, ut, ne, and the sub- 

In like manner we usually say, Dcslno aliquid, & ab a f Xqvo, to give 
over ; Desisto incepto, de negutio, ab Hid mcnte ; Quiesco a uibor*. : Reg- 
ndre in equitibus, oppldis, sc. in. Cic. Per urbes. Virg. Adipisci id, 
Frustrdri in re ; Fur ere de allquo. Cic. 

Obs. 2. The genitive after verbs, in the same manner as after adjec- 
tives, is governed by some substantive understood. This substantive is 
different according to the different meaning of the verbs ; thus, Misereor 
fratris, scil. causd ; Jlngor animi, scil. dolore or anxietdte. 

2. Verbs governing the Dative. 

XVII. Any verb may govern the dative in Lat 
in, which has the signs TO or FOR after it in 
English; as, 

Finis venit imperio, An end has come to the empire. Liv. 

Animus redit hostibus, Courage returns to the enemy. Id. 

Tibl seris, tibi metis, You sow for yourself, you reap for yourself. Plaut 

So, JVan nobis solum nati sumus. Cic. Multa male eveniunt bonis. Id. 
Sol lucet etiam scelerdiis. Sen. Haret lateri letkdlis arundo. Virg. 

But as the dative after verbs in Latin is not always rendered in Eng- 
lish by to or for ; nor are these particles always the sign of the dative 
in Latin, it will be necessary to be more particular. 

I. Sum and its compounds govern the dative (except pos- 
sum) ; as, 

Praifuit exercitui, He commanded the army. 

Adfuit precibus, He was present at prayers. 

|] EST taken for Habeo, to have, governs the dative of a 
person; as, 

Est mihi liber, A book is to me, that is, I have a book. 

Sunt mihi libri, Books are to me, i. e. I have books. 

Dico libros esse mihi, I say that I have books. 

This is more frequently used than habeo librum ; habeo 
libros. In like manner deest instead of careo ; as, Liber 
deest mihi, I want a book ; Libri desunt mihi ; Scio libros deesst 
mihi, &c. 

II. Verbs compounded with satis, bene, and male, govern 
the dative ; as, 

Satisfacio, satisdo, benefacio, benedtco, benevdio, malefacio, maledieo y 
tibi, &c. 

III. Many verbs compounded with these ten prepositions, 


Ad, ante, con, in, inter, or, post, pr^e, sub, and super 
govern the dative ; as, 

1. Accedo, accresco, accumbo, acquiesco, adno, adndto, adequito, adh(R* 
reo, adsto, adstipulor, advUvor, affulgeo, alldbor, allaboro, annuo, appa* 
reo, applavdo, apu^opinquo , arrideo, asplro, assentior, assideo, assisto 
assuesco, assurgo. 

2. Antecello, antesj, antesto, anteverto. 

3. Colludo, concino, consono, convivo. 

4. Incumbo, indorniio, indublto, inhio, ingcmisco, inhcereo, insideo, in- 
sideor, insto, insisto, insudo, insulto, invigllo, illacrymo, illudo, immineo 
immorior, immoror, impcndeo. 

5. bitervenio, intermico, intercedo, interctdo, interjaceo. 

6. Obrepo, obluctor, obtrecto, obstrepo, obmurmitro, occumbo, occurro, 
occurso, obsto, obsisto, obvenlo. 

7. Postfero, posthabeo, postpono, postputo,postscrlbo : with an accusative 

8. PrcecUdo, pr&curro, praieo, prcesideo, prailuceo, pramiteo, prcesto, 
prcevaleo, prcEverto. 

9. Succedo, succumbo, sufficio, suffrdgor, subcresco, suboleo, subjacio, 

10. Supervenio, supercurro, supersto. But most verbs compounded 
with super govern the accusative. 

IV. Verbs govern the dative, which signify, 

1. To profit or hurt; as, 

Proficio, prosum, placeo, commodo, prospicw, caveo, metuo, timeo, con 
sulo, for prospicio. Likewise, Noceo, officio, i?icommddo, displiceo , insidior . 

2. To favor or assist, and the contrary ; as, 

Faveo, gratulor, gratificor, grator, ignosco, indulgeo, parco, adiilor, 
plaudo, blandior, lenocinor, paipor, assentor, subparasxtor. Likewise, 
Auxilior, adminicular , subvenio, succurro, patrocinor, medeor, medicor, 
opUulor. Likewise, Derogo, detrdho, invideo, annul or. 

3. To command and obey, to serve and resist ; as, 

Impero, pr&cipio, mando ; moderor, for modum adhibeo. .Likewise 
Parco, ausculto, obedio, obsequor, obtempero, morem gero, morigeror, 
obsecundo. Likewise, Famulor, servio, inservio, ministro, ancillor. Like- 
wise, Repugno, obsto, reluctor, realtor, resisto, refrdgor, adversor, 

4. To threaten and to be angry ; as, 
Minor, comminor, interrwlnor, irascor, succenseo. 

5. To trust ; as, Fido, confido, credo, diffido. 

To these add Nubo, excello, haireo, supjMco, cedo, despSro, opiror, 
yr&stdlor, pr&varicor ; recipio, to promise; renuncio ; rcspondeo, to an- 
swer or satisfy; itmplru, studeo ; vaco, to apply; convicior. 

Exc. Jubeo, juvo, Icedo, and offendo, govern the accusative. 

Obs. 1. Verbs governing the dative only are either neuter 
verbs, or of a neuter signification. Active verbs governing 
he dative have also an accusative expressed or understood. 


Obs. 2. Most ver'js governing the dative only have been enumerated 
i»ecauso there are a great many verbs compounded with prepositions, 
which »lo not govern the dative, but are otherwise construed; and stia 
more signifying advantage or disadvantage, &c. which govern the accu- 
sative ; as, Levo, erigo, alo, nutrio, amo, dillgo, xexo, crucio, aver sot 
&c aliquem, not alicui. 

Obs. 3, Many of these verbs are variously construed ) particularly 
such as are compounded with a preposition ; as, 

Anteire, antecedere, antecellere, praecedere, praecurrere, praelre, &c. ilt- 

cui, or aliquem, to go before, to excel. 
Acquiescere, rei, re, or in re. Adequitare portae Syracusas. 
Adjacere mari, or mare, to lie near. 
Adnare navibus, naves, ad naves, to sioim to. 
Adversari ei, rarely eum, to oppose. 

Advolvi genibus, genua, ad genua, to fall at one's knees. 
Advolare ei, ad eum, rostra, to fly up to. 

Adflare rei or homini ; rem or hominem ; aliquid alicui, to breathe upon. 
Adulari ei,or eum, to flatter. Allabi oris ; aures ejus. Virg. ad exta. Liv 
Apparere consuli, to attend ; ad solium Jovis. Res apparet mihi, appears. 
Appropinquare Britannia?, portam, ad portam, to approach. 
Congruere alicui, cum re aliqua, inter se, to agree. 
Dominari cunctis oris. Virg. in caetera animalia, to rule over. Ovid. 
Fidere, confidere alicui rei, aliqua re, in re, to trust to or in. 
[gnoscere mihi, culpaB meae, mihi culpam, to pardon me, or my fault. 
Impendere alicui, aliquem, in aliquem, to hang over. 
Incessit cura, cupldo, timor ei, eum, or in eum, seized. 
Incumbere toro ; gladium, in gladium,fo fall upon; labori, ad laudem, 

ad studia, in studium, curam, cogitationem, &c. to apply to. 
Indulgere alicui, id ei ; nimio vestitu, to indulge in. Ter. 
[nhiare auro, bona ejus, to gape after. Innasci agris, in agris, to grow in, 
[nnlti rei, re, in re ; in aliquem, to depend on. 
fnsultare rei & homini, or hominem ; fores ; patientiam ejus, in miseri 

am ejus ; bonos, to insult over. 
Latet res mihi, or me, is unknown to me. Mederi ei; cupiditates, to curt 
Ministrare ei, to serve ; arma ei, to furnish. 
Moderari animo, gentibus ; navim, omnia, to rule. 
Nocere ei, rarely eum, to hurt. Plaut. 

Nubere alicui ; in familiam ; nupta ei & cum eo, to marry. Cic. 
Obrepere ei & eum, to creep upon ; in animos ; ad honores. 
Obstrepere auribus & aures. Obtrectare ei, laudibus ejus, to detract from. 
Obumbrat sibi vinea; solem nubes, shades. Palpari alicui, & aliquem. 
Pacisci alicui, cum aliquo ; vitam ab eo. Sail, vitam pro laude. Virg 
Pra?^tolari alicui, & aliquem, to wait upon. 
Procumbere terrae ; genibus ejus. Ovid, ad genua. Liv. ad pedes, to fall. 

To these may be added verbs, which chiefly among the poets govern 
lb* dative, but in prose are usually construed with a preposition ; as, 
1 Contendo, certo, beUo, pugno, concurro, coeo, alicui, for cum aliquo • 
S. Distdre, dissentire, discrcpdre, distidere, dijfcrre rei alicui, for a re 
allqud. We also say, Contend unt, pugnant, distant, &c. inter se ; and 
contendere, pugndre contra, <fc adversus aliquem. 

Obs. 4. Many verbs vary both their signification and construction ; 
as, Timeo, metuo, formldo, horreo tibi, de te, & pro te, I am afraid for 
y>u, or for your bafety ; but timeo, horreo te, or a te, I fear or dread you 


as an enemj So, Consfdo, prospicio, caveo tibi, I consult, or provide 
for your safety ; but consfdo te, 1 ask your advice ; prospicio hoc, I fore 
see this : Stutter e allquid, to desire," alicui, to favour; allcui rd, "em, & 
in re, to apply to a thing. So, JEmulor tdn, . envy; te, I imitate; 
AusruJto tibi, I obey or listen to ; te, I hear ; Cumo tiki, I favour, rem 
i desire ; Fcenero, & -or tibi, I lend you on interest; abs te, I borrow ; 
Mctidsti, ne non tibi istuc faznerdret, should not return with interest, or 
bring usury. Ter. And thus many other verbs, which will be after- 
wards explained. 

Obs. 5 Verbs signifying Motion or Tendency to a thing 
are construed with the preposition ad ; a3, 

Eo, vado, curro, propero, festino, per go, fugio, tendo, vergo, incllno, 
&c. ad locum, rem, or homlnem. Sometimes, however, in the poets, they 
are construed with the dative : as, It clamor ccelo, for ad codum. Virg. 

3. Verbs governing the Accusative. 

XVIII. A Verb signifying actively governs the 
accusative ; as, 

Ama Deum, Love God. Beverere parentes, Reverence your parents. 

Obs. 1. Neuter verbs also govern the accusative, when the 
noun after them has a signification similar to their own ; 
as, Ire iter or viam ; Pugndre pugnam or pr allium ; Currere cur sum , 
Ctinere cantilfnam ; Vivere vitam ; Ludere ludum ; Sequi sectam ; Som- 
nidre somnium, &c. Or when they are taken in a metaphorical sense ; 
as, Cory don ardebat Alexin, scil. propter, i. e, vehementer amdbat. Virg. 
Currimus aiquor, scil. per. Id. So, Comptos arsit adulter?, crines. Hor. 
Saltdre Cxjc'bpa; Olet hircum; Sul cos et vine ta crepat mera, Hor. Vox 
homlnem sonat ; Suddre mella. Virg. Si Xerxes Hellesponto juncto, et 
Atlwne perfosso, maria ambulavisset, terramque navig asset, sc. per. Cic. 
Or when they have a kind of active sense.* as, ClamAre aliquem nomine. 
Virg. Caller e jura ; M air ere mortem ; Hor ret irdtum mare. Hor. 

Sometimes, instead of the accusative, neuter verbs have an ablative ; 
as, Ireitinere; dolere dolore, vicem ejus ; gander e gaudio , mori or obire 
morte ; vivere vitd ; ardet virglne. Horat. Ludere aleam, or -d ; mand- 
re, pluere, rordre, stilldre, suddre, allquid or aliquo. Erubescere jura. 
Virg. origlne. Tacit, equo vehi. Curt 

Obs. 2. Several verbs are used both in an active and neu- 
ter sense ; as, 

Abhorrere famam, to dread infamy. adolevit ad setatem. Plaut. 

Liv. a litibus : ab uxore ducenda, Declinare ictum, to avoid ; loco ; 

to be averse from. Id. a meis agmen aliquo, to remove. 

morlbus abhorret, is inconsistent Degenerare animos, to weaken , 

with. Cic. patri, to degenerate from ; a vir- 

Abolere monumenta viri, to abolish. tute majorum. 

Virg. illis cladis Caudlnae non- Dur&re adolescentes labure, to har- 

dum memoria aboleverat, was den; Res durat ad breve tem- 

not effaced from, they had not pus, endures ; In asdlbus durare 

forgotten. Liv. nequeo, stay or remain. Plaut. 

Adolere penates, to burn, to sacri- Inclinare culpam in aliquem, ta 

fice to. Virg. iEtas adolevit ; lay ; Hos ut sequar, inclinat 


animus, inclines ; acies incllnat, Quadrare acervum, to square. Hor. 

or inclinatur, gives away. allquid ad normam ; allcui, in 

Laborare arma, to forge; morbo, aliquem, ad multa, to fit. 

a dolore, e renibus, to be ill; de Suppeditare copiam dicendi, to fur- 

re allqua, to be concerned. nish; Sumptus illi, or illi sump- 

Vlorari iter, to stop ; in urbe, to tibus. Ter. suppedl tat rcratio, is 

stay; Hoc nihil moror, / do not afforded; Manubiae in fundainen- 

mind. ta vix suppeditarunt, icere suffi- 

Properare pecuniam hseredi. Hor. dent. Liv. 

in orbem ; ad unarn sedem. Ov. 

Obs. 3. These accusatives, hoc, id, quid, allquid, quicquid, nihil, idcm y 
illud, tantum, quantum, multa, pauca, &c. are often joined with neuter 
verbs, having the prepositions circa or propter understood ; as, Id lacru- 
mat, Id succenset. Ter. 

Obs. 4. The accusative is often understood ; Turn prora avertit, sc. 
se. Virg. Flumina prcecipitant, sc. se. Id. Qudcumque intenderat, sc. 
se, turned or directed himself. Sail. Obiit, sc. mortem. Ter. Cum fa- 
ctum vituld, sc. sacra. Virg. Or its place supplied by an infinitive or 
part of a sentence; as, Reddes dulce loqui, reddes ridtre decorum; for 
dulcem sermonem, decorum risum. Hor. 

XIX. Recordor, memini, rerniniscor, and oblivis- 
cor, govern the accusative or genitive ; as, 

Recordor lectionis, or lectionem, I remember the lesson. 
Obliviscor injuriai or injuriam, I forget an injury. 

Obs. 1. These verbs are often construed with the infinitive or some 
part of a sentence ; as, Mcmini vid£re virglnem. Ter. Oblltus est, quid 
pau'o ante posuisset. Cic. 

Obs. 2. Memini, when it signifies to make mention, is joined with the 
genitive, or the ablative with the preposition de; as, Memini alicujus^ 
or de aliquo. So, recordor, when it signifies to recollect; as, Velim scire 
ecquid, de te recordcre. Cic. 

4. Verbs governing the Ablative. 

XX. Verbs of plenty and scarceness for the 
most part govern the ablative ; as, 

Abundat divitus, He abounds in riches. 

Caret omni culpd, He has no fault. 

Verbs of plenty are Abundo, affluo, exubero, redundo, suppe- 
dito, scateo, &,c. ; of want, Careo, egeo, incMgeo, vaco, dejiciar, 
destituor, &/C. 

Obs. 1. Egeo and indigeo frequently govern the genitive; as, Eget 
mris, He needs money. Hor. Non tarn artis indigent, quam laboris. Cic. 

Obs. 2. The ablative after these verbs is governed by some preposi- 
tion understood ; and sometimes we find it expressed ; as, Vacat a culpd t 
He is free from fault. Liv. 

XXI. Utor, abutor, fruor, fungor, potior, xescor, 
govern the ablative ; as, 

Utitur fraude, He uses deceit. Abutitur libris, He abuses books. 


To these add, gaudeo, creor, nascor, fido, vivo, vicftto, consto labors 
*br male me habeo, to be ill ; pascor, epulor, nitor, &c. 

Obs. 1. Potior often governs the genitive ; as Potlri urbis. 
Sail. And we always say, Potlri rerum, to possess the chief 
command, never rebus ; imperio being understood. 

Obs. 2. Potior, fungor, vescor, epulor, and pascor, sometimes have an 
accusative ; as Potlri urbem. Cic. Officio: fungi. Ter. Mimera fungi 
Tac. Pascuntur silvas. Virg. And in ancient writers utor, abator, and 
fruor ; as, Vti consilium. Plaut. Operam abutitur. Ter. Depasco and 
depascor always take an accusative ; as Depascltur artus. Virg. 


1. Verbs governing two Datives. 

XXII. Sum used instead of affero (to bring) 
governs two datives, the one of a person, and the 
other of a thing ; as, 

Est mihi voluptdti, It is, or brings, a pleasure to me. 

Two datives are also put after habeo, do, verto, relinquo, tri- 
buo,fore, duco, and some others ; as, 

Ducltur honori tibi, It is reckoned an honor to you. Id vcrtitur, mihi 
vitio, I am blamed for that. So, Misit mihi muneri, Dedit mihi dono ; 
Habet sibi laudi ; Venire, occurrere auxilio allcui. Liv. 

Obs. 1. Instead of the dative we often use the nominative, or the ac- 
cusative ; as Est exitium pccori, for exitio; Dare aliquid allcui donum, 
or dono ; Dare filiam ei nuptam, or nuptui. When dare and other ac- 
tive verbs have two datives after them, they likewise govern an accusa- 
tive either expressed or understood ; as, Dare crhnlni ei, sc. id. 

Obs. 2. The dative of the person is often to be supplied ; as, Est excm- 
plo, indicia, prcesidio, usui, &e. scil. mild, alicu.i, homimbus, or some such 
word. So, ponere, opponere pignori, sc. allcui, to pledge. Canere re- 
cevtui, sc. suis militlbus, to sound a retreat ; Habere cura qucestui, odio, 
voluptdti, religioni, studio, ludibrio, despicatui, &c. sc. sibi. 

Obs. 3. To this rule belong forms of naming ; as, Est mihi nomen 
Mexandro, my name is Alexander ; or with the nominative, Est mihi 
nomen Alexander ; or more rarely with the genitive, Est mihi nomen 

2. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Genitive, 

XXIII. Verbs of accusing, condemning, ac- 
quitting, and admonishing, govern the accusa- 
tive of a person with the genitive of a thing; as, 

Arguit mefurti, He accuses me of theft. 

Meipsum inertice condemno , I condemn myself of laziness. 

Ilium homicidii absolvunt, They acquit him of manslaughter. 

Monet me officii, He admonishes me of my duty 

Verbs of accusing are, Accuso, ago, appello, arcesso, inqutro, 
arguo, defero, insimulo, postulo, alHgo } astringo ; of condemn* 


mg, Damno, condemno, infdmo, noto ; of acquitting, Absolvo,, purgo ; of admonishing, Moneo, admoneo, commonefacio. 

Obs. 1. Verbs of accusing and admonishing, instead of the genitive, 
frequently have after them an ablative, with the preposition de ; as, Mo- 
ntr c aliqucm officii, or de officio ; Accusdre aliquem fuiti, or defurto. De 
vi condcmndti sunt. Cic. 

Obs. 2. Crimen and caput are put either in the genitive or ablative ; 
but in the ablative usually without a preposition ; as, Damndrc, postu- 
Idre, absolvere eum criminis, or capitis ; and crimine, or canitc ; also 
Absolvo me peccdto. Liv. And we always say, Plectere, punlre aliquem 
capite, and not capitis, to punish one capitally, or with death. 

Obs. 3. Many verbs of accusing, &c. are not construed with the of a person, and the gen. of a thing, but the contrary ; thus we 
say, Culpo, reprehendo, taxo, traduco, vitupero, calumnior, crimino? , ex- 
cuso, &c. avaritiam alicujus, and not aliquem avaritia. We sometimes 
also find acciiso, incuso, &c. construed in this manner; a.s, Accusdre iner- 
tiam adolescentium, for adolcscentes inertias. Cic. Culpam arguo. Liv. 
We say, Agere cum aliquo furti, rather than aliquem, to accuse one of 
theft. Cic. 

Obs. 4. Verbs of accusing and admonishing sometimes govern two 
accusatives, when joined with hoc, Mud, istud, id, unum, multa, &c. as, 
Moneo, accuso* te Mud. We seldom find, however, Err or em te moneo* 
but errdris or de errore ; except in old writers, as Plautus. 

XXIV. Verbs of valuing, with the accusative, 
govern such genitives as these, magni^ parvi, ni- 
hili ; as, 

JEstimo te magni, I value you much. 

Verbs of valuing are, JEstwno, cxistimo, duco, facio, habeo, 
pendo, puto, taxo. They govern several other genitives ; as, 
tanti, quant i, pluris, majoris, minoris, minimi, plurimi, maximi, 
nauci, pili, assis, nihili, tcruncii, hujus. 

Obs. 1. JEstxmo sometimes governs the ablative ; as, JEstimo te 
magno, permagno, parvo, scil. pretio : and also niliilo. We likewise say, 
Pro nihilo hab-eo, puto, duco. 

Obs. 2. JEqui and boni are put in the genitive after facio and consul o ; 
as, Hoc consulo boni, &qui bonique facio, I take this in good part. 

Obs. 3. The genitive after all these verbs is governed by some sub- 
Btantive understood; as, Arguere aliquem furti, scil. de crimine fur ti , 
JEstimo rem magni, scil. preiii, or pro re magni pretii ; Consulo boni, 
i. e. statuo or censeo esse factum, or munus boni viri, or animi ; Moncre 
tliquem officii, i. e. officii causd, or de re or negotio officii. 

3. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Dative. 

XXV. Verbs of comparing, giving, declaring, and 
taKing away, govern the accusative and dative ; as, 

Comparo Virgilium Home~ro, I compare Virgil to Homer. 

Suum cuique tribuito, Give every one his own. 

Narras fabulam surdo. Kou tell a story to a deaf man 

Erivuit me rnortu He rescued me from death. 


Or, — Any active verb may govern the accusatcvb 

and the dative, (when, together with the object of the ac- 
tion, we express the person or thing with relation to which it is 
exerted) ; as, 

Lcgam lectidnem tibi, I will read the lesson to you. Emit librum mihi, 
He bought a book for me. Sic vos non xobis fertis ardtra loves. Virg. 
Paupertas scepe suadet mala hominibus, advises men to do bad things. 
Plaut. fmperdre pecuniam, frumentum, naves, arma aliquibus, to order 
them to furnish. Caes. 

Obs. 1. Verbs of comparing and taking away, together with some 
others, are often construed with a preposition ; as, Comparare unam rem 
cum alia, & ad aliam, or comparare res inter se : Eripuit me morti, 
morte, a or ex morte : Mittere epistolam alicui, or ad aliquem : Intsndire 
telum alicui, or in aliquem: Incidere air i, in ces, or in aire; and so in 
m\ny others. 

Obs. 2. Several verbs governing the dative and accusative, are con- 
strued differently ; as, 

Circumddre mamia oppido, or oppidum maznibvs, to surround a city 
with walls. 

Inter cludere commedtum alicui, or aliquem commedtu, to intercept one's 

Dondre, prohibere rem alicui, or aliquem re, to give one a present, to 
ninder one from a thing. 

Mactdre hostiam Deo, or Dcum hostid, to sacrifice. 

Impertlre salutem alicui, or aliquem salute, to salute one. 

Inter dixit Galliam Romdnis, or Romdnos Gallia, he debarred the Ro- 
mans from Gaul. 

Induere, exuere vestem sibi, or se veste, to put on, to put off one's 

Leva/re dolor em alicui ; dolor em alicujus ; aliquem dolore, to ease one's 

Mindri aliquid alicui, or sometimes alicui aliquo. Cic. to threaten one 
with any thing ; Ccesari gladio. Sail. 

Gratulor tibi hanc rem, hac re. in. pro, & de hac re, I congratulate you 
on this. Mettus Tvilo derirtos Iwstcs gratuldtur. Liv. 

Rcsiituere alicui sanitdtem, or aliquem sanitdti, to restore to health. 

Aspergere labem alicui, or aliquem labe. to put an affront on one ; aram 
sanguine. Litdrc Deum sacris. & sacra Deo, to sacrifice. 

Excusdre se alicui. & apud aliquem, de re ; valetudinem ei. 

Exprobrdre vitium ei, or in eo, to upbraid. 

Occupdre pecuniam alicui, & apud aliquem, i. e. pecuniam famori lo 
tare, to place at interest. Cic. 

Opponere se morti, & ad mortem. Renuncidreid ei, & ad cum, to tell. 

Obs. 3. Verbs signifying motion or tendency to a thing, 
instead of the dative, have an accusative after them, with the 

preposition ad ; as, 

Porto, fero, lego, -as, pracipito, tollo, traho, duco, verio, incito, suscito 
also, hortor, and invito, voco, provoco , animo , stimulo, conformo, laces so , 
thus, Ad laudem milites hortdtur ; Ad praitdrem hominem traxit. Cic 
But after several of these verbs, we also find the dative ; as, Inferr 
Decs Latio, for in Latium. Virg. Invitdre aliquem hospitio, or in hospi 
lium. Cic 


Obs. 4. The accusative is sometimes understood ; as, NubZrc aMcu& %; Cedere allcui, scil. locum; Detrahere allcui, scil. laud em ; Ig- 
noscere allcui, scil. culpam. And in English the particle to is often omit- 
ted ; as, Dedit mild librum, He gave me a book, /or to me. 

4. Verbs governing two Accusatives. 

XXVI. Verbs of asking and teaching govern 
two accusatives, the one of a person and the 
other of a thing ; as, 

Posclmus tepacem, We beg peace of thee. 

Docuit me grammatlcam, He taught me grammar. 

1. Verbs of asking, which govern two accusatives, are Rogo, 
aro, exdro, obsecro, precor,posco, reposco,jlagtto, Slc. Of teach- 
ing, Doceo, edoceo, dedoceo, erudio. 

Obs. 1. Celo likewise governs two accusatives ; as, Celdvit 
vie hanc rem, He concealed this matter from me ; or otherwise, 
celdvit hanc rem mihi, or celdvit me de liac re. 

Obs. 2. Verbs of asking and teaching are often construed with a pre- 
position ; as, Rogdre rem ab aliquo ; Docere allquem de re, to inform , 
but we do not say, docere allquem de grammatlca, but grammatlcam, to 
teach. And we always say, with a preposition, Peto, exigo a or abs te , 
Percontor, scitor, sciscltor, ex or a te or te without the preposition ; In- 
terrogo, consulto te de re; Ut facias te obsecro ; Exorat paccm divum, 
for divas. Virg. Instruo, insdtuo, formo, informo allquem artlbus, in the 
abl. without a prep. Imbuo earn artlbus, in or ab artlbus. Also, instruo 
ad rem, or in re, ignorantiam alicujus. Erudlre aliquem artes, de or in 
re, ad rem. Formare ad studiam, mentem studiis, stadia ejus. 

Obs. 3. The accusative of the thing is not properly governed by th< 
verb, but by quod ad or secundum understood. 

5. Verbs governing the Accusative and the Ablative. 

XXVII. Verbs of loading, binding, clothing, 
depriving, and some others, govern the accusative 
and the ablative ; as, 

Onerat naves auro, He loads the ships with gold. 

Verbs of loading are, Onero, cumulo, pre mo, opprimo, obruo. Of un- 
loading, leva, exonero, &c. Of binding, astringo, ligo, alligo, devincio^ 
impedio, irretio, illaqueo, &c. Of loosing, solvo, exsolvo, libera, la,xo 1 
expedic, <fec. Of depriving, privo, nudo, orbo, spolio, fraudo, emungo. 
Of clothing, vestio, amicio, induo, cingo, tego, velo, cor duo, & calceo. 
Of unclothing, exuo, discingo, <fec. 

Obs. 1. The preposition, by which the ablative is governed after these 
*»irbs, is sometimes expressed; as, Solvere allquem ex catenis. Cic. 
Sometimes the ablative is to be supplied; as, Complct naves, sc. viris f 
mans the ships. Virg. 

Obs. 2. Several of these verbs likewise govern the genitive ; as, Ado 
lescentem sum temeritdds imulet. Liv. And also vary their construction 
as Iduit, exwt, se vestlbus, or vestcs sibi 



XXVIII. When a verb in the active voice go« 
verns two cases, in the passive it retains the lat- 
ter case ; as, 

Accusor furti, I am accused of theft. 

Virgilius compardtur Homer o, Virgil is compared to Homer. 
Doceor grammaticam, 1 am taught grammar. 

Navis onerdtur auro, The ship is loaded with gold. 

So, Scio homines accusdtum iri furti; — Eos ereptum iri marti, 

morte, a or ex morte ; pueros doctum iri grammaticam ; rem celd» 

turn iri mihi, or me ; me celdtum iri de re, &c 

Sometimes the active has three cases, and then the passive has the two 
last cases ; as, Habetur ludibrio Us. 

Obs. 1. Passive verbs are commonly construed with the 
ablative and the preposition a; as, 

Tu lauddris a me, which is equivalent to Ego laudo te. Virtus diligi- 
tur a nobis ; No s diligimus virtutem. Gaudeo meum factum probdri a 
te, or te meum factum : And so almost all active verbs. Neuter 
and deponent verbs also admit this preposition ; as, Mare a sole collucet 
Cic. Phaldris non a paucis interiit. Id. So, Cadere ab hoste ; Cessdre 
a prceliis ; Mori ab ense ; Pati furdri aliquid ab aliquo, &c. Also, Venire 
ab hostibus, to be sold; Vapuldre ab aliquo, Exuldre ab urbe. Thus 
likewise many active verbs ; as, Sumere, petere, tolUre, pellere, ezpectdre, 
emere, &c. ab aliquo. 

The prep, is sometimes understood after passive verbs ; as, Deseror 
conjuge. Ovid. Desertus suis, sc. a. Tacit. Tabuld distinguitur undd 
qui namgat, sc. ab undd, is kept from the water by a plank. Juvenal. 

The preposition PER is also used in the same sense with A ; as, Per 
me defensa est respublica, or a me ; Per me restitfitus ; Per me or a me 
factum est. Cic. But PER commonly marks the instrument, and A the 
principal efficient cause ; as, Res agitur per creditores, a rege, sc. a rege 
vel a legato ejus. Cic. Fam. i. 1. 

Obs. 2. Passive verbs sometimes govern the dative, espe- 
cially among the poets ; as, 

Neque cernitur ulli, for ab ullo. Virg. Vix audior ulli. Ovid. Scri- 
beris Vario, for a Vario. Hor. Honesta bonis viris quazruntur, for a 
viris. Cic. Videor, to seem, always governs the dative ; as, Videiis 
mihi, You seem to me : but we commonly say, Vidcris a me, You are 
seen by me ; although not always ; as, Nulla tudrum audita mihi, neque 
visa sororum, for a me. Virg. 

Obs. 3. Induor, amicior, cingor, accingor, also exuor, and discingor, are 
often construed with the accusative, particularly among the poets, though 
we do not find them governing two accusatives in the active voice ; as, 
InduUur vestem or veste. 

Obs. 4. Neuter verbs are for the most part only used impersonally 
in the passive voice ; unless when they are joined with a noun of a 
similar signification to their own; as, Pugna pugndta est. Cic. Bellum 
militabltur. Horat. Passive impersonal verbs are most commonly ap- 
plied either to a multitude, or to an individual taken indefinitely ; as, 
Siatur, jletur, curritur, vivltur, venitur, &c. a vobis } ab illis, «fcc. We are 


standing, weeping, &c. Bene potest vivi a me, or ab aViquo : I or any 
person may live well. Provlsum est nobis optlme a Deo ; Reclamdtum 
est tib omnibus, all cried out against it. Cic. 

They also govern the same cases as when used personally ; as, Ut 
majorlhus natu assurgdtur, ut suppllcum mlsercdtur. Cic. the 
accusative : for in these phrases, ftur Athenas, yugndtum est biduum, dor- 
mitur totam noctem, the accusative is not governed by the veib, but by 
the prepositions ad and per understood. We find, however, Tola inihi 
dormltur hyems ; JVoctes vigilantur cmarce ; Ocednus raris ab orbe nostra 
navlbus adltur. Tacit. 


XXIX. An Impersonal A 7 erb governs the da- 
tive ; as, 

Exptdit reipubliciB, It is profitable for the state. 

Verbs which in the active voice govern only the dative, 

are used impersonally in the passive, and likewise govern 
the dative ; as, 

Favetur mihi, I am favoured, and not Ego faveor. So, Kocetur mihi, 
imperdtur mihi, &c. We find, however, Hcec ego procurdre ivip&ror ; 
Ego cur mvideor, for imperdtur, invidetur mihi. Hor. 

Obs. 1. These verbs, Potest, cozpii, incipit, desinit, debet, 
and solet, are used impersonally, when joined with impersonal 
verbs ; as, 

Non potest credi iibi, You cannot be believed ; Mihi non potest noceri, 
I cannot be hurt; JVegat jucunde posse vivi sine virtfite. Cic. Per vir- 
tutem potest in ad astra. Alidrum laudi et gloriai invideri solet. The 
praise and glory of others use to be envied. Id. JVeque a fortisslmis in- 
firmissimo generi resisti posse. Sallust. 

Obs. 2. Various verbs are used both personally and impersonally ; 
as, Venit in mentem mihi hcec res, or de hac re, or hvjus rei, scil. me- 
moria ; This thing came into my mind. Est curaz mihi hac res, or de hac 
re. Doleo or mihi, id factum esse. 

Obs. 3 The neuter pronoun it is always joined with impersonal verbs 
in English ; as, It rains, it shines, &c. And in the Latin an infinitive 
is commonly subjoined to impersonal verbs, or the subjunctive with ut, 
forming a part of a sentence which may be supposed to supply the place 
of a nominative ; as, Nobis non licet peccdre, the same with pecedtum ; 
Omnibus bonis exptdit rempublicam esse salvam, i. e. Salus reipublica 
expSdit omnibus bonis. Cic. Accidit, evenit, contigit, ut ibi essemus. 
These nominatives, hoc, illud, id, idem, quod, &c. are sometimes joined 
to impersonal verbs ; as, idem mihi licet. Cic. Eddem licent. Catull. 

Obs. 4. The dative is often understood ; as, Facial quod libet, sc. sibi. 
Ter. Stat casus renovdre omnes, sc. mihi, I am resolved. Virg. 

EXC. I. REFER T and INTEREST govern the geni- 
tive ; as, 

Refert patris, It concerns my father. Interest omnium, It is the in- 
terest of all. 


fl But meet, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, are put in the accusa- 
tive plural neuter ; as, 

Aon mea refert, It does not concern me 

Obs. 1. Some think mea, tua, sua, &>c. to be in the ablat. 
sing. fern. We say either cujus interest, and quorum interest ; 
or cuja interest, from cujus, -a, -um. 

Obs. 2. Refert and interest are often joined with these nominatives, 
id, hoc. Mud, quid, quod, nihil, &c. also with common nouns ; and with 
these genitives, Tanti, quanti, magni, permagni, farm, pluris ; as, Hoc 
parvi refert ; Illud mea magni interest. Cic. Usque adeo magni refert 
studium. Lucret. Inccssus in gravidd refert. Plin. 

They are frequently construed with these adverbs, Tantum, quantum, 
multum, plus, plurimum, infinitum, parum, maxime, vehementer, minlme, 
&c. as, Faciam, quod maxlmh reipublicce interesse judiedbo. Cic. Some- 
times instead of the genit. they take the accus. with the prep, ad ; as, 
Quid id ad me, aut ad meam rem refert, Persai quid rerum gerant ? Of 
what importance is it ? &c. Plaut. Magni ad honor em nostrum interest. 
Cic. ; rarely the dative ; as, Die quid refe.rat intra naturae fines viventi, 
&c. Hor. Sometimes they are placed absolutely ; as, Magnopere in- 
terest opprimi Dolabellam, it is of great importance. Cic. Permultum 
interest, qualis primus aditus sit. Id. Adeone est funddta levlter fides, ut 
ubi sim, quam qui sim, magis referat. Liv. Plurimum enim intererit, 
quibus artibus, aut quibus hunc tu morlbus instituas. Juv. 

Obs. 3. The genitive after refert and interest, is governed by some 
substantive understood, with which the possessives mea, tua, sua, &c. 
likewise agree : as, Interest Ciceronis, i. e. est inter negotia Ciceronis • 
Refert patris, i. e. refert se hac res ad negotia patris : So, interest mea, 
est inter negotia mea. 

BET, TjEDET and PIGET, govern the accusative of a 
person with the genitive of a thing ; as, 

Miseret me tui, I pity you. Tazdet me vita, I am weary ot life. 

Pamitet me pecedti, I repent of my Pudet me culpa, I am ashamed of 
sin. my fault. 

Obs. 1. The genitive here is properly governed either by negotium 
understood, or by some other substantive of a signification similar to 
that of the verb with which it is joined ; as, Miseret me tui, that is, 
negotium or miseratio tui miseret me. 

Obs. 2. An infinitive or some part of a sentence may supply the 
place of the genitive ; as, Poznitet me pecedsse, or quod peccaverim. 
The accusative is frequently understood ; as, Scelerum si bene poznitet, 
scil. nos. Horat. 

Obs. 3. Miseret, poznitet, &c. are sometimes used personally, espe- 
cially when joined with these nominatives, hoc, id, quod, &c. as, Ipse 
sui miseret. Lucr. Konne haic te pudent. Ter. Nihil, quod poznitere 
possit, facias, for cujus te poznitere possit. Cic. 

We sometimes find miseret joined with two accusatives ; as, Menedemi 
tficem miseret me, scil. secundum or quod ad. Ter. 

Obs. 4. The preterites of miseret, pudet, tadet, and piget, when used 
in the passive form, govern the same cases with the active ; as, Mise* 


*\tum est me tuarum fortundrum. Ter. We likewise find, miserescii 
and miserltur used impersonally ; as, Miserescit me tui. Ter. ; Miserc- 
fJur te fratrum ; Neque me tui, neque tuOrum liber drum miserCri po 
lest. Cic. 

OPORTET, govern the accusative of a person with the in- 
finitive ; as, 

Delectat me studere, It delights me to study. 

Non decet te rixdri, It does not become you to scold. 

Obs. 1. These verbs are sometimes used personally; as, Parvum 
parva decent. Hor. Est aliquid, quod non oporteat, etiamsi liceat. Cic. 
Hcec facta ab illo oportebant. Ter. 

Obs. 2. Decet is sometimes construed with the dative } as, Ita nobis 
decet. Ter. 

Obs. 3. Oportet is elegantly joined with the subjunctive 
mode, ut being understood ; as, 

Sibi quisque consulat oportet. Cic. Or with the perfect participle, 
esse or fuisse being understood ; as, Communicdtum oportuit ; mansum 
oportuit; Adolcscenti morem gestum oportuit, The young man should 
have been humored. Ter. 

Obs. 4. Fallit, fugit, preterit, latet, when used impersonally, also 
govern the accusative with the infinitive ; as, In lege nulla esse ejusmodi 
caput, non te fallit ; De Dionysio fugit me ad te antea scribere. Cic. 

Note. Attinet,pertinet, & spectat, are construed with ad; Jid rempub- 
Ucam pertlnet, me conservdri. Cic. And so personally, Me ad me attlnet, 
belongs. Ter. Res ad arma spectat, looks, points. Cic. 


XXX. One verb governs another in the infini- 
tive ; as, 

Cupio discere, I desire to learn. 

Obs 1. The infinitive is often governed by adjectives, 
as, Horatius est dignus legi. duinctil. And it sometimes de- 
pends on a substantive ; as, Tempus equum fumantia solvere 
colla. Virg. 

Obs. 2. The word governing the infinitive is sometimes anderstood ; 
as, Mene incepto desistere victam, scil. decet, or par est. Virg Videre esl f 
one may see. Dicer e non est, scil. copia, or facultas. Horat. And some- 
times the infinitive itself is to be supplied ; as, Socrdtem fidlbus docuit, 
Bcil. canere. Cic. So, Discere, scire, fidlbus. 

Obs. 3. The infinitive was not improperly called by the ancients, 
Nomen verbi, the name or noun of the verb ; because it is brth joined 
with an adjective like a substantive ; as, VeJJe suum cuique est, Every 
one has a will of his own : and it likewise supplies the 1 place of a noun, 
not only in the nominative, but also in all the oblique cases ; as, 1. In 
the nominative, Latrocindri, frauddre turpe est. Cic. Didicisse fidelHer 
urtes emollit mores. Ovid. 2. In the genitive, Perltus carddre, for ca.ntandi 
or cantus. Virg. 3. In the dative, Pardtus sernre, for servituti. Sail. 4. In 


the accusative. Da mihi fuller e, for artem fallendi. Horat. Quod faciam 
supcrest, prater amdre, nihil. Ovid. 5. In the vocative, vivere nostrum, 
ut non sentlentibus effiuzs ! for vita nostra. 6. In the ablative, Digni^s 
amdri, for amdre, or qui amatur. Virg. 

Obs. 4. Instead of the infinitive, a different construction is often used 
after verbs of doubting, willing, ordering, fearing, hoping ; in short, 
after any verb which has a relation to futurity ; as, Dubltat ita facer c, 
or more frequently, an, num, or utrum ita facturus sit; Dubitdvit an 
faceret necne ; Non dubito quin fecerit. Vis me facer e, or ut faciam. 
Metuit tangi, or ne tangdtur. Spero te venturum esse, or fore ut venias. 
JVunquam putdvi fore ut ad te supplex venlrem. Cic. Existimdbant futu- 
Tumfuisse ut oppldum amitteretur. Cecs. 

Obs. 5. To, which in English is the sign of the infinitive, in Latin 
may often be rendered otherwise than by the infinitive ; as, I am sent 
to complain, Mittor questum, or ut querar, &c. Ready to hear, Promp- 
tus ad auditndum; Time to read, Tempus legendi; Fit to swim, Jlptus 
tuuhndo ; Easy to say, Facile dictu ; I am to write, Scripturus sum; 
A house to let, or more properly, to be let, Domus locanda ; He was left 
to guard the city, Relictus est ut tueretur urbem. 



XXXI. Participles, Gerunds, and Supines, go- 
vern the case of their own verbs ; as, 

Amans virtutem, Loving virtue. Carens fraude, Wanting guile. 

Obs. 1. Passive Participles often govern the dative, par- 
ticularly when they are used as adjectives ; as, 

Suspectus mihi, Suspected by me ; Suspectiores regibus. Sail. Invisus 
mihi. hated by me, or hateful to me ; In dies invisior. Suet. Occulta 
et maribus non invlsa solum, sed etiam inaudlta sacra, unseen. Cic. 

EXOSUS, PEROSUS, and often also PERTJESUS, govern the accu- 
sative ; as, Taidas ezosa jugdlcs. Ovid. Plebs consilium nomen hand se- 
cus quam regum perdsa erat. Liv. Pertaisus ignaviam suam ; semct 
ipse, displeased with. Suet, vitam, weary of. Justin, levitdtis. Cic. 

Verbals in BUNDUS govern the case of their own verbs ; as, Gratu.- 
labundus patriae. Just. Vitabundus castra hostium. Liv. So sometimes 
also nouns ; as, Justitia est obtemperatio scriptis legibus. Cic. Insidioz 
consxdi. Sail. Domum reuitionis spe subldtd. Cobs. Spectatio ludos. Plaut. 

Obs. 2. These verbs, do, reddo, volo, euro, facio, habeo, comperio, 
with the perfect participle, form a periphrasis, similar to what we use 
in English ; as, Compertum habeo, for comperi, I have found. Sail. 
Effectum dabo, for efficiam ; Inventum tibi curdbo, et adductum tuum 
Pamphllum, i. e. inveniam et adducam. Ter. Sometimes the gerund is 
used with ad; as, Trader e ei gentes diripundas, or ad diripiendum. Cic. 
Rogo, accipio, do aliquid utendum, or ad utendum ; Misit mihi librum, or ad legendum, &c. 

Obs. 3. These verbs, euro, habeo, mando, loco, conduco, do, tribuo, 
mitto, &c. are elegantly construed' with the participle in dus, instead of 
the infinitive; as, Funus faciendum curdvi, for fieri, or ut fieret ; Co- 
\timnas cedificandas locdvit. Cic. 



XXXII. Gerunds are construed like substantive 
nouns ; as, 

Studendum est mihi, I must study. Aptus studendo, Fit for studying. 
Temp us studeudi, Time of study. Scio studendum esse mihi, 1 know 

that I must study. 

But more particularly : 

I. The gerund in DUM with the verb est governs the da- 
tive ; as, 

Legcndum est mihi, I must read. Moriendum est omnibus, All must die 
So, Scio legcndum esse mihi ; moriendum esse omnibus, &c. 

Obs. 1. This gerund always imports obligation or necessity ; and may 
be resolved into oportet, neccsse est, or the like, and the infinitive or the 
subjunctive, with the conjunction ut ; as, Omnibus est moriendum, or 
Omnibus necesse est mori, or ut moriantur ; or Kecesse est ut omncs mo- 
rianiur. Consul endum est tibi a me, I must consult for your good ; for 
Oportet ut consilium tibi. Cic. 

Obs. 2. The dative is often understood ; as, Orandum est, ut sit mens 
sana in cor pore sano, sc. tibi. Juv. Hie vine endum, aut moriendum, mill* 
tes, est, sc. vobis. Liv. Deliberandum est diu, quod statuendum est semel f 
sc. tibi or allcui. P. Syr. 

II. The gerund in DI is governed by substantives or adjec- 
tives ; as, 

Tempus legendi, Time of reading. Cupidus discendi, Desirous of learning. 
Obs. This gerund is sometimes construed with the genitive plural ; as, 
Fucultas agrorum condonandi, for agros. Cic. Copia spectandi comoz- 
didrum, for com&dias. Ter. But chiefly with pronouns ; as, In castra 
venerunt sui purgandi causd. Caes. Vestri adhortandi causa. Liv;. Ejus 
videndi cupidus, sc.f/emlna. Ter. The gerund here is supposed to govern 
the genitive like a substantive noun. 

III. The gerund in DO of the dative ease is governed by 

adjectives signifying usefulness or fitness ; as, 

Charta utilis scribendo, Paper useful for writing. 

Obs. .1. Sometimes the adjective is understood; as, Kon est solvendo t 
scil. par, or habllis, He is not able to pay. Cic. 

Obs. 2. This gerund is sometimes governed also by verbs ; as, Adesse 
scribendo. Cic. Aptat habendo ensem, for wearing. Virg. Is finis cen- 
se ndo f actus est. Liv. 

IV. The gerund in DUM of the accusative case is govern- 
ed by the prepositions ad or inter ; as, 

Promvtus ad audiendum, Ready to hear. 

Attentus inter docendum, Attentive in time of teaching. 

Obs. This gerund is also governed by some other prepositions; as, 
£nte domandum. Virg. Ob absolvendum. Cic. Circa movendum. Quinctil 


Or it depends on some verb going before, and the*, with the verb esse 
governs the dative case ; as, Scio moriendum esse omnibus, I know that 
all must die. Esse is often understood 

V. The gerund in DO of the ablative case is governed by 
the prepositions a, ah f de, e, ex y or in ; as, 

Poena a peccando absterret, Punishment frightens from sinning. 

* Or without a preposition, as the ablative of manner or 

cause ; as, 

Memoria excolendo %ug£tur, The memory is improved by exereising it. 
Defessus sum ambulando, I am wearied with walking. 

Obs. The gerund in its nature very much resembles the infinitive. 
Hence the one is freo^ently put for the other ; as, Est tempus legend^ 
or legere: only the gerund is never joined with an adjective, and is some 
times taken in a passive sense ; as, Cum Tisidium vocaretur ad imperan- 
dum, i. e. ut ipsi imperetur, to receive orders. Sail. Nunc ades ad impe- 
randum, vel ad parendum potius ; sic enim antiqui loquebantur. Cic. i. e 
ut tibi imperetur. Urit videndo, i e. dum videtur. Virg. 

Gerunds turned into Participles in dus. 

XXXVI. Gerunds governing the accusative are 
elegantly turned into participles in dus, which, 
like adjectives, agree with their substantives in 
gender, number and case ; as, 

By the Gerund. By the Participle or Gerundive. 

Petendum est mihi pacem, ^ <v 55 ( Pax est petenda mihi. 

Tempus petendi paccm, I o § J Tempus petenda pads. 

Ad petendum paccm, f 7 g, ) Ad petendum pacem. 

A petendo pacem, J o g \^A petendd pace. 

Obs. 1. In changing gerunds into participles in dus, the 
participle and the substantive are always to be put in the same 
case in which the gerund was ; as, 

Genitive. Jnlia sunt consilia urbis delendai, civium trucidandorum 9 
nominis Romdni extinguendi. Cic, 

Dat. Prrpctiendo labori idoneus. Colum. Capessendw reipubUcai ha- 
bil is. Tac. Area firma templis ac porticibus sustinendis. Li v. Onlri 
ferendo est, sc. aptus or habilis. Ovid. Natus miseriis ferendis. Ter. 
Literis dandis vigilare. Cic. Locum oppido condendo caper e. Liv. 

Ace. and Abl. Ad defendendam Romam ab oppugnandd Capud duces 
Romanes abstrahere. Liv. Orationcm Latlnam legendis nostris ejjicie$ 
pleniorem. Cic. 

Obs. 2. The gerunds of verbs, which do not govern the accusative, are 
never changed into the participle, except those of medeor, utor, abidor % 
fruar, fvngor, and potior ; as, Spcs potiundi urbe, or yotiunda. urbis 
but we always say, Cupldus subveniendi tibi, and never tut. 



1. The Supine in urn, 

XXXVII The supine in um is put after a verb 
of motion ; as, 

Abiit deambuldtum, He hath gone to walk. 

So, Ducere cohortcs prcedatum. Liv. JYunc venis irrisum domlnum? 
Quod in rem tuum optimum factu arbltror, te id admonltum venio. Plaut. 

Obs. 1. The supine in um is elegantly joined with the verb eo, to ex- 
press the signification of any verb more strongly ; as, It se perditum, the 
same with id, agit, or operant dat, ut se perdat, He is bent on his own 
destruction. Ter. This supine with iri, taken impersonally, supplies the 
place of the infinitive passive ; as, An credebas ilium, sine tud opird iri 
deductum domum ? Which may be thus resolved ; An credebas iri (a te 
or ab all' quo) deductum (i. e. ad deducendum) illam domum. Ter, The 
supine here may be considered as a verbal substantive governing the ac- 
cusative, like the gerund. 

Obs. 2. The supine in um is put after other verbs besides verbs of mo- 
tion ; as, Dedit jiliam nnptum ; Cantatum provocemus. Ter. Revocdtus 
drfensum patriam ; Divlsit copias hiematum. Nep. 

Obs. 3. The meaning of ihis supine may be expressed bv several other 
parts of the verb; as, Venit ordtum opcm : or, 1. Venit opem orandi 
causd, or opis orandce. 2. Venit ad orandum opem, or ad orandam opem. 
3. Venit opi orandce. 4. Venit opem oraturus. 5. Venit qui, or ut opcm 
or<t. 6. Venit opem or are. But the third and the last of these are selch m 

2. The Supine in u. 

XXXVIII. The supine in u is put after an ad- 
jective noun ; as, 

Facile dictu, Easy to tell, or to be told. 

So, Nihil dictu feodum, visuquc, hcec limina tangat, intra quae, puer r?t. 
Juv. Difficilis res est inventu verus amicus; Fas or nefus est dictu, 
Opus est scitu. Cic. 

Obs. 1. The supine in u, being used in a passive sense, hardly ever 
governs any case. It is sometimes, especially in old writers, put after 
verbs of motion ; as, Nunc ohsondtu redeo, from getting provisions. Plaut. 
Primus cuMtu surgat (villicus), from bed, postremus cubltum eat. Cato. 

Obs. 2. This supine may be rendered by the infinitive or gerund with 
the preposition ad; as, Difficile cognitu, cognosci, or ad cognoscendum , 
Res facilis ad credendum. Cic. 

Obs. 3. The supines, being nothing else but verbal nouns of the fourth 
declension, used only in the accusative and ablative singular, are govern- 
ed in these cases by prepositions understood ; the supine in um bv th« 
preposition ad, and the supine in u by the preposition in. 


XXXIX. Adverbs qualify verbs, participles, ad- 
jectives, and other adverbs ; as, 

Bene scribit, He writes well. Fortiter pugnans, Fighting bravely 

Serrus egregie fidelis, A slave re- Satis bene. Well enough, 
niarkahlv faithful. 


Obs. 1 Adverbs sometimes likewise qualify substantives , as 4 

Homerus plant orator : plane noster, vert Metellus. Cic. So, Hodie 
?iane, eras mane, heri mane ; hodie vesperi, &c. tarn mane, tarn vespere. 

Obs. 2. The adverb, for the most part in Latin, and always in English 
,s placed near to the word which it qualifies or affecto. 

Obs. 3. Two negatives, both in Latin and English, are 
equivalent to an affirmative ; as, 

JYec non senserunt, Nor did they not perceive, i. e. et senserunt, and 
they did perceive ; Non poteram non exammdri metu. Cic. So, non sum 
nescius, i. e. scio. Cic. Or. 1, 11. haud nihil est, i. e. est allquid. Ter. 
Eun. 4, 2, 13. nonnulli, i. e. aUqui; nonnunquam, i. e. aliquando ; non 
nemo, i. e. quidam ; nemo non, i. e. quillbet, &c. Examples, however, 
of the contrary of this occur in good authors, both Latin and English. 
Thus, in imitation of the Greeks, two negatives sometimes make a 
stronger negation : JYeque ego haud committam, ut, si quid pecedtum siet, 
(te) fecisse dicas de med, sententid, I will not cause, that, &c. Plaut. 
Bacch. 4, 9, 114. Jura, te non nociturum homini hdc de re nemini, for 
nulli homini. Id. Mil. 5, 1.18, cf. Epid. 4, 1. 6. & 5, 1, 57. Nolle succes- 
sion, non Patribus, non Consullbus, They did not wish success either to 
the Patricians, or the Consuls. Li v. 2, 45. So, nihil iste n< '■ ausus, nee 
potuit. Virg. M. 9, 428, add. Virg. E. 4,' 53. & 5, 53. Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 47. 
Heaut. 1, 1, 11. JVullius rei neque pras,neque manceps f actus est. Nep. 

But what chiefly deserves attention in Adverbs, is the degree of com- 
parison and the mode with which they are joined. 1. Apprimi , admodum } 
vehementer, maxime, perquam, xaldb, oppido, &c. and per in composition, 
are uyually joined to the positive ; as, Utrlque nostrum gratum admodum 
feceris, You will do what is very agreeable to both of us. Cic. perquam 
puerile, very childish ; oppldd pa ici, very few ; perfactle est, &c. In like 
manner, Parum, multum, nimium, tantum, quantum, aliquantum ; as, In 
rebus apertissimis, nimium longi sumus ; parum firmus, multum bonus. 
Cic. Adverbs in um are sometimes also joined to comparatives; as, 
Forma viri aliquantum amplior humdnd. Liv. 

Quam is joined to the positive or superlative in different senses ; as, 
Quam difficile est ! How difficult it is ! Quam crudelis, or Ut crudelis est ! 
How cruel he is ! Flens quam familiarUer, very familiarly. Ter. So / 
quam severt, very severely. Cic. Quam late, very widely. Caes. Tarn 
multa quam, &c. as many things as, &c. Quam maximas potest copias 
armat, as great as possible. Sail. Quam maximas gratias agit, quam 
primum, quam sajrissime. Cic. Quam quisque pessime fecit, tarn maximh 
tutus est. Sail. 

Facile, for haud dubib, undoubtedly, clearly, is joined to superlatives 
or words of a similar meaning; as, Facilh do ctis slums , facilt princeps, or 
pracipuus. Longe, to comparatives or superlatives, rarely to the posi- 
tive ; as, Longe eloquentisslmus Plato. Cic. Pedlbus longt melior Lycus 

2. Cum, when, is construed with the indicative or subjunctive, oftener 
with the latter ; Dum, whilst, or how long, with the indicative ; as, Bum 
kcec aguntur ; JEgroto, dum anlma est, spes esse dicitur. Cic. Donee cris 
felix, multos numerdbis amlcos. Ovid. Dum and donec, for usquedum, 
ill til, sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the subjunctive 


ns Oppcrio? , dum ista cognosco. Cic. Hand desinam doner, verfeclro. 
Ter. So, quoad, for quamdiu, quantum, quat&nus, as long, as much, as far 
as; thus, Quoad Catilinafuit inurbe ; Quoad tibi aiquum videbltur ; quoad 
possem fy liccret ; quoad progrgdi potuerit amentia. Cic. But quoad 
until, oftener with the subjunctive ; as, Thcssaloiilca: esse statueram, quoad, 
aliquid ad me scriberes. Cic. but not always ; Non fuciam finem rogandi, 
quoad nuncidium erit te fecisse. Cic. The pronoun ejus, with facere, or 
fieri, is elegantly added to quoad , as, quoad ejus face 1 re poteris : Quoad 
ejus fieri possit. Cic. Ejus is thought to be here governed by aliquid, or 
some such word understood. Quoad corpus, quoad animam, for secundum, 
or quod attinet ad corpus or animam, as to the body or soul, is esteemed 
by the best grammarians not to be good Latin. 

3. Postquam or Posteaquam, after, is usually joined with the indie. 
Antequam, Priusquam, before : Simul, simulac, simul atque, simul 
ut, as soon as ; Ubi, when, sometimes with the indie, and sometimes with 
the subj. ; as, Antequam dico or dicam. Cic. Simulac persensit. Virg. 
Simul ut videro Curidnem. Cic. H&c ubi dicta dedit. Liv. Ubi semel 
quis per jurar) erit, ei credi postea non oportet. Cic. So, vsm, truly, as, 
Nai ego homo sum infelix. Ter. Nai tu, si id fecisses, melius famai con- 
suluisses. Cic, But ne, not, with the imperative, or more elegantly with 
the subjunctive ; as, Ne jura. Plaut. Ne post conferas culpam in me 
Ter. Ne tot znndrum felicitdtem in unius horaz dederis discrlmen. Liv. 

4. Quasi, Ceu, Tanquam, Perinde, when they denote resemblance, 
are joined with the indicative ; Fuit olim, quasi ego sum, senex. Plaut. 
Adversi rupto ceu quondam turbine vend conftlgunt. Virg. Hac ovinia 
perinde sunt, ut aguntur. But when used ironically, they have the sub- 
junctive ; as, Quasi de verbo, non de re labor etur. Cic. 

5. Utinam, o si, ut for utinam, I wish, take the subjunctive; as, Uti- 
nam ea res ei voluptdti sit. Cic. mihi pr&teritos refer at si Jupiter 
annos. Virg. Ut ilium dii deaque perdant. Ter. 

6. Ut, when, or after, takes the indicative; as, Ut discessit, venit, &c. 
IF Also, for qua m, ox quomodo, how! as, Ut valet! Ut falsus anlmi est! 
Ut sazpe summa ingenia in occulto latent ! Plaut. H Or when it simply 
denotes resemblance ; as, Ut lute es y ita omnes censes esse. Plaut. H In 
this sense it sometimes has the subjunctive ; as, Ut sementem feceris, ita 
metes. Cic. 

7. Quin, for cur non, takes the indie, as, Quin continetis voccm indi- 
cem stultitim vestroe? Cic. IT For Imo, nay, or but, the indie, or imperat. 
as, Quin est pardtum argentum ; quin tu hoc audi. Ter. M For Ut non, 
qui, quje, quod non, or quo minus, the subjunctive ; as, Nulla tarn fad' 
lis res, quin difficilis fiet, quum invltus facias. Ter. Nemo est, quin 
mdlit ; Facere non possum, quin ad te mittam, I cannot help sending 
Nihil abest, quin sim miserrimus. Cic. 


XL. Some adverbs of time, place, and quaa* 
tity, govern the genitive ; as, 

Pridid ejus diet, The day before that day. 

Ubique gentium, Every where. 

Satis est verborum. There is enough of words 



1. Adverbs of time governing the genit. are. Interea, postea,, tunc 
as. Interea loci, in the mean time ; posted loci, afterwards ; inde loci s 
then ; tunc temupdris, at that time. 2. Of place, Ubi, and quo, with theix 
compounds, ublque, ubicunque, ubivis, ubiuhi, &c. Also, Eo, hue, huccine % 
nude, usquam, nusquam, longe, ibidem; as. Ubi, quo, quovis, &c. also, 
usquam, nvsquaiu, unde terrarum, or gentium-; longe gentium; ibidem 
loci, eo audacice, vecordice, miseridrum, &c. to that pitch of boldness, 
madness, misery, &c. 3. Of quantity, Munde, ajfdtim, largiter, nimis, 
satks, pai'um, minlme ; as, Abunde glorice, affdtim divitidrum, largiter 
auri, satis eloquentice, sapientia parum est Mi or habet, He has enough of 
glory, riches, &c. Minlme gentium, by no means. 

Some add ergo and instar ; as, Ergo virtutis, for the sake of virtue. 
Cic. Instar montis, like a mountain. Virg. But these are properly nouns. 

Obs. 1. These adverbs are thought to govern the genitive, because 
they imply in themselves the force of a substantive; as, Potential gloria- 
que abunde adeptus, the same with abundantiam glories; or res, locus, 
or negotium, and a preposition, may be understood ; as, Interea loci, i. e. 
inter ea negotia loci ; Ubi terrarum, for in quo loco terrarum. 

Obs. 2. We usually say , pridie , postridie , ejus diei, seldom diem; but 
pridie, postridie Kalendas, JVonas, Idus, ludos Apollindres, natdlem ejus, 
absolutionem ejus, &c. rarely Kalenddrum, &c. 

Obs. 3. En and ecce are construed either with the nomina- 
tive o y accusative ; as, 

Tji hostis, or hostcm ; Ecce miserum homlnem. Cic. Sometimes a da« 
t ;e is added ; as, Ecce tibi Strato. Ter. Ecce duas (scil. aras.) tibi, 
Daphni. Virg. In like manner is construed hem put for ecce; as, Hem 
tibi Davum. Ter. But in all these examples some verb must be under 

XLI. Some derivative adverbs govern the case 
of their primitives; as, 

Omnium optime loquitur, He speaks the best of all. 

Convenienter natural, Agreeably to nature. 

Venit obviam ei, He came to meet him. 

Proxlme castris or castra, Next the camp. 



AD astra, to the stars; religari ad nus fatshs ad interitum ; lemus 

asserem, to be bound to a plank ; ad severitatem, for, with respect 

ad diem veniam, solvam, &c. to. Cic. ; ad vivum, sc. corpus, 

at or on; ad portam, ostium, to the quick; ad judlcem agere, 

fores, at, before ; ad urbem, Ti- before; nihil ad Csesarem, in 

berim, near, at; ad templa sup- comparison of; numero ad duo- 

plicatio, in; ad summum, at decim, to the number of; omnes 

mest, or to the top ; ad summam, ad unum, to a man; ad hoc, 

en the whole. Cic. ; ad ulti- besides ; ad vulgi opinionem, ac- 

aiura, extremum, at last, finally ; cording to ; homo ad ungucm 

ad or in speciem, to appearance ; factus, an accomplished man ; her 

mentis ad omnia capacltas ; an- bae ad lunam messae, by the light 



pf. Virg. ; ad tern pus venit, at; 
Ira brevis est fy ad tempus, /or: 
ad tempus consilium capiarr,ac- 
cording to. Cic. ; ad decern an- 
nos, afer ; annos ad quinquagin- 
ta natus, about. Cic. ; nebula 
erat ad multum diei, for a great 
part of the day. Liv. ; ad pedes 
jacere, provolvi, procumbere, §* 
ad genua ; ad manus esse, at ; ad 
manus venire, to come to a close 
engagement ; ad libellam deberi, 
to a farthing, no more and no 
less; ad amussim, exactly; ad 
haec visa auditaque, upon seeing 
and hearing these things. Liv. 

A.D seems sometimes to be taken 
adverbially; as, Ad duo millia 
ctesa sunt; ad mille hominum 
amissum est ; ad ducenti perie- 
runt, about. Liv. 

Apud forum, at; apud me ccana- 
bis, at my house ; apud senatum, 
judices, or aliquem dicere, before ; 
apud majores nostros, among; 
apud Xenophontem, in the book 
of; Est mihi fides, or valeo 
apud ilium, / have credit with 
him; facio te apud ilium deum. 

Ante diem, focum, SfC. before. 

ADVERsus,or -um; Contra hostes, 
against; adversus infimos justi- 
tia est servanda, toward; adver- 
sum hunc ioqui, to. Ter. Lerl- 
na adversum Antipolim, over 
against. Plin. 

^/is or citra flumen, on this side ; 
citra necessitatem, without; Ede 
citra cruditatem, bibe citra ebrie- 
tatem. Senec. 

Circum fy circa regem, about ; 
Varia circa haec opinio. Plin. 

Erga amlcos, towards. Extra 
muros ; Extra jocum, periculum, 
noxiam, sortem, without ; nemo 
extra te, besides ; extra conjura- 
tionem, not concerned in. Sail. 

Infra tectum, below the roof. 

(nter fratres, among ; inter v^ su- 
per coenam, during, in the time 
of; inter haec parata, during 
these -preparations. Sail. Inter 
tot annos, in. Cic. Inter diem, 
whence interdiu, ia the day time ; 

inter se amant, they love one ano 
titer; Quasi non norimus nos 
inter nos. Ter. 
Intra privates parietes, intra pau- 
cos annos, within; intra famam 
est, less than report. Qui net. 

Juxta macellum, near the shambles. 

Ob lucrum, for gain; ob oculos, 
before ; ob industriam for de in- 
dustrial, on purpose. Plaut. 

Penes quem, or quern penes, in 
the power of; Penes te es ? Atq 
you in your senses ? Hor. 

Per agros, through; per vim, per 
scelus, by; per anni tempus, per 
aetatem licet, for, by reason of. 

Pone caput, behind. 

Post hoc tempus, after; post ter- 
gum, behind; post homines na- 
tos ; post hominum memoriam, 
since the world began. 

PrxEter te nemo, nobody besides 
or except; praeter casam fugere, 
beyond; praeter legem, morem, 
aequum & bonum, spem, opi 
nionem, &c. contrary to, against, 
beyond ; propter casteros exeellere, 
lamentari, above; praeter ripam 
ire, along, near ; praeter oculos, 
before. Cic. 

Propter virtutem, for, on account 
of; propter aquae rivum, near 
by. Virg. 

Secundum facta & virtutes tuas, 
according to. Ter. secundum lit- 
tus, secundum aurem vulneratus 
est, near to ; in actione secundum 
vocem vultus plurimum valet; 
secundum patrem tu es proxi- 
mus, after, next to; Praetor se- 
cundum me decrevit, sententiam 
dedit, for, in my fivour. Cic. 

Secus viam, by, along. 

Supra terrain, above. 

Trans mare, over, beyond. 

Ultra oceanum, beyond. 

To prepositions governing the 
accusative are commonly 
added Circiter, prope, 
usque, and versus ; 
as, Circiter meridiem, about 
mid- day ; prope muros, near 
the walls; usque Puteolos, Tar- 
sum usque, as far as; Ori« 



intern versus, towards th§ east. 
But in these ad is understood; 
which we find sometimes ex- 
pressed; as, Prope ad annum. 

Nep. Ab ovo usque ad mala 
Hor. Ad oceanum versus. Csbs. 
In Italiam versus. Cic. 


\ patre, ab omnibus, abs te, by or 
from ; a puero, or pueris, a pue- 
ritia, ineunabulis, teneris ungni- 
bus, &c. from a child, ever since 
childhood ; ab ovo usque ad ma- 
la, from the beginning to the end 
of supper ; a manu, sc. servus, an 
amanuensis or clerk ; ad manum, 
a waiting man ; a pedlbus, a foot- 
man; a latere principis, an at- 
tendant. So, a secretis, rationi- 
bus, consiliis, cyathis, &c. a secre- 
tary, accountant, fyc. ; fores a no- 
bis, for nostrae. Injuria ab illo, 
for illius. Ter. a coena, after ; 
Secundus, tertius a Romulo ; ic- 
tus ab latere, on or in; a senatu 
stare, for, in defence of; ab 
oculis doleo. Plaut. ab ingenio 
improbus, a pecunia. & militibus, 
imparatus, as to, with respect to. 
Cic. Est calor a sole ; omissiores 
ab re, too careless about money; 
a villi mercenarium vidi. Ter. 

Absque causa, without; absque te 
esset, recte ego mihi vidissem, 
i. e. si tu non esses, nisi tu esses, 
but for you, had it not been for 
you. Ter. Absque is chiefly used 
by comic writers ; sine, by orators. 

Clam patre <§/* patrem, (with the ace. 
or abl.) without the knowledge of. 

Coram omnibus, before, in presence 

Cum exercitu, with; testis mecum 
estannulus, in my possession. Tor. 
cum prima luce, at break of day ; 
cum imperio esse, in; cum pri- 
mis, in primis, in the first place; 
cum metu dicere, cum laetitia 
vivere, cum cura, <^c. Cic. We 
say, mecum, tecum, secum, no- 
biscum, vobiscum ; rarely cum 
me, cum te, &c. and quocum or 
cum quo, quibuscum or cum qui- 

|>£ lana caprlna rixantur, about, 
concerning ; De tanto patrimonio 

nihil relictum est, of; de loco 
superiore, from ; de die, by day ; 
de nocte, by night; de integro, 
anew, afresh; de or ex impro- 
vlso, unexpectedly ; de or ex in- 
dustria, on purpose ; de meo, at 
my expense; Id de lucro puta 
to esse, clear gain. Ter. de or 
ex compacto agere, by agree- 
ment; de transverso, cross-wise, 
athwart ; de or ex ejus sententia, 
consilio, according to ; qua or 
hac de causa, for ; homo de 
plebe ; tern plum de marmore, 
of; de scripto dicere, to read a 
speech ; de filio emit, from. Cic. 
De servis fidelissimus ; de ipsius 
exercitu non amplius hominum 
mille cecidit. Nep. Robur de 
exercitu. Liv. Adolescens de 
summo loco. Plaut. De procul 
aspicere. Id. 
E foro, Ex aedibus, from, out of; 
e contrario, or contraria parte, 
on the contrary ; e regione, over 
against; e republica, e re ali- 
cujus, for the good of ; statim e 
somno, ex fuga, ex tanta. pro 
perantia, aliud ex alio malum, 
from., after ; e vestigio, out of 
hand, immediately, poculum ex 
auro; ex equo pugnare, on horse- 
back ; facere pugnam ex cora- 
modo, on advantageous ground ; 
Sail. ; diem ex die expectare, 
from day to day, day after day ; 
ex ordine, in order ; magna ex 
parte, for the most part; ex su- 
pervacuo, superfluously ; ex tua 
dignitate or virtute, ex decreto 
senatAs, e natura, according to; 
so vulgus ex veritate pauca, ex 
opiniune multa sestimat ; ex or 
de more, ad or in morem alisu- 
jus : Ex ammo, from the heart; 
Insolentia ^x prosperis rebus, a 
via languere, ex doctrlna. nobilis, 
on account of; ex usu est Ubi 



of advantage; ex eo die, since, 

ex amicis certis certisslmus, of, 

or among ; ex pedibus laborare, 

to be ill of the gout. Cic. E re 

nata, as the matter stands. Ter. 

Commenta mater est, esse ex 

alio viro, nescio quo puerum 

natum, by. Id. 
Pro gloria certare, /or; Rati noc- 

tem pro se, favourable to them. 

Sail. Hoc est pro me. Cic. pro 

templo, tribunali, concione, ros- 

tris, castris, foribus, before; pro 

sua dignitate, sapientia, 4" c « P ro 

potestate cogere, pro tempore, 

re, loco, suo jure, according to ; 

est pro prmtdre, pro te molam, 

tomes facandus pro vehiculo est, 

for, instead of; pro viribus, pro 

parte virlli, pro sua quisque 

parte or facultate, to one J s ability 

or power: Parum tibi pro eo, 

quod a te habeo, reddidi, in 

comparison of, considering. Cic. 

pro ut, pro eo ac, pro eo ut 

mereor, as I deserve ; pro se 

quisque, uterque, &LC.for his own 

part ; pro rata parte, pro por- 

tione, in proportion ; pro cive se 

gerk ; agere pro victorlbus ; pro 

suo uti ; pro rupto foedus habet, 

for, as; so pro certo, infecto, 

comperto, nihilo, concesso, &c. 

habeo, duco. Pro occlso relic- 

tus est. Cic. 
Pr-S se pugionem tulit, before ; 

speciem pra3 se boni viri fert, 

pretends to be. Ter. prss lacry- 


XLIV. The prepositions in, sub, super, and sub- 
ter, govern the accusative, when motion to a place 
is signified; but when motion or rest in a place is 
signified, in and sub govern the ablative, super and 
subter either the accusative or ablative. 

IN, when it signifies into, governs the accusative ; when it 
signifies in or among, it governs the ablative ; as, 
In urbem ire, into; amor in pa- that head; in rem tuam est, for 
triam, in te benignus, towards; yoar advantage ; in utramqua 
in lucem, until day; in earn partem disputare, on both sides, 
sententiam, to that purpose, on for and against ; litQra in nomea, 

mis non possum senbero, for, be- 
cause of; ilium prae me cob- 
tempsi, in comparison of: So the 
adv. promt ; as, pramt hujus ra- 
bies qua? dabit. Ter. 

Palam populo, omnibus, before, 
loith the knowledge of. 

Sine labore, without ; sine ulll 
causa, pompa, molestia, quere- 
la, impensa, fyc. ; homo sine re, 
ride, spe, fortunis, sede, fyc. Cic 

Capulo tenus, up to the hilt. 

Tenus is construed with the 
genitive plural, when the 
word wants the sing. ; as, 
Cumarum tenus, as far as 
CumcB : or when we speak 
of things, of which we have 
by nature only two ; 
as, Oculurum, aurium, narium, la- 
brorum, lumborum, crurum te- 
nus, up to. We also find Corcy- 
rse tenus, Sf ostiis tenus. Li v. 
Colchis tenus. Flor. Pectoribus 
tenus. Ovid. 

To prepositions governing 
the abl. is commonly added 
Procul : 

as, Procul domo, far from home ; 
but here a is understood, which 
is also often expressed ; as, Pro- 
cul a patrid. Virg. Procul ah 
ostentatione. Quinct. Culpa est 
procul a me. Ter. 



on. Cic. potestas in filium, over ; 
in allquem dicere, against ; mi- 
rum in modum, after; in pedes 
stare, in aurem dormlre, on; in 
os laudare to, before; in or inter 
patres lectus, into the number of; 
in vulgns probari, spargere, ^c. 
among ; crescit in dies, in singu- 
los dies, oinnes in dies, every 
day; in diem posterum, proxi- 
rauffl, decimum, against; in di- 
em vivere, to live from hand to 
month, not to think of to-morrow ; 
Est in diem, will happen some- 
time after. Ter. Inducise in duos 
menses data?, in hunc diem, an- 

provincia. Sail. In pueritia 
adolescentia, senectute, ahsen 
tia, for puer or pueri, when a 
boy or boys, &c. Hoc in tern 
pore. Nep. In loco fratris dill 
gere,for ut fratrem. Ter. 
Sub terras ibit imago, sub aspec- 
turn cadit, under; sub ipsuir* 
funus, near, just before. Hor. 
sub lucem, ortum lucis, noctem, 
vesperam, brumam, i. e. incipi- 
ente luce, fyc. at the dawn of 
day. fyc. ; sub idem tempus< 
about; sub eas litems recitatae 
sunt tuse, sub festos dies, after. 

num, &,c.for; Ternis asslbus in Sub muro, rege, pedibus, <^c. un- 

pedein. or in smgulos pedes, 
trail se git, He bargained for three 
sh 7 ings a foot, or for every foot ; 
So in jugerum. militem, capita, 
naves. &c. In medimna singula, 
H. S. quinos denos dedisti. Cic. 
In portu navigo, in tempore, in; 
esse in potestate or in potesta- 
tem, honure or honorem, mente 
or mentem : in manu or raani- 
bus esse ; habere, tenere, in one $ 
power, on hand ; m amlcis, 
among: in oculis, before; Oc- 

der ; sub urbe, near. Ter. sub ea 
conditione or -em, on or with. 
Super Numidiam, above, beyond,; 
super ripas, upon; super haec ; 
super morbum etiam fames af- 
fixit, besides. Liv. super arbore, 
fronde super viridi, upon ; super 
hac re scribere, his accensa su- 
per, concerning; alii super alios 
trucidantur. Liv. Super ccenam, 
super vinum & epulas, for inter, 
during. Curt. Nee super ipse sua. 
molltur laude laborem,/or. Virg. 

cisus est in provinciam, for in Subter terrain or terra, under. 

Obs. 1. When prepositions do not govern a case, they are 
reckoned adverbs. 

Such are Ante, circa, clam, coram, contra, infra, intra, juxta, palam l 
pone, post, propter, secus, subter, super, supra, ultra. But in most of 
these the case seems to be implied in the sense ; as, Longo post tempore 
venit, sc. post id tempus. Adversus, juxta, propter, secus, secundum, & 
clam, are by some thought to be always adverbs, having a preposition 
understood when they govern a case. So other adverbs also are con- 
strued with the ace. or abl. ; as, Intus ccllam, for intra. Liv. Intus templo 
divum, sc. in. Virg. Simul his, sc. cum. Hor. 

Obs. 2. A and e are only put before consonants ; ab and 
ex, usually before vowels, and sometimes also before con- 
eon ants ; as, 

A patre, e regione; ab initio, ab rege; ex urbe, ex parte; abs before 
q and t; as, abs te, abs quivis homlne. Ter. Some phrases are used 
only with e ; as, e longinquo, e regione, e vestigio, e re med est, &e. 
Some only with ex; as, Ex compacto, ex tempore, tnagnd, ex parte, &c. 

Obs. 3. PrepositiDns are often understood; as, Devenere locos, scil 
ad; It portis, sc. ex. Virg. Nunc id prodeo, scil. ob or propter. Ter 
Ma-ria as-pera juro, scil. per. Virg. Ut se loco movere non possent, scil. 
e or de. Caes. Vina promens dolio, scil. ex.. Hor. Quid illo facias? 
Quid me fiet, sc. de. Ter. And so in English, Show me the book ; Gei 
me some paper, that is, to me, for me. We sometimes find the word to 


jvhich the preposition refers, suppressed ; as, Circum Concordia, sc cedem. 
Sail. Round St. Paul's, namely, church; Campum Stelldtern divisit 
extra sortcm ad viginti milllbus, civiuin, i. e. civium millions ad viginti 
millia. Suet. But this is most frequently the case after prepositions in 
composition ; thus, Emitere scream, soil. manu. Plaut. EvonUrc virus, 
scil. ore. Cic. Educere capias, soil, castr is. Cces. 

XLV. A preposition in composition often go- 
verns the same case, as when it stands by itself; 


Adedmus schalam, Let us go to the school. 

Exedmus schold, Let us go out of the school. 

Obs. I. The preposition with which the verb is compounded, .s often 
repeated; as, Jidirc ad sckolam ; Exlre ex schold ; Mgredi aliquid, or 
ad aliquid; ingredi orationem, or in orationem ; inducere animum, & in 
a nimum ; evader e undis & ex undis; decedere de sua jure, decedere vid 
or de vid; expellere, ejicere, extermindre, extrudere, exturbdre urbe, ife 
ex urbe. Some do not repeat the preposition ; as, Ajfdri, alloqui, alla- 
trdre allquem, not ad allquem. So, ALluere urbem; accolere flume n ; 
circamvcnlre aliquem; prazterire injuriam ; abdicdre se magistrdtu, 
(also, abdicdre magistrdtum ;) transducere exercitum jl 'avium, &c. Others 
are only construed with the preposition ; as, Accurrcre ad allquem, ad- 
hortdri ad aliquid, incidere in morbum, avocdre a studiis, avertere ab in- 
cept o, &c. 

Some admit other prepositions ; as, Abire, dcmigrdre loco ; &. a, de, 
ex. loco ; abstrahere aliquem, a, de, or e conspectu ; Desistere sententid, a 
or de sententid ; Excidere manlbus, de or e manibus, &c. 

Obs. 2. Some verbs compounded with e or ex govern either 
the ablative or accusative ; as, 

Egredi urbe, or urban, sc. extra; egredi extra vallum. Nep. EvadSre 
insidiis or insidias. Patrios excedere muros. Lucan. Scclerdtd excedere 
terrd. Virg. Eldbi ex manibus ; eldbi pugnam aut vincula. Tac. 

Obs. 3. This rule does not take place, unless when the preposition may 
be disjoined from the verb, and put before the noun by itself; as, Jillo- 
quor pairem, or loquor ad patron. 


XLVI. The interjections O, heu, and proh, are 
construed with the nominative, accusative, or vo- 
cative ; as, 

O vir bonus or bone ! O good man ! Heu me miserum ! Ah wretched me ! 

So, vir fords atque amicus ! Ter. Heu vanltas humdna ! Plin. Heu 

miser j,w* 'e puer ! Virg. prcecldrum cuslodem avium (ut aiunt) lupum! Cic. 

XLVII. Hei and vce govern the dative; as, 

Hei mild ! Ah me ! Va vobis ! Wo to you ! 

Obs. 1. Heus and oh 3 , are joined only with the vocative ; as, Heus Sijre. 
Ter. One libclle ! Martial. Proh or pro, ah, vcdi, hem, have generally either 
ihe accusative or vocative ; as, Proh homlnumjidcm ! Ter. Proh Sancti 
Jupiter! Cic. Hem ast atlas ' Ter. 

Obs. 2. Interjections cannot, ptoperly, have either concord or govern- 


merit. They are only mere sounds excited by passion, and have no just 
connexion with any other part of a sentence. Whatever case, therefore, 
is joined with them, must depend on some other word understood, except 
the vocative, which is always placed absolutely ; thus, Heu me muerum 
stands for Heu ! quam me miscrum sentio ! Hei mihi ! for Hei! viahim 
a st mihi ! Proh dolor ! for Proh ! quantus est dolor ! and so in olhei 

The circumstances, which in Latin are expressed in dif- 
ferent cases, are, 1. The Price of a thing. 2. The Cause > 
Manner, and Instrument. 3. Place. A. Measure and Distance 
5. Time. 

1. PRICE. 

XL VIII. The price of a thing is put in the 
ablative ; as, 

Emi librum duobus assibus, I bought a book for two shillings. 
Constitit talento, It cost a talent. 

So, Asse carum est; vile viginti minis; auro vendle, &c. Nocct 
empta do'iore voluptas. Hor. Spem pretio non emam. Ter. Plurlmi 
auro vensunt honores. Ovid. 

fl These genitives, tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris, are except- 
ed ; as, 

Quanti constitit, How much cost it ? Asse et pluris, A shilling and more. 

Obs. 1. When the substantive is added, they are put in the ablative ; 
as, parvo pretio, impenso pretio vendere. Cic. 

Obs. 2. Magno, permagno, parvo, paululo, minlmo, plurimo, are often 
used without the substantive ; as, Permagno constitit, scil. pretio. Cic. 
Heu quanto regnis nox stetit una tuis ? Ovid. Fast. ii. 81^. We also say, 
Emi care, cariiis, carissimt ; bene, melius, optime ; male, pejus, vilius, 
vilisslme ; valde, cart (BStimas : Emit domum prope dimidio cariiis, 
quam cestimdbat. Cic. 

Obs. 3. The ablative of pi:ce is properly governed by the preposition 
pro understood, which is likewise sometimes expressed; as, Dum pro 
argejitcis decern aureus unus valcrei. Liv. 


XLIX. The cause, manner, and instrument are 
put in the ablative ; as, 

Palleo metu, I am pale for fear. 

Fecit suo more, He did it after his own way. 

Scribo caldmo, I write with a pen. 

So, Ardct dolore ; pallescere culpa ; azstuare dubitatione , gestlre volup- 
tdtc or secundis rebus: Covfectus morbo ; affectum bencficiis, gravisslma 
rupplicio ; insignis pietdte ; deter ior licentia : PictdtefJius, consiliis pater 
amove f rater ; hence, Rex Dei gratia: Parltur pax bello. Nep. Proce- 
dure tenia gradu ; Acceptus regio appardtu : JVullo sono convertltur annus. 


Juv Jam veniet taclto curva senecta pede. Ovid. PercuUre sexuri, de- 
fender e saxis, conjigere sagittis, <fcc. 

Obs. 1. The ablative is here governed by some preposition understood. 
Before the manner and cause, the preposition is sometimes expressed ; 
as. De more mat rum locuta est. Virg. Mngno cum metu ; Hdc de causd: 
Prce rruerore, formidlne, &c. But hardly ever before the instrument; 
as, Vulnerdre allquem giadio, not cum giadio ; unless among the poets 
who sometimes add a or ab ; as, Trajectus ab ense. Ovid. 

Obs. 2. When any thing is said to be in company with another, it is 
called the ablative of concomitancy, and has the preposition cum usually 
added ; as, Obsedit curiam cum gladiis : Ingressus est cum giadio. Cic. 

Obs. 3. Under this rule are comprehended several other circumstances, 
as the matter of which any thing is made, and what is called by gramma- 
rians the Adjunct, that is, a noun in the ablative joined to a verb or ad- 
jective, to express the character or quality of the person or thing spoken 
of, as, Capitolium saxo quadrato constructum. Liv. Floruit acumlne 
ingenli. Cic. Pallet ojnbus, valet armis, viget memoi'id, famd nobilis, 
&c. JEger prdibus. When we express the matter of which any thing is 
made, the preposition is usually added ; as, Templum de marmore, seldom 
marmoris ; Poculum ex auro factum. Cic. 

3. PLACE. 

The circumstances of place may be reduced to four particu- 
lars. 1. The place ivhere, or in which. 2. The place whither, 
or to which. 3. The place whence y or from which. 4. The 
place by, or through which. 

AT or IN a place is put in the genitive; unless the noun 
be of the third declension, or of the plural number, and then 
it is expressed in the ablative. 

TO a place is put in the accusative ; FROM or BY a place 
in the ablative. 

1. The place Where. 

L. When the place ivhere, or in which, is spo- 
ken of, the name of a town is put in the genitive ; 

Vixit Roma, He lived at Rome. 

Mortuus est Londlni, He died at London. 

fl But if the name of a town be of the third declension or 
plural number, it is expressed in the ablative; as, 

Habitat Carthagine, He dwells at Carthage. 

Studuit ParisiiSy He studied at Paris. 

Obs. 1 When a thing is said to be done, not in the place 
itself, but in its neighbourhood or near it, we always use the 
preposition ad or apud; as, Ad or apud Trojam, At or near 

Obs. 2. The name of a town, when put in the ablative, is here governed 


by the preposition in understood; but if it be in the genitive, we must 
supply in urbe or in oppido. Hence, when tne name of a town is joined 
with an adjective or common noun, the preposition is generally expressed : 
thus, we do not say, JVatus est Roma urbis Celebris : but either Roma, in 
celebri urbe, or in Roma celebri urbe; or in Romd celebri urbe, or some- 
times; Romce celebri urbe. In like manner we usually say, Habitat in 
urbe Carthagine, with the preposition. We likewise find Habitat Car- 
thagini, which is sometimes the termination of the ablative, when the 
question is made by ubi ? Thus, At ego aio hoc fieri in Gr&cid, et Car- 
tkagini. Plaut. Cas. Prol. 71. Fuere Sicyoni jamdiu Dionysia, the feasts 
of Bacchus were some time ago celebrated at Sicyon. Id. Cist. 1, 3, 8, cf, 
Ps. 4, 2, 33. Neglectum Anxuri presidium. Liv. 5, 8. Convento Antonio 
Tiburi, having met with Anthony at Tibur. Cic. Att. 16. 3. JVulla La- 
cedcemoni tarn, est nobilis vidua, quai non ad scenam eat mercede conducta. 
Nep. Prsef. Tiburi genitus. Suet. Cal. 8. add. Id. Claud. 34. — Some- 
times, though more rarely, names of towns in the first and second declen- 
sion are found in the ablative ; as, Rex Tyro decedit, for Tyri. Justin. 
18, 4. Eadem die, qud in Italid pugndtum est, et Corintho, et Athenis 
et Lacedamione nuncidta est victoria. Id. 20, 3, f. Add. Vitruv. 3, 2, 7. 
Pnef. 8, 3. 

2. The Place Whither. 

LI. When the place whither, or to tvhich, is spo- 
ken of, the name of a town is put in the accusa- 
tive; as, 

Venit Romam, He came to Rome. 

Profectus est Athenas, He went to Athens. 

Obs. 1. We find the dative also used among the poets, but more sel- 
dom ; as, Carthagini nuncios mittam. Horat. 

Obs. 2. Names of towns are sometimes put in the accusative, after verba 
of telling and giving, where motion to a place is implied; as, Romam 
erat nuncidtum, The report was carried to Rome. Liv. H&c nunciant 
domum Albdni. Id. Messdnam literas dedit. Cic. 

3. The Place Whence. 

LI I. When the place whence, or from which, or 
the place by or through which, is spoken of, the 
name of a town is put in the ablative ; as, 

Discessit Corintho, lie departed from Corinth. 

Laodiced iter facicbat, He went through Laodicea. 

When motion by or through a place is signified, the preposition per 
IB commonly used ; as, Per Thebas iter fecit. Nep. 

Domus and Pus, 

LIII. Domus and rus are construed the same 
way as names of towns ; as, 

Manet domi, He stays at home. 

Domum revertltur, He returns home. 

Domo arcessitus sum, 1 am called from home. 


Vivit rure, or more frequently ruri, He lives in the country. rure, He is returned from the country. 

Abiit rus, He is gone to the country. 

Obs. 1. Humi, militia, and belli, are likewise coribtrued in 
the genitive, as names of towns ; thus, 

Domi et militixEs or belli, At home and abroad. Jacet humi, He lies oiw 
the ground. 

Obs. 2. When Domus is joined with an adjective, we commonly use a 
preposition ; as, In domo paternd, not domi paterncB : So, Ad domum 
vaterntim : Ex domo paternd. Unless when it is joined with these pos- 
eessives, Mens, tuus, suus, noster, vester, reghis, and alienus ; as, Domi 
tnece vixit. Cic. Tusc. 5, 39, 4. Apud eum sic fui, tanquu.m domi mece. 
Cic. i'am. 13, 69. Nonne mavis sine periculo domi tute esse, qua/in cum 
periculo alienee, ib. 4, 7. Me domo med expulistis, Ca. Pompeium domum 
suam coin pal ist is. Cis. Pis. 7. Alius alium dumos suas Lnvitant. Sail. Juo- 
66. add. Liv. 2, 7. Aurum atque argentum, et alia, quo2 prima ducuntur, 
domum regiam comportant. Sail. Jug. 7G. — RUS and rure in the sing. 
joined with an adj. are found without a preposition; as, appropinquanle 
vesper e, equum consceudit, et rus ur barium contendit, sc. ad. Justin. 31, 2; 
quart umque apud lapldem suburb ano rure substiterat. Tac. An. 15, GO. — 
but never rura in the plural ; as, ubi dilapsi domos, et in rura vestra 
erltis. Liv. 39, 16. 

Obs. 3. When downs has another substantive in the genitive after it, 
the preposition is sometimes used, and sometimes not; as, Depreliensus 
est domi, domo, or in domo Coisdris. 

LIV. To names of countries, provinces, and 
all other places, except towns, the preposition is 
commonly added ; as, 

When the question is made by, 
Ubi ? JYatus in Italid, in Latio, in urbe, &c. 
Quo ? Abiit in Italiam, in Latium, in or ad urbem, &c. 
Unde ? Rediit ex Italid, e Latio, ex urbe, &c. 
Qua ? Transit per Italiam, per Latium, per urbem, &c. 

Obs. 1. A preposition is often added to names of towns ; as. 

In Roma, for Romce ; ad Romam, ex Roma, &,c. 

Peto alwavs governs the accusative as an active verb, with- 
out a preposition ; as, Petivit Egyptum, He went to Egypt. 

Obs. 2. Names of countries, provinces, &c. are sometimes construed 
without the preposition, like names of towns ; as, Pompeius Cypri visus 
tst. Cass. Cretce jus sit consider e Apollo. Virg. JYon Lybia, for in Lybid ; 
nnn ante Tyro, for Tyri. Id. Mn. iv. 36. Venit Sardiniam. Cic. Romet, 
Is'umidiaquc facinora ejus membrat, for et in JYumidid. Sail. 


LV. Measure or distance is put in the accusa- 
tive, and sometimes in the ablative ; as, 

Mums est decern pvdes alius, The wall is ten feet high. 


Urbs dhtatlrlginta miHia, or tri, ) ^ cj . g ^ miles ^^ 

gtnta millibus passuum, ) T 

/£er, or itinere unius di&i, One day's journey. 

Obs. 1. The accusative or ablative of measure is put aftei 
adjectives and verbs of dimension ; as, Longus, lotus, crassus^ 
profundus, and altus : Patet, porrigztur, emmet, &c, The 
names of measure are, pes, cubitus, ulna, passus, digitus, an 
inch ; palmus, a span, an hand-breadth, &x. The accusative 
or ablative of distance is used only after verbs which express 
motion or distance ; as, Eo, curro, absum, disto, &c. The 
accusative is governed by ad or per understood, and the abla- 
tive by a or ab. 

Obs. 2. When we express the measure of more things than one, we 
commonly use the distributive number; as, Muri sunt denos pedes alti } 
and sometimes denurn pedum, for denorum. in the genitive, ad mensuram 
being understood. But the genitive is only used to express the measure 
of things in the plural number. 

Obs. 3. When we express the distance cf a place where any thing is 
done, we commonly use the ablative ; or the accusative with the prepo- 
sition ad; as, Sex millibus passuum ab urbe consedit, or ad sex millia 
passuum. Ca?s. Ad quintum milliarium, or millidre, consedit. Cic. Ad 
quintum lapidem. Nep. 

Obs. 4. The excess or difference of measure and distance 
is put in the ablative ; as, 

Hoc lignum excedit illud diglto. Toto vertlce supra est. Virg. Britan- 
nia?, longitudo ejus latitudinem ducentis quadraginta milliaribus suplrat. 

LVI. Time when is put in the ablative ; as, 

Venit hord tertid, He came at three o'clock. 

fl Time how long is put in the accusative or ablative, but 
oftener in the accusative ; as, 

Mansit paucos dies, He staid a few days. 

Sex mensibus abfuit^ He was away six months. 

Obs. 1. When we speak of any precise time, it is put in the 
ablative ; but when continuance of time is expressed, it is put 
for the most part in the accusative. 

Obs. 2. All the circumstances of time are often expressed with a pre- 
position ; as, In prmsentid, or in prasenti, scil. tempore; in or ad pr&- 
sens; Per decern annos ; Surgunt de node; ad horam destindtam , 
Intra annum; Per idem tempus, ad Kalendas soluturos ait. Suet. The 
preposition ad or circa is sometimes suppressed, as in these expressions, 
hoc, illud, id, isthuc, aitatis, temporis, horai, &c. for hdc aitate, hoc tempore^ 
&c. And ante or some other word ; as, Annos natus unum fy viginti, sc. 
ante. Siculi quotannis tribvta cc ife'runt, sc. tot annis, nuot or quotquoi 


runt. Cic. Prope diem, sc. ad, soon ; Oppldum paucis diebus, quibus ed 
ventum est, expugndtum, sc. post eos dies. Caes. Ante diem tertium Kalen- 
das Mains accepi tuas Uterus, for die tertio ante. Cic. Qui dies futurus 
esset in ante diem octdvum Kalcndas Novembris. Id. Exante diem quin- 
tuni Kal. Octob. Liv. Lacedamonii septingentos jam annos amplius unis 
moribus et nunquam mutatis legibus vivunt, sc. quain per. Cic. We find 
Primum stipendium meruit annorum decern septemque, sc. Jittlcus ; for 
septemdecim annos natus, seventeen years old. Nep. 

Obs. 3. The abverb ABHLXC, which is commonly used with respect 
to past time, is joined with the accusative or ablative without a prepo- 
sition ; as, factum est abhinc biennio or biennium, It was done two years 
ago. So likewise are post and ante ; as, Paucos post annos ; but here, ea 
or id may be understood. 


A compound sentence is that which has more than one 
nominative, or one finite verb. 

A compound sentence is made up of two or more simple 
sentences or phrases, and is commonly called a Period. 

The parts of which a compound sentence consists, are called 
Members or Clauses. 

In every compound sentence there are either several subjects and one 
attribute, or several attributes and one subject, or both several subjects 
and several attributes; that is, there are either several nominatives ap- 
plied to the same verb, or several verbs applied to the same nominative, 
or both. 

Every verb marks a judgment, or attribute, and every attribute must 
have a subject. There must, therefore, be in every sentence or period, 
as many propositions as there are verbs of a finite mode. 

Sentences are compounded by means of relatives and con- 
junctions ; as, 

Happy is the man who loveth religion, and practiseth virtue. 


LVII. The relative Qui, Quce, Quod, agrees 
with the antecedent in gender, number and per- 
son ; and is construed through all the cases, as 
the antecedent would be in its place ; as, 

Singular. Plural. 

Vir qui, The man who. Viri qui. 

F'jemiina qua, The woman who Fozmina qua. 

Negotium quod, The thing which. Ncgotia quce. 

Ego qui scribo, I who write. JYos qui scriblwus. 

Tu qui scribis, Thou who writest, Vos qui scribltis. 

Vir qui scribit, The man who writes. Viri qui scribuni. 

Utditr qua scrilnH, The woman who wri es. Multires qua scriiuttt 

IS • 


Singular. Plural. 

Animal quod currii, The animal which runs. Animalia que? currant 

Vir quern vidi, The man whom I saw. Viri quos vidi. 

Mulierr quam vidi, The woman whom I saw. Mulieres quas vidi. 

Animal quod vidi, The animal which I saw. Animalia qua vidi. 

Vir cui paret, The man whom he obeys Viri quibus par et. 
Vir cui est similis, The man to whom he is like. Viri quibus est simUis . 

Vir a quo, The man by whom. Viri a quibus. 

Mulier ad quam, The woman to whom. Mulieres ad quas. 
Vir cujus opus est, The man whose work it is. Viri quorum opus est. 
Vir quern miser eor, } 

cujus miser eor, or miser esco, > The man whom I pity. 

cujus me miseret, ) 

cujus or cuja interest, fyc. whose interest it is, &c. 

If no nominative come between the relative and the verb, 
\ te relative will be ths nominative to the verb. 

But if a nominative come between the relative and the verb, 
t € relative will be of that case, which the verb or noun follow- 
ii |j, or the preposition going before, usually govern. 

Thus the construction of the relative requires an acquaintance 
with most of the foregoing rules of syntax, and may serve as 
an exercise on all of them. 

Obs. 1. The relative must always have an antecedent ex- 
pressed or understood, and therefore may be considered as an 
adjective placed between two cases of the same substantive, 
of which the one is always expressed, generally the former ; 

Vir qui (vir) legit, vir quern (virum) amo : Sometimes the latter; as, 
Quam quisque n6rii artem, in hdc (arte) se exerceat. Cic. Eunuchum, 
quern dedisti nobis, quas turbas dedit. Ter. sc. Eunuchus. Sometimes 
both cases are expressed ; as, Erant omnlno duo itinera, quibus itineribus 
domo exire possent. Caes. Sometimes, though more rarely, both cases 
are omitted ; as, Sunt, quos genus hoc minimi juvat, for sunt homines, 
quos homines, &c. Hor. 

Obs. 2. When the relative is placed between two substan- 
tives of different genders, it may agree in gender with either 
of them, though most commonly with the former ; as, 

Vultus quern d l ix€re chaos. Ovid. Est locus in carcere, quod Tullidnum 
appelldtur. Sail. Animal, quern vocamus homlnem. Cic. Cogito id ouod 
res est. Ter. If a part of a sentence be the antecedent, the relative is 
always put in the neuter gender ; as, Pompeius se qfflixit, quod mihi est 
summo dolori, scil. Pompeium se affligere. Cic. Sometimes the relative 
does not agree in gender with the antecedent, but with some synony- 
mous word implied ; as, Scelus qui, for scelestus. Ter. Abundantia 
edrum rerum, quai mortal es prima putant, scil. negotia. Sail. Vel virtus 
tua me vel vicinitas, quod ego in aliqud parte amicitia puto, facit jvt te 
moneam, scil. negotium. Ter. In omni Africd, qui agebant; for in 


emnlbus Afris. Sallust. Jug. 89 JYon difjidcntid futuri, qua imperavUset. 
for quod. lb. 100. 

Obs. 3. When the relative comes after two words of differ- 
ent persons, it agrees with the first or second person rather 
than the third ; as, Ego sum vir, qui fact o, scarcely facit. In 
English it sometimes agrees with either ; as, / am the man, 
who ?)iake, or maketh. But when once the person of the rela- 
tive is fixed, it ought to be continued through the rest of the 
sentence ; thus it is proper to say, " I am the man, who takes 
care of your interest," but if I add, " at the expense of my 
own," it would be improper. It ought either to be, " his 
own," or " who take." In like manner, we may say, " I 
thank you who gave, who did love," &,c. But it is improper 
to say, " I thank thee, who gave, who did love ;" it should 
be " who gavest, who didst love." In no part of English 
syntax are inaccuracies committed more frequently than in 
this. Beginners are particularly apt to fall into them, in turn 
ing Latin into English. The reason of it seems to be our ap- 
plying thou or you, thy or your, promiscuously, to express the 
second person singular, whereas the Latins almost always ex- 
pressed it by tu and tuus. 

Obs. 4. The antecedent is often implied in a possessive ad- 
jective ; as, 

Omnes laudare fortunas meas, qui haberem gnatum tali ingenio prce- 
ditum. Ter. Sometimes the antecedent must be drawn from the sense 
of the foregoing words ; as, Came pluit, quern imbrem aves rapuisse fe- 
runtur ; i. e. pluit imbrem came, quern imbrem, &c. Liv. Si tempus est 
ullumjure hominis necandi. quai multa sunt, scil. tempora. Cic. 

Obs. 5. The relative is sometimes entirely omitted ; as, Urbs antiqua 
fait : Tyrii tenuere coloni, scil. quam or earn. Virg. Or, if once expressed, 
is afterwards omitted, so that it must be supplied in a different case ; as, 
Bocchus cum peditibus, quo s films ejus adduxerat, neque in prior e pvgnd 
adf iterant, Romano s invddunt : for quique in prior e pugnci non adfuerunt 
Sail. In English the relative is often omitted, where in Latin it must 
be expressed; as, The letter I wrote, for the letter which I tcrote ; The 
man I love, tc wit, xchom. But this omission of the relative is generally 
improper, particularly in serious discourse. 

Obs. 6. The case of the relative sometimes seems to depend on that 
of the antecedent; as, Cum aliquid agas eorum, quorum conxuesti, for 
quai consucsti agere, or quorum, aliquid agere consuesti. Cic Restitue 
in quern me accepisti locum, for in locum, in quo. Ter. And iv. 1. 58. 
But such examples rarely occur. 

Obs. 7. The adjective pronouns, ille, ipse, iste, hie, is, and idem, in 
their construction, resemble that of the relative qui, ; as, Liber ejus. Ii'i9 
or her book ; Vita eorum, Their life, when applied to men ; Vita ear urn, 
Their life, when applied to women. By the improper use of these pro- 
nouns in English, the meaning of sentences is often rendered obscure. 

Obs. 8. The 'interrogative or indefm te adjectives, qualis, quantus. 
quotus % <fcc. are also sometimes construed like relatives ; as, Fades cst % 


qualem decct esse sororum. Ovid. But these have commonly other aa 
jectives either expressed or understood, which answer to them ; as, 
Tanta art multitudo , quantam urbs caper c potest : and are often applied to 
differen* substantives ; as, Quales sunt civ es, talis est civitas. Cic. 

Obs. 9. The relative who in English is applied only to persons, and 
which to things and irrational animals ; but formerly which was likewise 
applied to persons ; as, Our father, which art in heaven : and whose, the 
genitive of who, is also used sometimes, though perhaps improperly, for 
of which. That is used indifferently for persons and things. What, 
when not joined with a substantive, is only applied to things, and includes 
both the antecedent and the relative, being the same with that which, 
or the thing which ; as, That is what he wanted; that is, the thing which 
he wanted. 

Obs. 10. The Latin relative often cannot be translated literally into 
English, on account of the different idioms of the two languages ; as, 
Quod cum ita esset, When that was so ; not, Which when it was so, be 
cause then there would be two nominatives to the verb was, which is 
improper. Sometimes the accusative of the relative in Latin must be 
rendered by the nominative in English; as, Quern dicunt me esse? Who 
do they say that I am ? not whom. Quern dicunt adventdre ? Who do 
they say is coming ? 

Obs. 11. As the relative is always connected with a different verb 
from the antecedent, it is usually construed with the subjunctive mode, 
unless when the meaning of the verb is expressed positively ; as, Audlre 
cupio, qua legeris, I want to hear, what you have read ; that is, w.\a.t 
perhaps or probably you may have read ; Audlre cupio, qua legisti, I 
want to hear, what you {actually or in fact) have read. 

To the construction of the Relative may be subjoined that 


The answer is commonly put in the same case with the 
question ; as, 

Qui vocdre? G eta, sc. vocor. Quid quairis ? Librum, sc. quazro. Quotd 
hard venisti ? Sextd. Sometimes the construction is varied ; as, Cujus 
est liber ? Mens, not mei. Quanti emptus est ? Decern assibus. Damna- 
tusne es furti ? Imo alio crtmine. Often the answer is made by other 
parts of speech than nouns ; as, Quid agitur ? Statur, sc. a me, a nobu. 
Quis fecit? JVescio : Aiunt Petrum fecisse. Quomodo vales? Bend, 
maid. Scripsistine? Scripsi, ita, etiam, immo, &c. An vidisti? JS"on 
vidi, non, minlme, &c. Ch&rea tuam vestem detraxit tibi ? Factum. Ei 
ed est indutus ? Factum. Ter. Most of the Pcules cf Syntax may thus 
be exemplified in the form of questions and answers. 


LVIII. The conjunctions, et, ac, atque^ nee, ne 
que, aut, vel, and some others, couple similar 
cases and modes ; as, 

Honora patrem et matrem, Honour father and mother. 
JVec legit nee scribit, He neither reads nor writes. 

Obs. 1. To this rule belong particularly the copulative 
and disjunctive conjunctions ; as likewise, qudm, nisi, prater 


quam, an : and also adverbs of likeness ; as, ceu, tanquam, 
quasi, ut, &,c. as, 

Nullum prozmium a vobis postulo, praztcrquam hujus diei memoriam- 
Cic. Gloria viriuiem tanquam umbra sequltur. Id. 

Obs. 2. These conjunctions properly connect the different 
members of a sentence together, and are hardly ever applied 
to single words, unless when some ether word is understood. 
Hence, if the construction of the sentence be varied, different 
cases and modes may be coupled together ; as, 

Interest mea et reipublicm ; Constitit asse et pluris ; Sive es 
Roma, sive in Epiro ; Decius cum se devoveret, et in mediam 
aciem irruebat. Cic. Vir magni ingenii summdque industrid ; 
Neque per vim, neque insidiis. Sail. Tecum habita, 8f noris, 
quam sit tibi curt a supcllex. Pers. 

Obs. 3. When et, aid, vel, sive, or nee, are joined to differ- 
ent members of the same sentence, without connecting it par- 
ticularly to any former sentence, the first et is rendered in 
English by both or likewise ; aut or vel, by either ; the first 
sive, by whether ; and the first nee, by neither ; as, 

Et legit, et scribit ; so, turn legit, turn scribit ; or cum legit, turn scribit, 
He both reads and writes ; Sive legit, sive scribit, Whether he reads or 
writes ; Jacere qud vera, qud falsa ; Increpdre qu& consules ipsos, qud 
exercitum, To upbraid both the consuls and the army. Liv. 

LIX. Two or more substantives singular coup- 
led by a conjunction, (as, et, ac, atque, &c.) have 
an adjective, verb, or relative plural ; as, 

Peirus et Joannes, qui sunt docti, Peter and John, who are learned 

Obs. 1. If the substantives be of different persons, the verb 
plural must agree with the first person rather than the second, 
and with the second rather than the third ; as, Si tu et Tullia 
valetis, ego et Cicero valemus, If you and Tullia are well, I and 
Cicero are well. Cic. In English, the person speaking usually 
puts himself last ; thus, You and I read; Cicero and I arc well, 
but in Latin the person who speaks is generally put first ; thus, 
Ego et tu legimus. 

Obs. 2. If the substantives are of different genders, the ad- 
jective or relative plural must agree with the masculine rather 
than the feminine or neuter ; as, Pater et mater, qui sunt mortui ; 
but this is only applicable to beings which may have life. 
The person is sometimes implied ; as, Athendrum et Cratippi, 
ad quos, &,c. Propter summam doctoris auctoritdtcm et urbis, 
quorum alter, &x. Cic. Where Athence &/ urbs are put for th& 


learned men of Athens. So in substantives ; as, Ad Ptolemaum 
Cleopatramque reges legdti missi, i. e. the king and queen. Liv. 
Obs. 3. If the substantives signify things without life, the 
adjective or relative plural must be put in the neuter gender ; 
as, Diuiticv, decus, gloria, in oculis sita sunt. Sail. 

The same holds, if any of the substantives signify a thing without life ; 
l>ecause when we apply a quality or join an adjective to several substan 
tives of different genders, we must reduce the substantives to some cer- 
tain class, under which they may all be comprehended, that is, to what 
is called their Genus. Now, the Genus or class, which comprehends un- 
der it both persons and things, is that of substances or beings in general, 
which are neither masculine nor feminine. To express this, the Latin 
grammarians use the word Negotia. 

Obs. 4. The adjective or verb frequently agrees with the 
nearest substantive or nominative, and is understood to the 
rest; as, 

Et ego et Cicero vie us flagitdbit. Cic. Sociis et rege recepto. Virg. Et 
ego in calpd sum, et tu, Both I am in the fault, and you ; or, Et ego et 
tu es in culpdj Both I and you are in the fault. Nihil hie nisi carmlna, 
desunt ; or, nihil hie deest nisi curmina. Omnia, quibus turbdri solita 
erat civitas, domi discordia,foris bellum exortum ; Duo millia et quadrin- 
genti ccbsi. Liv. This construction is most usual, when the different sub- 
stantives resemble one another in sense ; as, Mens, ratio, et consilium, 
in senlbus est, Understanding, reason, and prudence is in old men. Qui- 
bus ipse melque ante Larem proprium vescor, for vesclmur. Horat. 

Obs. 5. The plural is sometimes used after the preposition 
cum put for et ; as, 

Remo cumfratre Quirinus jura dabunt. Virg. The conjunction is fre- 
quently understood : as, Dum aztas, metus, magister prohibebant. Ter. 
Frons, oculi, vultus s&pe mentiuntur. Cic. 

The different examples comprehended under this rule are commonly 
referred to the fig-ure Syllepsis. 

LX. The conjunctions, ut, quo, licet, ne, uti- 
narriy and dummodo, are for the most part joined 
to the subjunctive mode ; as, 

Lego ut discam, I read that I may learn. 

Utlnam super es, I wish you were wise. 

Obs. 1. All interrogatives, when placed indefinitely, have 
after them the subjunctive mode. 

Whether they be adjectives, as, Quantus, qualis, quotus, quotuplez, 
uter ; Pronouns, as, quis §>• cujas ; Adverbs, as, Ubi, quo, unde, qua % 
quorsum, quamdiu, quamdiidum, quampridem, quoties, cur, quare, quam* 
obrem, dum,utrum, quomodo* qui, ut,quam, quantopere ; or Conjunctions, 
as, ne s an, anne, annon : Thus, Quis est f Who is it ? Nescio quis sit 
I do not know who it is. An veniurus est f Nescio, dubito i an ventiirus 


sit Vides ut alta stet nive candidum Soracte? Hor. But these words 
are sometimes joined with the indicative ; as, Scio quid ego. Plaut. Haud 
scio, an amat. Ter. Vide avaritia quid facit. id. Vides quam turpe 
est. Cic. 

H In like manner the relative QUI in a continued discourse ; as, Nihil 
est quod Dcus ejficere non possit. Quis est, qui utilia fugiat? Cic. Or 
when joined with quippe or utpote; Keque Antonius procui abtrat, ut- 
vote qui sequeretur, <fcc. Sail. But these are sometimes, although more 
rarely, joined with the indicative. So, est qui, sunt qui, est quando or ubi t 
*fcc. are joined with the indicative or subjunctive. 

Note. Haud scio an recte dizerim, is the same with dico, affirmo. Cic. 

Obs. 2. When any thing doubtful or contingent is signified, 
conjunctions and indefinites are usually construed with the 
subjunctive; but when a more absolute or determinate sense 
is expressed, with the indicative mode; as, If he is to do it; 
Although he was rich, &c< 


beginning of a sentence, have the indicative ; but elsewhere they also 
take the subjunctive ; ETIAMSI and QUAMV1S commonly have the 
subjunctive, and UT, although, always has it; as, Ut quadras, non repe- 
nes. Cic. QUONIAM, QUANDO, QUAJNDOQUIDEM, are usually 
construed with the indicative ; SI, SIN, NE, NISI, SIQUIDEM, QUOD, 
and QUIA, sometimes with the indicative, and sometimes with the sub- 
junctive. DUM, for dummddo, provided, has always the subjunctive ; as, 
Oderint dum metuant. Cic. And QUIPPE, for nam, always the indic- 
ative ; as, Quippe vetorfatis. 

Obs. 4. Some conjunctions have their co 1 ^poudent con- 
junctions belonging to them ; so that, in the .oiiowing member 
of the sentence, the latter answers to the former : thus, when 
etsi, tametsi, or quamvis, although, are used in the former mem- 
ber of a sentence, tamen, yet or nevertheless, generally an- 
swers to them in the latter. In like manner, Tarn, — quam; 
Adeo or ita,~ut : in English, As, — as, or so ; as, Etsi sit lite- 
rdlis, tamen non est prof usus , Although he be liberal, yet he is 
not profuse. So prius or ante, — quam. In some of these, 
however, we find the latter conjunction sometimes omitted, 
particularly in English. 

Obs. 5. The conjunction ut is elegantly omitted after these 
verbs, Volo, nolo, malo, rogo, precor, censco, suadeo, licet, opor- 
tet, necesse est, and the like ; and likewise after these impera- 
tives, Sine, fac, or facit o ; as, Ducas volo hodie uxorem ; Nolo 
mentidre ; Fac cogites. Ter. In like manner ne is commonly 
omitted after cave ; as, Cave facias. Cic. Post is also some 
limes understood ; thus, Die octavo, quam crcdtus erat. liv. 4. 
47, scil. post. And so in English, See you do it ; I beg yon 
woidd come to me, scil. that. 

Obs. C. Ut and quod are thus distinguished : ut denotes the final cause 


and is commonly used with regard to something future ; quod marks the 
efficient or impulsive cause, and is generally used concerning the event 
or thing done ; as. Lego ut discam, I read that I may learn ; Gaudeo 
quod legi, I am glad that or because I have read. Ut is likewise used 
after these intensive words, as they are called, Adeo, ita, sic, tarn, talis, 
tantus, tot, &c. 

Obs. 7. After the verbs timeo, vereo?\ and the like, ut is 
taken in a negative sense for ne non, and ne in an affirmative 
sense ; as, 

Timeo ne faciat, I fear he will do it : Timeo ut faciat, I fear he will not 
do it. Id paves ne ducas tu Mam, tu autem ut ducas. Ter. Ut sis vita- 
lis, metuo. Hor. Timeo ut fratcr vivat, will not live ; — ne frater morid- 
tur, will die. But in some few examples they seem to have a contrary 


LXI. The comparative degree governs the ab- 
lative, (when it can be translated by than) ; as, 

Dulcior melle, sweeter than honey. Praistantior aura, better than gold. 

Obs. 1. The positive with the adverb magis, likewise go- 
verns the ablative ; as, Magis dilecta. luce. Virg. 

The ablative is here governed by the preposition pree understood, 
*diich is «nmetimes expressed ; as, For dor prai cceteris. We find the 
comparative x,. construed with other prepositions) as, immanior ante 
omncs. Virg. 

Obs. 2. The comparative degree may likewise be con- 
strued with the conjunction qudm, and then, instead of the 
ablative, the noun is to be put in whatever case the sense re- 
quires ; as, 

Dulcior quam met, soil. est. Amo te magis quam ilium. I love yon 
more than him, that is, quam amo ilium, than I love him. Amo te magis 
quam ille, I love you more than he, i. e. qudm ille amat, than he loves 
Plus datur a me quam illo, sc. ah. 

Obs. 3. The conjunction qudm is often elegantly suppressed 
after amplius and plus ; as, 

Vulnerantur amplius sexcenti, scil. quam. Ca^s Plus quingentos cold- 
phos infrtgit mihi, He has laid on me more than five hundred blows. Ter. 
Castra ab urbe haud phvs quinque millia passuum locant, sc. quam. Liv. 

Qudm is sometimes elegantly placed between two compara 
tives ; as, 

Triumphus clarior quam gratior. Liv. Or the prep, pro is added; as, 
Prcelhtm airocius, quam pro numero pugnantium editur. Liv. 

The comparative is sometimes joined with these ablatives 
oijiuione, spe, cequo,ju$to, dicta ; as, 


Crediblli opinions major. Cic. Crediblli forticr. Ovid, Fast. iii. 618 
Gravius aequo. Sail Dido citius. Virg. Major a crediblli tu/lmus. Liv 
They are often understood ; as, Libcrius vivebat sc. justo, too freely 
Nepos. 2. 1. 

Nihil is sometimes elegantly used for nemo or nulli; as, 
JVi/tiZ #jrfi quidquam latius, for nemincm. Ter. Crasso nihil pcrfcctius. 
Cic. Asperius nihil est liumili, cum surgit in altum. So, ^m'</ ?w>iij 
laboriosius, for gw/s, &c. Cic. We say, inferior patre nulld re, or quun. 
pater. The comparative is sometimes repeated, or joined with an ad- 
verb ; as, Magis magisque, plus, plusque, minus minusque, carior cariot - 
que; Quotidic plus , indies magis, semper candidior candidiorque, &c. 

Obs. 4. The relation of equality or sameness is likewise ex- 
pressed by conjunctions; as, Est tarn dodus quam ego, lie ia 
as learned as I. Animus erga te idem est acfuil. Ac and atque 
are sometimes, though more rarely, used after comparatives; 
as, Nihil est magis verum atque hoc. Ter. 

Obs. 5. The excess or defect of measure is put in the abla- 
tive after comparatives; and the sign in English is by, ex- 
pressed or understood; (or more shortly, the difference of 
measure is put in the ablative;) as, 

Est decern digitis altior auburn frater, He is ten inches taller than his 
brother, or by ten inches. Altero ta,nto major est fratre, i. e. duplo ma- 
jor, He is as big again as his brother, or twice as big. Sesquipede minor, 
a foot and a half less ; Altero tanto, aut sesquimdjor, as big again, or a 
half bigger. Cic. Ter tanto pejor est; Bis tanto amlci sunt inter se, 
quam priiis. Plaut. Quinquies tanto amplius, quam, quantum licitum 
sit, civitatibus imperdvit, five times more. Cic. To this may be added 
many other ablatives, which are joined with the comparative, to increase 
its force ; as, Tanto, quanto, quo, eo, hoc, multo, paulo, nimio, &.c. thus, 
Quo phis habeat, eo plus cupiunt, The more they have, the more they de- 
sire. Quanto mtlior, tanto felicior, The better, the happier. Quoque 
minor spes est, hoc magis ille cup it. Ovid, Fast. ii. 766. We frequently 
find multo, tanto, quanto, also joined with superlatives ; Multo pulcherri 
mam earn haberemus. Sail. Multoque id maximum fuit. Liv. 


LXII. A Substantive and a participle are put 
in the ablative, when their case depends on no 
other word ; as, 

c 7 • . _c • j. * 7 ( The sun rising, or while the sun riseth 
Sole oriente, fugiunt tencbraz, < , , n a- ^ 

' J ° ' ( darkness flies away. 

^v. - 7 j- (Our work bein^ finished, or when ous 

Opere peracto, ludemus, | ^ ig ffc^ we ^ ^ 

So, Dominant e libidine, teviperautiiB nullus est locus; Nihil amieitiA 
prcBstabilius est, execptd virtute ; Ojipressd, libertdtc patriot, nihil est quod 
speremus amplius ; Nobilhim vita victuque mutdto, mores niutdri civitd 
tiimvuto. Cic. Parumper bilentium et qui es fuit, nee Etruscis, nisi coge- 
rcntur, pugnam initiiris, ct dictator e arcem Romdnam respectante, ac at 
auguribus, simul aves rite admisissent, ex composite tolltrltur signum 



Liv. BelUce, deposltis clypeo paulisper et hastd, Marsades. Ovid, Fast, 
iii. 1. 

Obs. 1. This ablative is called Absolute, because it does 
not depend upon any other word in the sentence. 

For if the substantive with which the participle is joined, be either the 
nominative to some following verb, or be governed by any word going 
before, then this rule does not take place ; the ablative absolute is nover 
used, unless when different persons or things are spoken of; as, Mi- 
lites, hosttbus victis, redierunt. The soldiers, having conquered the 
enenry, returned. Hosttbus victis, may be rendered in English several 
dirferent ways, according to the meaning of the sentence with which it 
is joined; thus, 1. The enemy conquered, or being conquered: 2. When or 
after the enemy is or icas conquered : 3. By conquering the enemy : 4. Upon 
the defeat of the enemy, fyc. 

Obs. 2. The perfect participles of deponent verbs are not 
used in the ablative absolute; as, Cicero lociitus hcec consedit, 
never, his locutis. The participles of common verbs may 
either agree in case with the substantive before them, like the 
participles of deponent verbs, or may be put in the ablative 
absolute, like the participles of passive verbs; as, Romam 
adepii lib ert dtern Jioruerunt; or Romani, libertate adepta, jlorue- 
runt. But as the participles of common verbs are seldom taken 
in a passive sense, we therefore rarely find them used in the 
ablative absolute. 

Obs. 3. The. participle existente or existentibus is frequently 
understood ; as, Ccesare duce, scil. existente. His consulibus , 
scil. existentibus. Jnv'ta Minerva, sc. existente, against the 
grain; Crassd Minerva, without learning. Hor. Magistra ac 
duce natiira; vivis fratribus ; tehoriatbre; Cozsdre, impulsbre, 
&c Sometimes the substantive must be supplied; as, JVbn- 
dum comperto, quam regionem hastes petissent, i. e. cum nondum 
compertum esset. Liv. Turn demum palam facto , sc. negotio. Id. 
Excepto quod non simul esses, ccctera Iceius. Hor. Parto quod 
avebas. Id. In such examples negotio must be understood, or 
the rest of the sentence considered as the substantive, which 
perhaps is more proper. Thus we find a verb supply the place 
of a substantive; as, Vale dido, having said farewell. Ovid. 

Obs. 4. We sometimes find a substantive plural joined with 
a participle singular; as, JYobis presente, Plaut. Jib sente nobis 
Ter. We also find the ablative absolute, when it refers to the 
same person with the nominative to the verb; as, me duce, 
ad hunc voti Jinem, me milite, veni. Ovid. Amor. ii. 12. \ c 2. 
Lcetos fecit se consul e fastos. Lucan. v. 384. Populo spectanti 
feri credam, quicquid me conscio faciam. Senec. de Vit. Beat 
c 20. But examples of this construction rarely occur 


Obs. 5. The ablative called absolute is governed by some 
preposition understood; as, a, ab, cum, sub, or in. We find 
the preposition sometimes expressed; as, Cum diis juvantlbus. 
Liv. The nominative likewise seems sometimes to be used 
absolutely; as, Perniciosd libidine paidisper ustis, infirmilas 
natures accusdtur. Sail. Jug. J 

Obs. 6. The ablative absolute may be rendered several 
different ways; thus, Superbo regnante, is the same with cum, 
dum, or quando Superbus regndbat. Opere peracto, is the same 
with Post opus per actum, or Cum opus est per actum. The 
present participle, when used in the ablative absolute, com- 
monly ends in e. 

Obs. 7. When a substantive is joined with a participle, in 
English, independently on the rest of the sentence, it is ex 
pressed in the nominative; as, Illo descendente, He descend- 
ing. But this manner of speech is seldom used except in 



[The verbs are here placed in the same order as in Etymology.] 


ASPIRARE ad gloriam & lau- 
dem, to aiia at; in curiam, to desire 
to be admitted. Cic. equis Achiliis, 
to icish for ; labori ejus, to favour; 
amorem dictis, sc. ei, to infuse. 

Desperare sibi de se ; salutem, 
saluti. de salute, to despair of. 

LEG ARE aliquem ad alium, to 
send as an ambassador ; aliquem 
sibi, to make his lieutenant; pecu- 
niam alicui, i. e. testamonto relin- 
quere. J\\ B. Publice legantur 
homines ; qui inde legdti dicuntur : 
privatim allegantur; unde allegdti. 

Delegare ses alien um fratri, to 
leave him to pay ; laborem alteri, to 
lay upon ; aliquid ad aliquem, i. e. 
in eum transferre. Cic. 

LEV ARE me turn ejus §• ei, eum 
metu, to ease. 

MUTARE locum, solum, to be 
banished ; aliquid all qua re ; bel- 
lum pro pace, to exchange; ves- 
tem, i. e. sordldam togam induere. 
Liv. vestem cum all quo. Ter. fidem, 
to break. 

OBNUNCIARE comitiis or con- 
cilio, i. e. comitia auspiciis impedlre, 
ti hinder, by telling bad omens, and 
9 yp eating these icords alio die ; 
Consuli or magistratui; i. e. prohi- 
oere ne cum populo agat. Cic. 

Pronunciare pecuniam pro reo, 
to promise ; aliquid edicto, to order ; 
gententias, to sum up the opinions of 
the senators. Cic. 

Renunciare aliquid, de re, ali- 
cui, ad aliquem, to tell ; consulem, to 
declare, to name; vitee, amicitisun 

ei, to give up; muneri, hospitio. # 
refuse; repudium, to divorce. 

OCCUPARE aliquem, tc seize 
se in all quo negotio, to be employed, 
se ad negotium. Plaut. pecuniam 
alicui or apud aliquem grandi ice- 
nore, to give at interest. Cic. occiipat 
facere bellum, translre in agrum 
hostium, begins first, anticipates 

Pr^occupare saltum, portas Ci 
licise, to seize before hand. Nep. 

PRiEJUDICARE aliquem, tc 
condemn one from the precedent of 
a former sentence or trial. Cic. 

ROGARE aliquem id, ^ de ea 
re ; id ab eo ; salutem, <^ pro sa- 
lute. Cic. legem, to propose ; hence, 
uti rogas, dicere, to pass it; mili- 
tem sacramento, to administer the 
military oath ; Rogetquis? if any 
one should ask. Comitia rogandis 
consulibus,/or electing. Liv. 

Abrogare legem, seldom legi, to 
disannul a law, to repeal, or to 
change in part ; multam, to take off 
a fine; imperium ei, to take from. 

Abrogare id sibi, to claim. 

Derogare aliquid legi or de 
lege, to repeal or take away some 
clause of a law; lex derogatur. Cic. 
fidem ei, or de fide ejus, to hurt 
ones credit ; ex sequitate ; sibi, ali- 
cui, to derogate or take from. 

Erogare pecuniam in classem, 
in vestes, to lay out money on. 

Irrogare multam ei, to impose. 

Obrogare legi, to enact a new law 
contrary to an old. 

Prorogare imperium provin 



ciam alTcui, to prolong ; diem ei ad 
sol vend um, to -put off. 

Subrogare allquem in locum 
altenus, to substitute; legi, to add a 
new clause , or to put one in place of 

BPECTARE orientem, ad orien- 
tem, to look towards; aliquem ex 
censu aniinum jdicujus ex suo, to 
judge of. 

SUPERARE hostes, to overcome; 
monies, to pass; superat pars ccep- 
ti, sc. operis, remains; Captae su- 
peravimus urbi, survived. Virg. 

Temperare iras, ventos, fo mode- 
rate; orbem, to rule; mihi, sibi, 
to restrain, to forbear ; alicui, to 
spare; caedibus, a lacrymis, to ab- 
stain from. 

VACARE cura, culpa, morbo, 
munere militise, fyc. a labore, to be 
free from; ammo, sc. in, to be at 
ease; philosophise, in or ad rem, 
to apply to; vacat locus, is empty; 
si vacas, or vacat tibi, if you are at 

VINDICARE mortem ejus, to 
revenge; ab interitu, exereitum 
fame, to free; id sibi, fy ad se, to 
claim; libertatem ejus, to defend; 
se in libertatem, to set at liberty. 

DARE animam, to die; aminos, 
to encourage; manus^o yield; ina- 
rm m ei, to shake hands. Plaut. ju- 
ra, to prescribe laws; literas alicui 
ad aliquem, to give one a letter to 
carry to another ; terga, fugam, or 
se in fugam, in pedes, to fly ; hostes 
in fugam, to put to flight ; ope ram, 
to endeavour; operam philosophise, 
Uteris, palsestrce, to apply to; ope- 
ram honoribus, to seek. Nep. veni- 
am ei, to grant his request. Ter. 
gemltus, lacrymas, amplexus, can- 
tus, rulnam, fidem, jusjurandum, 
&c. to groan, weep, embrace, sing, 
fall, fyc. cogr^tores honestos, to 
give good vouchers for ones charac- 
ter. Cic. altquid mutuum, or uten- 
dum, to lend; pecuniam fcenori, fy 
collocare, to place at interest; se 
alicui ad docendum. Cic. multum 
suo ingenio, to think much of; se 
ad allquid, to apply to; se auctori- 

tati senates, co yield; fabulam, 
scripta foras, to publish. Cic. effec- 
tum, to perform; senatum, to give 
a hearing of the senate; actionem, 
to grant leave to prosecute; preeei- 
pitem, to tumble headlong ; allquid 
paternum, to act like one's father, 
lectos faciendos, to bespeak. Ter. 
litem secundum aliquem, to deter- 
mine a lawsuit in favour of one, 
aliquem exitio, morti, neci, letho, 
rarely iethum alicui, to kill; allquid 
alicui dono, or muneri, to make a 
present; crimini, vitio laudi, to 
accuse, blame, praise; poenas, to 
suffer; nomen militiae, or in mili- 
tiam, to list one's self to be a soldier; 
se alicui, to be familiar with. Ter. 
Da te mihi hodie, be directed by me. 
Id. aures, to listen; oblivioni, to 
forget; civitatem ei, to make one 
free of the city; dicta, to speak; 
verba alicui, to impose on, to cheat 
se in viam, to enter on a journey, 
viam ei, to give place ; jus gratise, 
to sacrifice justice to interest; se 
turpi ter, to make a shabby appear- 
ance ; fundum or doraum alicui, 
mancipio, to convey the property of, 
to tear rant the title to ; Vita que 
mancipio nulli datur, omnibus usu 
Lucr. servos in quBestionem, to give 
up slaves to be tortured; primas, 
secundas, &c. (sc. partes) actioni, 
to ascribe every thing to delivery. 
Cic. Dat ei bibere. Ter. comas dif- 
fundere ventis, to let them flow 
loose. Virg. Da mihi or nobis, tell 
us. Cic. Ut res dant se, as matters 
go ; solertem dabo, Fll warrant him, 
expert. Ter. 

Satisdare judicatum solvi, to 
give security that what the judge has 
determined shall be paid. Cic. 

STARE contra aliquem ; ab 
cum, or pro aliquo, to side with, to 
be of the same party ; judicio ejus, 
to folloio ; in sententia ; pacto, con- 
diticnibus, conventis, to stand to, 
to make good an agreement; re 
judicata, to keep to what has been 
determined; stare or constare anl- 
mo, to be in his senses : Non stat 
per me quo minus pecunia soiw 




tur, It is not owing to me thai, 
fyc. multorum sanguine ea Poenis 
victoria stetit, cost. Liv. Mihi stat 
alere morbum desinere, / am re- 
solved. Nep. 

Ad stare mensae, to stand by; ad 
mensam, in conspectu. 

Constare ex multis rebus, am- 
mo et corpore, to consist of; se- 
cum, to be consistent with. Cic. liber 
constitit or stetit mihi duobus assi- 
bus, cost me; non constat ei color, 
his colour comes and goes; auri 
ratio constat, the sum . is right. 
Constat, impers. It is evident, cer- 
tain, or agreed on; mihi, inter om- 
nes, de hac re. 

Extare aquis, to be above. Ovid, 
ad memoriam posteritatis, to remain. 
Cic. sepulchra extant. Liv. 

Instare victis, to press on the 
vanquished ; rectam viam, to be in 
the xoay ; currum Marti, to 
make sj.eedily. Virg.; instat factum, 
insists that it was done. Ter. 

Obitare ei, to hinder. 

Prji.v.'are multa, to perform; 
alicui, or all quern virtute, to excel ; 
silentimn ei, to give; auxilium, to 
grant. Juv. impensas, to defray; 

iter tutum, to procure; se inci>lu 
mem, to 'preserve; se virum, i. e 
prasbere, exhibere ; amorem, 01 
benevolentiam alicui, to shoxc ; cul- 
pam or damnum, i. e. in se trans* 
ferre, to take on ones self; prae- 
stabo de me eum facturum, / will 
be answerable. In iis rebus repe- 
tendis, quae mancipi sunt, is peri- 
culum judicii praestare debet, qui 
se nexu obligavit. In recovering , or 
in an action to recover those things 
which are transferable, the seller 
ought to take upon himself the haz- 
ard of a trial. Cic. J\\ B. Those 
things were called, Res mancipi, 
{contracted for mancipii, i. e. quag 
emptor manu caperet,) the property 
of which might be transferred from 
one Roman citizen to another; aj 
houses, lands, slaves, fyc. 

Praestat, impers, i. e. it is better 
Praesto esse alicui, adv. to be pres 
ent, to assist; Libri prostant ve- 
nales, the books are exposed to 

ACCUBARE alicui in convivio, 
to recline near ; apud aliquem. In- 
cubare ovis 4" ova > to s ^ upon; 
stratis <^ super strata. 

second conjugation. 

HABERE spem, febrim, finem, 
bonum exitum, tempus, consuetu- 
dinem, voluntatem noctmdi, opus 
in mambus, or inter manus, to 
have ; gratiam fy gratum, to have a 
grateful sense of a favour ; judi- 
cium, to hold a trial; honorem ei, 
to honour ; in oculis, to be fond of. 
Ter. : fidem alicui, to trust or be- 
Leve ; curam de or pro eo ; ra- 
tionem alicujus, to pay regard to, to 
allow one to stand candidate for an 
office; rationem, or rem cum ali- 
quo, to have business icith ; satis, to 
03 satisfied; orationem, concionem 
ad populum, to make a speech ; aii- 
quem odio, in odium, to hate; lu- 
dibrio, to mock; id religioni, to 
have a scruplt about it : So, habere 
aliquid qusestui, honori, praedae, 
voluptati, &c. sc. sibi ; se bene or 

graviter, to be well or ill ; se parce 
et duriter, to live. Ter. aliquid com- 
pertum, cognltum, perspectum, ex- 
ploratum, certum or pro certo, to 
knoio for certain; allquem con- 
temptui, despicatui, -am, or in des- 
picatum, to despise; excusatum, to 
excuse; susque deque, to scorn, to 
slight ; Ut res se habet, stands, is ; 
rebus ita se habentibus, in this state 
of affairs ; Haec habeo, or habui 
dicere de, fyc. Non habeo necesse 
scribere quid sim facturus. Cic. 
Habe tibi tuas res, a form of di- 

Adhibere diligentiam, eelenta- 
tem, vim, severitatem in allquem 
to use , in convivium, or consilium, 
to admit; remedium vulneri, cura 
tionem morbo, to apply; vinurn 
aegrdtis, to give ; aures versibus Ui 


2 6 23 

hear with taste; cultum <§/• preces 
diis, to offer. Cic. Exhibere moles- 
tiam alicui, to cause trouble. 

JUBERE legem, to vote for, to 
pass; re gem, to choose; aliquem 
salvere, to wish one health; esse 
bono animo, &c. Uxorem suas res 
sibi habere jussit, divorced. Cic. 

DOCEO te hanc rem, fy de Mc 
re. Doctus, adj. utriusque linguae ; 
Latinis & Graecis Uteris ; Latme & 
Greece ; ad militiam. 

MISCERE aliquid alicui, cum 
all' quo, ad aliquid ; vinum aqua, 
l'lin. cuncta sanguine. Tacit, sacra 
prof anis. Hor. humana divinis. Liv. 

VIDERE rem or de re; sibi, de 
isthoc, to take care of. Ter. plus, to 
be more icise. Cic. De hoc tu vide- 
ris, consider, be ansioer able for. Cic. 
Videor videre, methinks I see; visus 
sum audire, methought I heard; 
mihi visus est dicere, he seemed; 
Quid tibi videtur ? JVhat think you ? 
Si tibi videtur, if you please; vi- 
detur fecisse, guilty, &c. 

Xnvidere honorem ei, or honori 
ejus ; ei, or eum, to envy. 

Providere <^ prospicere id, to 
foresee; ei, to provide for ; in pos- 
terum; rei frumentarise, rem or de 

SEDERE ad dextram ejus; in 
equo, to ride; toga bene sedet^te; 
Sedet hoc ammo, is fixed. Virg. 

AssiDEREei; Adherbalem, to sit 
by. Sail. Assidet insano, is near or 
like to. Hor. 

Dissidere cum aliquo, to dis- 

Insidere equo, fy in equo, to sit 
upon; locum. Liv. in ammo, me- 
moria, to be fixed. 

Pr^esidere urbi, imperio, to 
command. Cic exercitum, Italiam. 

Supersedere labore.litibus; pug- 
nee, loqui. to forbear, to give over. 

PENDERE pre missis, ab or ex 
aliquo, to depend ; de, ex, ab, 8/- in 
arbore; Opera pendent interrupta. 

Impendet malum nobis, nos, or 
in nos, threatens. 

SPONDERE fy despondere filiam 
alicui, to betroth. 

Despondere domum alicujus si- 
bi, to be sure of. Cic. animo fy -is, 
to promise, to hope; animum <^ ~os, 
to despair. Liv. 

Respondere ei, Uteris ejus, his, 
ad haec, ad nomen, to answer ; vo- 
tis ejus, to satisfy his wishes, ad 

SUADERE ei pacem, or de pace ; 
legem, to speak in favour of. 

DOLERE casum ejus ; de, ab, 
ex, in, pro re ; dolet mihi cor, or 
hoc dolet cordi meo ; caput dolet a 

VALERE gratia apud aliquem, 
to be in favour with one; lex valet, 
is in force ; quid verbum valeat, 
non video, signifies; valet decern 
talenta, or oftener talentis, is worth; 
vale or valeas, farewell; or, ironi- 
cally, away with you. 

EMINERE aliqua re, or in ali- 
qua re, inter omnes ; super cestera. 
Liv. super utrumque. Hor. to be. 
eminent, to excel; ex aqua, or 
aquam, super undas, to be above. 
Imminere alicui, to hang over, to 
threaten; in occasionem, exitio ali 
cujus, to seek, to watch for. 

TEiSERE promissum ; se domi, 
oppido, castris, sc. in, to keep ; mo- 
'dum, ordinem, to observe; rem, 
dicta, lectionem, to understand, to 
remember ; linguam, but not suam, 
silentium, se in silentio, to be silent ; 
ora, to keep the countenance fixed , 
secundum locum imperii, to hold 
Nep. jura civium, to enjoy. Cic. 
causam, to gain; mare, to be in the 
open sea, to hold, to be master of; 
terrain, portum, metam montes, to 
reach; risum lachrymas, to re- 
strain; se ab accusando, quin ac- 
cuset. Cic. Ventus tenet, blows; 
teneri legibus, jurejurando, fyc. to 
be bound by; leges tenent eum, 
bind; teneri in manifesto furto, tt 
be seized; tenet fa ma, prevails. 

Abstinere maledictis, or a, to 
abstain ; publico, to live retired 
Tacit, animum a scelere, 8?grum a 
cibo, to keep from ; jus belli ab alt. 



quo, not to treat rigorously. Liv. Id 
ad me, ad religidnem, tyc. pertinet, 
concerns me; crimen ad te perti- 
net. Cic. But it is not proper to say, 
Liber ad me, ad fratrem pertinet, 
for mei fratris est, belongs to ; ve- 
nae ad or in omnes corporis partes 
pertinent, reach. 

Sustinere personam judlcis, no- 
men consulates, to bear the charac- 
ter ; assensionem, or se ab assensu, 
to withhold assent; rem in noctem, 
to defer. 

MANERE apud allquem ; in cas- 
tris ; ad urbem ; in urbe ; propo- 
slto, sententia, in sententia, statu 
suo, fyc. adventum hostium, to ex- 
pect. Liv. promissis, to stand to, to 
keep. Virg. Omnes una manet rox, 
awaits. Horat. Man en t ingenia 
senlbus, modo permaneat studium 
& inau stria. Cic. Munera vobis 
certa manent. Virg. 

MERERE laudem; bene, male 
de aliquo ; stipendia, equo, pedTbus, 
to serve as a soldier ; fustuarium, to 
be beaten to death. 

HiERER.E lateri ; tergis, or in 
terga hostium. Liv. curru. Virg. 
allcui in visceribus. Cic. Hseret 
mihi aqua, / am in doubt Vide, 

ne hasreas, lest you be at a loss 

Adhere re & adha?rescere jus- 
titiae ; ad turrim ; in me. InhaBrere 
rei, if in re. 

MOVERE castra. to decamp ; bei- 
la, to raise ; allquem tribu, to remove 
a Roman citizen from a more honoiL 
able to a less honourable tribe ; e se- 
natu, to degrade a senator ; risum or 
jocum allcui, to cause laughter ; 
stomachum ei, to trouble. Cic. 

FAVETE ore, or Unguis, se. 
mihi, attend in silence, or abstain 
from icords of a bad omen. 

Cavere aliquid, allquem, or ab 
aliquo, to guard against, to avoid ; 
allcui, to provide for, to advise as a 
lawyer does his client ; aliquid all- 
cui. Cic. sibi ab aliquo or per all- 
quem de re aliqua, to get security 
on ; mihi praedlbus &> chirographo 
cautum est, I have got security by 
bail and bond ; veteranis cautum 
esse volumus. Cic. Cave facias, 
sc. ne, see you don't do it; mihi 
cavendum, or mea cautio est, 1 
must take care. 

CONNIVE RE ad fulgura. Suet. 
to wink; in hominum sceleribus, to 
take no notice of. Cic. 

Verbs in 10. 

FACERE initium, finem, pau- 
Bam, finem vitae ; pacem, amici- 
tiam ; testamentum, nomen, fos- 
eam, pontem in flumTne, in Tibe- 
rmi, to make ; divortium cum ux- 
ore. Cic. bellum regi. Nep. se hi- 
larem, to shoiv. Ter. se divitem, 
miserum, pauperem, to pretend. 
Cic. aes alienum, or con+rahere, 
conflare, to contract debt; aminos, 
Ui encourage; damnum, detrimen- 
tiim, jacluram, to lose; naufragi- 
um, to suffer; sumptum, to spend; 
gratum allcui, to oblige; gratiam 
delicti, to pardon a fault ; gratiam 
legis, to dispense with; justa or fu- 
nus allcui, to perform one's funeral 
rites ; rem, to make an estate ; pe- 
euniam, divitias ex metallis; fos- 

dus, or inire, icere, ferlre, percutS- 
re, jungere, sanclre, firmare, <fec. 
to make a league ; moram allcui, 
to delay ; verba, to speak; audien- 
tiam sibi. Cic. negotium, fy faces- 
sere, to trouble; aliquid missum, to 
pass over ; allquem missum, to dis- 
miss or excuse; ad aliquid, rarely 
allcui, to be fit or useful : ratum. to 
ratify ; planum, to explain; palani 
suis, to make known. Nep. stipen- 
dium pedibus or equo, fy merere, 
to serve in the army ; sacra, sacrin- 
cium, or rem divlnam, to sacrifice; 
reum, to impeach; fabiilam, car- 
men, versus, &c. to write a play % 
fyc. copiam consilii ei, to offtr ad- 
vice ; copiam or polestatem dicen 
di legatis, to grant leave * fidemj 



to procure or give credit; pericii- 
lum, to make trial ; potestatem sui, 
to expose himself. Nep. aliquem lo- 
quentem, or loqui, to suppose or 
represent. Cic. piratlcam, sc. rem, 
to be a pirate ; argentariam, medi- 
cinam, mercaturain, &c. to be an 
usurer, a, physician, fyc. versuram, 
to contract a new debt, to discharge 
an old one, to borrow money at great 
interest. Cic. cum or ab aliquo, to 
side with; contra or adversus, to 
oppose nomen, or nomina, to bor- 
row money; and also, to settle ac- 
counts, i. e. rationes acceptarum, 
sc. pecuniar um, & expensarum inter 
se conferre ; nomen in litura, to 
write it where something was before. 
Cic. pedem or pedes to trim the 
sails. Virg. Fac ita esse, suppose it 
is so; obvius fieri alicui, to meet; 
ne longum or longa faciain, not to 
be tedious ; equus non facit, will 
not move. Cic. Fac velle, sc. me, 
suppose me (<> be willing. Virg. Mn. 
iv. 540. 

Afficer aliquem laude, honore, 
proemio, fy \ ;n osninia, poena, morte, 
leto, Slc. h praise, Iwnour, fyc. to 
disgrace, punish, <5y*c. Affectus aeta- 
te, morbo, weakened. 

Conficere bellum, to finish, ora- 
tiones, to compose. Nep. cibum, to 
chew; argentum, to raise, to get; 
also, to spend. Cic. ; cum aliquo de 
re, to conclude a bargain; exercitus 
hostium, to destroy; aiterum Cu- 
riatium, to kill. Liv. Qui stipen- 
diis confectis erant, i. e. emeriti, 
had, served out their time. Cic. 

Deficere animo, to faint; ab 
aliquo, to revolt; tempus deficit 
mini or me, fails : Defici viribus, 
ratidne, &c. to be deprived of 

Lnficere se vitro, to stain: In- 
fectus, part, stained; infectus, adj. 
not done. Inficior, -ari, -atus, to 

Officere alicui, to hinder or 
hurt; Yhogeu. apricanti, to stand 
betwixt him and the sun; aurlbus, 
visui, to stop or obstruct; Umbra 
terras soli officiens noctem efficit. 

Pr^ficere aliquem exercitui, 
to set over. Proficere alicui, to pro- 
fit, to do good; in philosophic, <$» 
progressus t'acere, to make progress. 

Reficere muros, temp la, aedes, 
rates, res, to repair; animum, vi- 
res, saucios, se, jumenta, to refresh, 
to recover. 

Sufficere laboribus, ictibus, to 
be able to bear; arma or vires ali- 
cui, to afford; Valerius in locum 
Collatini suffectus est, was subsii* 
tuted. Liv. Filius patri suffectus. 
Tacit. Oculos suffecti sanguine & 
igne, sc. secundum, having their 
eyes red and inflamed. Virg. 

Satisfacere alicui, in or de 
all qua re, to satisfy ; fidei, promis- 
so, to perform. 

JACERE aliquem in prosceps ; 
contumelias in eum, to throw ; fun- 
damenta, <!y* ponere, to lay; talos, 
to play at dice; anchoram, to cast. 

Adjicere, to add; oculos ali- 
cui rei, to covet; animum studiis, 
to apply ; sacerdotibus creandis. 

Conjicere se in pedes, or **u- 
gam, to fly ; ctetera, to conjecture. 

Injicere manus ei, to lay on, 
spein, ardorem, suspiciunem, pavo- 
rem, alicui, to insjnre ; adiniratio 
nem sui cuivis ipso aspectu. Nep. 

Objicere se hostibus, in or ad 
omnes causus, to oppose or expose • 
crimen ei, to lay to one's charge. 

Rejicere tela in hostes, to throw 
back ; judices, mala, to reject; rem 
ad senatum, Romam, to refer ; rem 
ad Idus Febr. to delay. Cic. 

Surjicere ova galllnae, to set an 
hen; se imperio alicujus, to sub- 
mit; testamenta, to forge; testes, 
to suborn; partes or species gene- 
ribus, ex quibus emanant, to put or 
class under ; aliquid ei, to suggest; 
libellum ei, i. e. in manus dare . 
odio civium, to expose; bona Pom- 
peii or fortunas hastse or voci <^ 
sub voce proeconis, to expose to pub- 
lic sale. Cic. sub hasta venire, to be 
sold. Liv. 

Trajicere copias or rxercitum, 
fluvium, Hellespontum, or tranfi 



fluvium, to transport: Marius cum 
parva navicula in Afrlcam trajec- 
tus est, passed or sailed over. Tra- 
jectus ferro, pierced. 

CAPERE conjecturam, consili- 
um, dolorem, fugam, specimen, 
spem, sedem, &c. to guess, consult, 
grieve, fly, essay, hope, sit, fyc. au- 
gurium, or auspicium, 8/- agere, to 
take an omen : exemplum de ali- 
quo : locum castris; terram, to 
alight ; insulam, summa, sc. loca, 
to reach; spolia ex nobilitate, to 
gain. Sail, de republica nihil proeter 
gloriam. Nep. magistratum, to re- 
ceive or enjoy ; virginem Vestalem, 
to choose; amentiam, spiritus, su- 
perbiam alicujus, to bear, to con- 
tain; all quern, consilio, perfidia, to 
catch; nee te Troja capit. Virg. 
iEdes vix nos capiunt, the house 
hardly contains us. Altero oculo 
capitur, Hind of one eye; capitur 
locis, he is delighted with. Virg. 

Accipere pecuniam, vulnus, cla- 
dem, injuriam ab aliquo, to receive : 
Orbis terrarum divitias accipere 
nolo pre patriae caritate. Nep. binas 
literas eodem exemplo, two copies 
of the same letter. Cic. clamorem de 
Socrate , to hear ; id in bonam par- 
tem, to take in good part, to under- 
stand in a good sense; omnia ad 
contumeliam, allter, aliorsum, ac, 
atque. Ter. rudem or rude donari, 
to be discharged as a gladiator ; ali- 
quem bene, or male, to treat ; eum 
male acceptum in Mediam hiema- 
tum coegit redlre, roughly handled. 
Nep. rogationem, to approve the bill; 
nomen, i. e. ad petendum admit- 
tere, to allow to stand candidate; 
omen, to esteem good ; satisf actio 
nem, or excusatiunem. Caes. Accep- 
tus plebi, apud plebem, popular. 

Concipere verba juramenti, to 
prescribe the form of an oath ; con- 
ceptis verbis iurare ■ inimicitias 
cum aliquo, to bear enmity to one; 
aquam, to gather, to form the head 
of an aqueduct. Frontlnus. 

Excipere eum hospitio, to enter- 
tain ; fugientes, to catch; extre- 
inum spirltmn co^naturum ; san- 

guinem patera, to keep or gather , 
notis, <§/• scribere, to ivrite m short 
hand; motus futuros, to perceive • 
Hos homines excipio, / except 
virtutem excipit immortalitas ; tur- 
bulentior anuus excepit, succeeded > 
sic excepit regia Juno, replied, 

Incipere, occipere, to begin 
Percipere fructus, to reap. 

Pr^cipere futura, to foresee 9 
gaudia, spem victoriee, to antici- 
pate; pecuniam mutuam, to take 
before the time. Caes. lac, to dry up. 
Virg. alicui id, or de ea re, to or- 
der ; artem ei, to teach. 

Recipere aliquid, to receive; ur- 
bem, to recover ; eum tectis, to en- 
tertain ; se or pedem, to retreat, 
se domum, to return; se, mentem, 
anlmum, to come to one's self again, 
to recover spirits; in se, to talcs 
charge: alicui, to promise; se ad 
frugem, to amend; senem sessum, 
to give a seat to. Cic. 

RAPERE or trahere in pejorem 
partem, to take a thing in the 
worst sense; in jus, to bring before 
a judge; partes inter se, to share. 
Liv. Sub divum, to reveal. Horat. 

EXUERE vestes sibi, se vesti 
bus ; jugum sibi, se jugo, to cast 
off; Sdeui, sacramentum, to break; 
mentem, to change. Virg. hostem 
castris, to beat from. 

RUERE ad interitum, in ferrum : 
ceeteros. Ter. spumas, to drive or 
toss. Virg. 

LUERE pomas capitis, to suffer % 
ass alienum, to pay. Curt, culpam 
suam or alterius, morte, sanguine, 
to expiate, to atone or suffer for. 

Eluere amicitias remissinne 
usus. to drop gradually. Cic. 

STATUERE stipendium iis de 
publico, to appoint; exemplum ia 
hoaiinem, or -ne, to make one a 
public example; all quern capite in 
terram, to set or place. Ter. 

Constituere coloniam, to settle; 
agmen paulisper, to make to stop 01 
halt. Sail, in digitis, to count on 
Q7iesjingers, Cic. urbem, to build 



Ovid. Is hodie venturum ad me 
constituit do mum, appointed, resolv- 
ed. Ter. Si utilltas amicitiam con- 
stituit, toilet eadem, makes, consti- 
tutes. Cic. Corpus bene constitu- 
tuui, a good constitution. Id. 

D e s T itue re all que m , to forsake ; 
spem, to deceive; propositum, to give 
over. Ovid, deos pacta mercede, to 
defraud. Hor. 

In st itu ere all quern secundum 
hseredem filio, to appoint. Cic. col- 
legium fabrorum, sacra, to institute, 
to found. Plin. aliquem doctrlna, 
Grajcis Uteris, to instruct; naves, 
to build. Caes. sermonein, to enter 
upon. Id. animum ad cogitandum, 
to settle; antequam pro Murasna, 
dicere instituo, / begin. Cic. 

Prjestituere petitori, qua ac- 
tione ilium uti oporteat, to prescribe 
to the prosecutor what form of pro- 
cess he should use. Cic. tempus ei, 
to determine. 

Restituere exules; virgmem 
suis, to restore; oppida vicosque, 
to repair ; aciem inclinatum, to ral- 
ly ; praelium, to renew. Liv. 

Substituere aliquem in locum 
ejus, pro altero, to substitute or put 
in the place of. Cic. 

STRUERE epulas, to prepare; 
insidias, mendacium, to contrive; 
odium, crimen alicui, or in aliquem, 
to raise against. 


SCRJBERE sua manu, bene, ve- 
.ociter, epistolam alicui, or ad ali- 
quem, bellum, or de bello; mi- 
ll tes, to enlist; supplementum mi- 
ntibiis, to recruit them ; haeredem, 
to make one his heir ; dicam ei, to 
raise an action against one; num- 
mos, to give a bill of exchange; de 
rebus suis scribi cuplvit. Cic. De- 
cemvir legibus scribendis. Liv. 

Ascribere aliquem civitati, in 
civitatem, or -e, to make free. 

Describere aliquem, to describe 
%nd not to name ; partes Italiae, pe- 
cuniam populum ordinibus, to dis- 
tribute, to divide; vectigal civitati- 
bus, i e. imperare ; jura, i. e. dare 

or constituere; censores Dinos in 
singulas civitates, i. e. facere. Cic. 

Inscribere literas alicui, to di- 
rect^a letter, librum, to entitle, or 
name ; aedes mercede, to put a ticket 
on one's house to let. Ter. 

Proscribere bona alicujus codes 
suas, auctionem, to publish to be 
sold, to set to sale; aliquem, to ban- 
ish, to outlaw. 

Rescribere alicujus, literis, or 
ad literas, alicui ad aliquid, to write 
an answer ; pecuniam, to pay money 
by bill ; legionem ad equum, tc set 
foot soldiers on horseback. Caes. 

Subscribere exemplum litera- 
rum, to write below ; causae, to join 
or take part in an accusation ; Ces- 
sans irae, to favour. Ovid. 


DICERE aliquid, or de aliqua 
re, ex allquo loco, alicui, ad or 
apud aliquem; in aliquem, against; 
ad aliquid, in answer to; senten- 
tiam, to give an opinion; jus, to 
administer justice, to pronounce 
sentence ; mulctam ei, to amerce or 
fine; diem ei, to appoint a day for 
his trial before the people; prodi- 
cere, to put it off; causam, to 
plead; testimonium, to give evi- 
dence ; non idem loqui est ac dice- 
re, to harangue. Cic. sacramento, 
seldom, sacr amentum, to take the 
military oath. 

Addicere aliquid ei, to call out 
at an auction, to sell ; servitiiti, or 
in servitutem, to sentence or ad- 
judge to bondage; bona, to give 
up the goods of the debtor to the 
creditor; se alicui, to devote him- 
self to one's service ; aves non ad- 
dixerunt, or abdixerunt, the birds 
did not give a favourable omen, 
pretio addictam habere fidem, to b* 
corrupt. Cic. 

Condicere operam alicui, to 
promise assistance; coenam alicui, 
or ad ccenani, to purpose supping 
with one without invitation. 

Ed ice re alicui, to order; de 
lectum, to appoint a levy ; prffidam 
militlbus, to promise by an edict 



justitiim, diem comitiis, or comitia 
consullbus creandis, to appoint. 

In d i cere helium, justitium, to 
proclaim icar ; legem sibi, to ap- 
point. Cic. coetus in domos tribuno- 
ruin. to summon. Liv. indicare, to 
show; Indictus, an adj. not said; 
causa indicta, or non cognita, con- 
demnari, to be condemned without 
being heard; me indicente, hose non 
fiunt, not telling. Ter. 

Interdicere alicui, aliquid, or 
allqua re ; foe minis us am purpuras, 
to forbid or debar from ; ei aqua et 
igne or aquam et ignem. to banish ; 
male rem gerentibus bonis paternis 
mterdici solet. Cic. interdici non 
poterat socero gener, discharged the 
corny any of. Nep. 

Praldicere alicui aliquid, de all- 
qua re, id in hac re, to foretell, to 

DUCERE in carcerem or vincu- 
la, to lead ; exercitum, to command ; 
spiritum, anlmam, vitam, to breathe, 
to live, fossam, murum, sulcum, 
to make or draw ; bellum, to pro- 
long, also to carry on. Virg. eetatem, 
diem, to spend; uxorem, to take a 
wife; in jus, to summon before a 
judge ; all quern, fy vultuni alicujus, 
€cre, ex 83 re, de auro, marmore, &c. 
to make a statue , genus, nomen ab 
or ex aliquo, to derive; omnia pro 
nihilo, infra se ; id laudi, laudem, 
or in laudem, {oftener the first,) to 
reckon it a praise to him. ; in con- 
scientiam, to impute to a conscious- 
ness of guilt; in gloria. Plin. in 
crimen. Tacit, centeslmas, sc. usu- 
ras or foenus centesimis, to compute 
interest at one for the hundred a 
month, or at 12 per cent, per an- 
num ; binis centesimis foenerari, to 
take 24 per cent, per annum ; Cic. 
ducere longas voces in fletum, to 
draw out. Virg. ordlnes, to be a cen- 
turion. Liv. ilia, to pant like a brok- 
•Ti winded horse. Hor. 

Adducere aliquem in judicium, 
ad arbitrium meum, w bring to a 
trial ; in suspicionem regi. Nep. 
arcum, to draw in; habenas, to 
straighten the reins. 

Conducere aliquem ex loco & 
convey; navem, domum, coquos, 
to hire; columnam faciendam, to 
engage to make at a certain price , 
Conducit hoc tuas laudi, in or ad 
rem, is of advantage. 

Deduce re naves, to launch 
classem in praelium, to bring. Nep. 
equites, to make to alight. Liv. eum 
domum, to accompany, to carry 
home; de sententia. Cic. coloniam, 
to transplant ; lacum, to drain. 

Educere gladium e vagina, to 
draw; florem Italise, to lead out; 
copias in aciem. Cic. filium, to edu- 
cate, oftener e due a re ; in astra, to 
extol. Hor. coelo. Virg. 

Inducere tenebras clarisslmis re- 
bus, to bring on. Cic. animum, or 
in animum, to persuade himself, 
scuta pellibus. to cover. Cass, soleas 
pedibus, or in pedes, to put on; co- 
lorem pictures, to varnish. Plin. no 
mina, to cancel or erase, to rub out. 

Obducere exercitum, to lead 
against ; callum dolori, to blunt it 
sepulchrum sentlbus, to cover. 

Reducere aliquem in memon- 
am, alicujus or alicui, aliquid in 
memoriam, to bring back to ones 
remembrance ; in gratiam cum all- 
quo, to reconcile ; Vallis reducta, 
retired or low. 

Prod u cere testes, to bring out ; 
funus, to attend ; sermonem in noc 
tern, to prolong, to continue; rem 
in hiemem, to defer ; servos ven 
dendos, to bring to market. 

S»ubducere se a custodlbus, to 
steal away; naves, to draw up on 
shore; cibum ei, <^ deducere, to 
take from ; summam, rationes, to 
reckon, to cast up accounts. 

PARCERE sibi, labore, to spare, 
fyc. a caedlbus, to forbear ; aurum 
natis. Virg. 

ASSUESCERE rei alicui or re 
all qua, in or ad hoc, to be accustom.' 
ed±; mentem plurlbus, fy assuefa- 
cere. Hor. Anlmis bella. Virg. U 
accustom. So, insuesco rei, or re ; 
insuevit hoc me pater. Her. 

SCISCERE legem, to vote, to rfc 
cree ; hence plebiscitum. 



Asciscere regium nomen, to as- 
sume ; socios sibi, ad societatem 
Bceleris, to associate; ritus pere- 
grin os, to adopt. 

Consciscere mortem or necem 
sihi, to kill one's self ; fugam sibi, 
to jiee. Liv. 

DISCERE all quid ab all quo, or 
apud aliquem, ex aliqua re, or 
without ex : Dediscere, to forget 
what he hath learned; Ediscere, to 
get by heart. 


Descendere de palatio, prsesi- 
dio, oedlbus ; in forum, curiam, 
campum ; ad accusandum, ad om- 
nia, ad extrema, to have recourse 
to. Cic. 

LUDERE alea, or -am, to play 
at dice ; par impar, at even fy odd ; 
operam, to lose ones Itzbour. 

Alludere alicui, ad aliquem ; 
Colludere ei, cum eo; illudere ei. 
eum, in eum, in eo ; id, to mock. 

EVADERE insidias, -iis, or ex, 
to escape; in murum, to mount; 
Hasc quorsum evadant, nescio, to 
what they will turn out; Clarus 
evasit, became. 

CEDE RE multa multis de suo 
jure. Cic. Bona creditoribus, to 
yield, whence cessio bonorum ; ali- 
cui loco, de, a, ex loco, or locum, 
to give place; vita, e vita decede- 
re, to die; foro, to turn bankrupt; 
Hoereditas cedit mihi, falls to ; Ce- 
dit in proverbium, becomes. 

Accedere oppidum, -do, ad or 
in oppidum, to approach; ad con- 
ditiones, to agree to ; Ciceroni, sen- 
tential, or ad sententiam ejus, to 
agree with ; ad Ciceronem, to go 
to; ad rempublicam, to bear the 
questorship, or the first public office ; 
ad amicitiam Philippi, to gain the 
friendship of Njp. Ad haec mala 
hoc mihi accedit etiam, is added. 
Ter. Robur accessit a3tati. Cic. 
Animi accessere hosti. Liv. Ad cor- 
poris firmitatem plura animi bona 
accesserant. Nep. Accedit pluri- 
mum pretio; hue, eo, accedit quod, 
is added. 


Antecedere alicui rei ; aliquem, 
rarely alicui, to excel. 

Concedere ei aliquid <$/• de all- 
quo ; paulum de suo jure ; tempus 
ad rem, to grant; ab oculis, ad 
dextram, in exilium, in hiberna, 
to retire, to go; fato, naturae, vita, 
to die ; in sententiam ejus, to come 
into one's measures ; in conditioner, 
to agree to. Liv. 

Discedere transversum, <^ latum 
unguem, or digitum a re, to depart 
in the least. 

Intercedere legi, to give a neg- 
ative against, to oppose a law ; pe' 
cuniam pro aliquo, to become sure- 
ty : Intercedit mihi tecum amicitia 
or inter nos, there is, <^c. 

Succedere ei, in locum ejus, 
to succeed; muro, or murum; ad 
urbem ; sub primam aciem ; in 
pugnam, to come unto. 

CAD ERE alte, ab alto, in ter- 
rain, to fall; causa formula, in 
judicio, fy litem perdere, to lose 
ones cause, to be cast; in or sub 
sensum, oculos, potestatem, &c. in 
morbum, ^ incidere. Cic. Non ca- 
dit in virum bonum mentlri, is in- 
capable of. Cic. Homini lachrymae 
cadunt, quasi puero, gaudio. Ter. 

Accidere genibus or ad genua, 
to fall at : aurlbus or ad aures, to 
come to; alicui, casu, prseter opin- 
ionem, to happen; accidit in te 
istud verbum, applies. Ter. 

TENDERE vela, to stretch; in- 
sidias, retia, plagas, &e. to lay 
snares; arcum, to bend; iter, cur- 
sum, to direct ; ad altiora, in ces- 
ium, to aim at; extra vallum, sc. 
tabernaculum, to pitch a tent ; Ma- 
nibus tendit divellere nodos, tries. 

Attendo te. Cic. tibi. Plin. de 
hac re, ad banc rem, to take heed; 
animum ad rem ; res hostium. Sail. 
Contendere nervos, omnlbua 
nervis, to exert one's self; aliquid 
ab aliquo, to ask earnestly ; inter 
se ; amdri, poet, for cum amore, to 
strive; causas, sc. inter se, to com- 
pare. Cic. Aliquid ad aliquid, eum 
aliquo, ty alicui. 



Comprehendere naturam re- 
rum, to understand; rem plurlbus 
& luculentiorlbus verbis, to ex- 
press ; aliquem humanitate, amici- 
tia, to gain; rem fictam, to discover. 
Intendere aril mum rei, ad or 
in rem. to apply ; Intendi animo in 
rem. Liv. Vocem, nervos, to exert; 
arcum, to bend ; actionem, or litem 
alicui or in aliquem, also impin- 
ge re, to raise a laio-suit against one; 
telum ei, or in eum, to shoot at; 
manum or digitum in aliquid, to 
point at; allquo, sc. ire, to goto; 
officia, to overdo, to do more than is 
required. Sail. 

Obtendere velum rei, or rem 
velo, to cover, to veil. 

PENDERE pecuniam, to pay; 
pcenas, to suffer ; id parvi, to value 
it little. 

Suspendere aliquem arbori, de, 
in, or ex arbore, to hang ; expecta- 
tione, or suspensum detinere, to 
keep in suspense; aedificium, to arch 
a house ; naso adunco, to sneer at. 

ABDERE se Uteris, in litems, to 
hide or shut up one's self among 
books ; se domum, rus, &c. domo. 
Virg. in silvas, tenebras, &c. 

Condere urbem, to build; fruc- 
tus, to lay up ; in carcerem, to im- 
prison ; carmen, to compose; lumi- 
na 7 to close. Ov. Jura, to establish ; 
terra, sepulchro, in sepulchro, to 

Dedere se alicui, in ditidnem 
alicujus, ad aliquem, to surrender ; 
Dedltus prapceptori, <^ studiis, fond 
of; vino epulisque, engaged in. 
Nep. dedlta opera, on purpose. 

Edere librum, fy in lucem, to 
publish; ovum, to lay; sonos, can- 
tus, risus, gemitus, questus, hinnl- 
tum, pugnam, stragem, to sound, to 
$ing, fyc. manus gladiatorium, to ex- 
hibit a show of gladiators ; nomen, 
to mention; foetus, to bring forth; 
extremum spin turn, to die; exem- 
pla cruciatus in aliquem, to inflict 
exemplary torture. 

Ob d ere pessulum foribus, to bolt 
the door. 

Prod ere arcem hostlbus, to be- 
tray ; aliquid posteris, or memorise, 
to hand oloicn ; genus ab allquo, to 
derive; flaminem, interregem, to 
appoint; aliquot dies nuptiis, to 
put off. Ter. exemplum, to give to 
posterity. Liv. 

Reddere animum, se sibi, to re- 
vive ; animum or vitam, to die ; 
Latlne, verbum verbo, to translate 3 
matrem, i. e. referre, to resemble , 
epistolam alicui, to deliver. 

Subdere calcar equo, to spur, 
spiritus alicui, to encourage. 

Credere rem; hommi, to be- 
lieve; aliquid alicui, to trust; pe- 
cuniam ei per syngrapham, to lend 
on bond or bill; rumoribus credi 
nonoportet; Itaque credo, si, &c. 
/ suppose. Cic. 

FUNDERE aquam, to pour out 
hostes, to rout. 

Effundere fruges, copiam ora< 
torum, to produce; aerarium, to 
spend; odium, i. e. dimittere, to 
drop; gratiam collectam, i. e. per- 
dere : omnia, quae tacuerat, to tell. 
JUNGERE se cum aliquo, ali- 
cui, <$/• ad aliquem, dextram dex- 
trae, to join; equos currui, to yoke , 
amnem ponte, to make a, bridge. 

Adjungere accessionem aedi'bus, 
to build an addition to one's house ; 
animum ad studia, to apply. 

STRINGERE cultrum, gladium, 
ensem, to draw; frondes, to lop off; 
glandes, baccas, to beat dozen ; rem, 
to icaste one 's fortune. Hor. littus, to 
touch, to brush, or graze upon. Virg. 
TAN GERE rem acu, to hit the 
nail on the head. 

Attingere Britanniam navlbus, 
to reach ; reges, res summas, to 
mention. Nep. Aliquem cognatione, 
affinitate, to be related to; forum, 
to reach manhood. Cic. Res non te 
attingit, concerns. 

FINGERE orationem, to polish; 
oratorem, to form ; se ad arbitrium 
alterius, to adapt : Vultus a mente 
fingi'tur, lingua fingit vocem. Cic 
Sui cuique mo' es fingunt fortunam. 



FRANGERE nucem, to break; 
ravem, to suffer shipwreck; fcedus, 
fidem, to violate; sententiam ejus, 
to refute. Cic. hostein, to s'ubdue. 

AGERE gratias, to give thanks ; 
vitain, to live; praodas, to plunder ; 
fabulam, to act a play ; triumpham 
de aliquo, ex aliqua re, to triumph; 
nugas, to trifle ; ambages, to beat 
about the bush ; stationem, cusio- 
diam urbis, to be on guard; rimas, 
to chink, to leak, to be rent ; causam, 
to plead; de re, to speak; radices, 
to take root, cuniculos, to under- 
mine ; undam, to raise a steam ; 
anlmam, to be at the last gasp ; alias 
res, to be inattentive ; festum diem, 
natalem, ferias, &c. to keep, to ob- 
serve; actum, or rem actam, to 
labour in vain; censum,& habere, 
to make a, review of the people, 
tJieir estates, fyc. forum, to hold a 
court to try causes ; lege in allquem, 
Sf cum aliquo, to go to law with one ; 
hence actor, a plaintiff ; in heredi- 
tatem, to claim,; cum populo, to 
treat with, to lay before; declmum 
agit annum, he is ten years old ; id 
agltur, that is the question ; libertas 
agltur, or de libertate, is at stake; 
actum est de libertate, is lost; ac- 
tum est, ilicet, all is over ; actum 
est de pace, ivas treated about ; cum 
illo bene actum est, he has been 
lucky, or well used; hoc age, mind 
what you are about : Ci vitas laeta 
agere,/<?r erat. Sail. 

Adigere milites sacramento, ad 
or in jusjurandum, in sua verba, 
per jusjurandum, to force to enlist ; 
arbitrum, i. e. agere or cogere ali- 
quem ad arbitrum, to force to sub- 
mit to an arb itra Hon . C ic . 

Cogere copias, to bring together ; 
Ed militiam, to force to enlist ; sena- 
tum, to assemble ; in senatum, sc. 
minis, pignorlbus captis, &c. to force 
to eltend ; agmen, to rally, to bring 
up; lac, to curdle; jus civile dif- 
fusum &dissipatum, in certa gene- 
ra cogere, to digest, to arrange. 

Exigere foras, to drive out, to 
divorce; allquid ab aliquo, to re- 
quire; sarta tecta, sc. et, i. e. sar a 

et tecta, ut sint bene reparata, to 
require that the public ivorks be key* 
in good reparation Cic. supplicium, 
de aliquo, to inflict; sua noinina, 
to demand or call in one's debts; 
oBvum. vitam, annos, to spend • 
ali quid ad nor mam, to try or ex- 
amine; columnam ad perpendicu- 
lum, to apHy the plummet, to see if 
it be straight; monumentum, to fin- 
ish. Hor. tempus & modum, to set- 
tle. Virg. comoediam, to disapprove, 
to hiss off. Ter. 

Redigere aliquid in memoriam 
alicujus, to bring back; pecuniam 
ex bonis venditis, to raise money ; 
hostes sub imperium, to reduce. 

LEGE RE oram, littus, to coast 
along ; vela, to furl the sails ; hall- 
tum, to catch one's breath ; milltecv, 
to enlist ; aliquem in senatum, in 
Patres, to choose; sacra, to steal, tc 
commit sacrilege. Hor. 

TRAHERE obsidionem, bellum 
to prolong; purpuras, to spin; all- 
quid in religiunem, to scruple ; na- 
vem remulco, to tow. 

Detrahere aliquem, to draw 
down; alicui or de aliquo, de fa- 
ma, to detract from, to lessen one's 
fame; aliquid alicui, to take by 
force ; laudem, or de laudibus : no- 
vem partes multee, to take from the 
fine. Nep. 

Extrahere diem, to spin out, to 
spend; certamen, bellum, judicium, 
to prolong. 

VEHERE, vehens, invehens, in- 
vectus curru, quadrlgis, &c. riding 
in a chariot ; invehi in portum ex 
alto, to enter ; in aliquem, to in- 
veigh against; proved longius, to 
proceed too far. 

CONSULERE rem, or de re, to 
consult about ; eum, to ask kis ad- 
vice; ei, to considt for his good, 
de salute sua ; gravius in aliquem, 
to pass a severe sentence against; 
in commune, publicum, medium, 
to provide for the common good, 
verba boni, to take in good pait; 
ego consulor, my advice is asked; 



mihi consulitur, my good is consult- 
ed ; mihi consultum ac provlsum 
est for a me, / have taken care. 

APPELLERE classe in Italiam, 
or classem, to Land on ; se aliquo. 
Ter. ad villam nostram navis ap- 
pelletur. Cic. animum ad philo- 
eophiam, to apply. 

ANTECELLEREei, rarely eura: 
cxcellere aliis, super, inter, praster 
alios all qua re or in re, to excel. 

TOLLERE amnios suos, to take 
courage; aminos alicui, to encour- 
age; all quern laudibus, fy laudes 
ejus in astra, to extol ; inducias, to 
break a truce; clamores, to cry; 
filium, to educate; de or e medio, 
to kill. 


ADIMERE claves uxori, to di- 
vorce; annulum or equum equiti, 
to take away from a knight the rijig 
or horse given him by the public, to 

Dirimere litem, controversiam, 
to determine. 

Eximere aliquem servitio, noxse 
e vinculis, a culpa, de numero 
proscriptorum, obsidione, to free ; 
de dolio, to draw out ; diem dicen- 
do, to waste in speaking. 

Interimere se, to kill. 

Redimere captlvos, to ransom, 
pecuaria de censoribus, to take or 
farm the public pastures. 

SUMERE in manus ; diem, tem- 
pus ad deliberandum ; exemplum 
ex or de eo, to take; poenas, sup- 
plicium de aliquo, to punish ; pecu- 
nias mutuas, to borrow ; togam vi- 
rllem, to put on the dress of a man; 
eibi inimicitias, to get ill will; 
operam in re or in rem insumere, 
to bestow pains; sumo tantum, or 
hoc mihi, I take this upon me. 

PREMERE caseum, to make 
cheese; vocem, to be silent; dolo- 
rem corde, to conceal; vestigia 
ejus, to follow ; littus, to come near ; 
pollicem, to save a gladiator; li- 
brum in nonum annum, to delay 
vublishing. Hor. 

Exprimeee succum, to press out ; 

risum alicui ; pecuniam ab aliquo, 
to force from ; emgiem, to draw to 
the life; verbum verbo, de verbo, 
e verbo, ad verbum, de Graecis, &c. 
to translate word for word. 

Imprimere aliquid ammo, in am- 
mo, or in animum, to imprint. 

Reprimere se, <§/• reprendere or 
retinere, to check. 


PONERE spem in homine or re, 
Sf habere; castra. to pitch; vitem, 
to plant; vitam, to die ; ova, to lay; 
insidias alicui ; panem convlvia, 
not ante ; personam amici, to lay 
aside the character of a friend ; pree- 
mia, to propose; pocula, to stake or 
lay ; studium, tempus, multum ope- 
ras in aliqua re, to employ, to be- 
stow ; aliquid in laude, in vitiis, in 
loco beneficii, to reckon ; ferocia 
corda, to lay aside; aliquem in 
gratiam or gratia, i. e. efncere gra- 
tiosum apud alterum. Cic ventos, 
to calm ; hommera coloribus, saxo, 
to paint, engrave. Hor. pecuniam 
in fcenore, to lay out at interest; 
templa, to build. Virg. Venti po- 
suere, are hushed. Virg. Pone esse 
victum eum. Ter. Positum sit, 
suppose, grant. Cic. 

Componere carmen, litems, &c. 
to compose ; lites, to settle; bellum, 
to finish by treaty; parva magnis, 
dicta cum factis, to compare ; ma- 
nus manibus, to join. 4 Virg. 

Deponere or ponere togam prae- 
textam, to lay aside the dress of a 
boy ; imperium, ^ demittere, to lay 
down a command. 

Exponere rem, to set forth 01 
explain; frumentum, to expose to 
sale. Cic. pueros, foetus, to leave to 
perish. Liv. exercitum, sc. in ter- 
rain, to land. 

Im pon ere onus alicui or in ali- 
quem ; aliquem in equum, to set 
upon; personam or partes duiiores 
ei, to lay a task or duty on one; 
alicui, to impose on, to deceive, 
Nep. honorem ei, to confer; vadi- 
monium ei, to force to give bail ; 
Nep. raanum summam or extre* 
mam rei alicui, in aliqua re, to fi& 



ish ; pontem flurrrini, to make a 
bridge. Curt. Hoc loco libet inter- 
ponere, to insert. Nep. 

Opponere se periculis $• ad pe- 
ricula, to expose ; pignori, to pledge ; 
manum fronti, ante oculos, to put. 

Proponere aliquid sibi facSre, 
exenipla ei ad imitandum, to pro- 
nose, to set before : edicta, legem 
in publicum, i. e. publice legenda 
effigere; congiarium, to promise a 
largess, a gift of corn or money. 

Supponere ova galllnae, to set a 
hen ; testamentum, or subjicere, to 

CANERE aliquem, to praise; 
signa, classicum, bellicum, i e. ad 
armaconclamare, to sound an alarm, 
to give the signal for battle; recep- 
tui, rarely -um, to sound a retreat ; 
tibia, to play on the pipe ; ad tibiam, 
to sing to it; palinodiam, to utter a 

STERNERE lectos, to spread or 
cover the couches; equos, to har- 
ness ; viam, to pave ; aequora, to 
calm. Virg. 

S PO. 

CARPERE agmen, to cut off the 
rear; somnos, quietem, to sleep; 
viam iter, to go. Virg. opera alte- 
rius, to censure; labores, virtutes, 
to diminish or obscure. Hor. 

RUMPERE fidem, fcedus, ami- 
citiam, to viomte ; vocem or silen- 
tium, to speak. Virg. 

Erumpere ex tenebris, castris, 
&c. se portis, to break out; sto- 
machum in aliquem, to vent pas- 
sion ; nubem, to break. Virg. 

QUjERERE bonam gratiam sibi, 
to seek or gain. Cic. sermonem, to 
beat about for conversation. Ter. 
rem mercaturis faciendis, to make a 
fortune by merchandise; ex ali- 
quo, & in aliquem, de re allqua 
per tormenta, to put to the rack ; in 
domlnum de servo quseri noluerunt 
Romarri. Cic. 

Inquirere aliquid, to search af- 
ter ; aliquem capitis, or -te, to ac- 
cuse or try for a capital crime 


GERERE res, to perform; xv* 
gotium male, tu manage; consuls 
turn, to bear, to manage; se be/ie 
or male, to behave; exercitum, to 
conduct. Sallust. morem ei, or 1110- 
rigerari, to humour ; civem, se pro 
cive, personam alicujus, to pass for, 
to bear the character of; inimicitiaa 
or simultatem cum aliquo , to be at 
enmity or variance with. 

Ingerere convicia ei, in eum, 
to inveigh against. 

Suggerere aliquid ei, to suggest, 
to hint ; sumptus his rebus, to sup- 
ply or afford : Horatium Bruto, to 
choose in place of to put after. Liv. 

SERERE crimina in eum, to 
raise, to spread accusations. 

Conserere nianus, manu, cer- 
tamen, pugnam,cum hostibus, inter 
se, to engage. 

Asserere aliquid, to affirm ; ali- 
quem manu, ab injuria, in liber- 
tatem, to free ; in servitutem, to re- . 
duce ; divlnam maiesta tern, to claim. 

PETERE aliquid alicui ; id ab 
eo, rarely eum ; in beneficii gra- 
tia?que loco. Cic. to ask; urbem 
Romam, murum, montes, to go to, 
to make for ; aliquem sagitta, la- 
pide, to aim at; consulatum poenas 
ab aliquo, repetere, to punish. 

Com petere ammo, to be in one's 
senses; in eum competit actio, an 
action lies against him. Cic. 

Repetere res, to demand restitu- 
tion ; bona lege, or prosequi, lite, 
to recover by law; castra, oppidum, 
hue, to return to ; aliquid memoria, 
to call to mind ; alte, to trace from 
the beginning. Mihi nihil suppetit, 
multa suppetunt, / have; si vita 
suppetet, if life shall remain. Cic. 

MITTERE alicui or ad aliquem; 
in suffragia. to send the people to 
vote; aulaeum, mappam, to drop the 
curtain; talos, to throio the dice, 
senatum, to dismiss; timdrem, to 
lay aside ; in acta, to register, to 
record ; sanguine in, or ei uttere, to 
let blood; noxam, to forg>^e; eiflf- 
na timoris, to show; vocem, to wi' 
ter, to speak ; habenas, or remutSre, 



to slacken; manu, or emittere, to 
free a slave ; filium emancipare, to 
free a son from the power of his 
father ; sub jugum, to make to pass 
under the yoke; inferias manibus 
diis, to sacrifice to the infernal gods ; 
rem or de re. to omit ; mitto rem, 
/ say nothing of fortune. Ter. in 
possessionem bonorum, to give the 
possession of the debtor's effects ; 
misit orare, ut venlrem, i. e. ali- 
quem ad orandum. Ter. 

Amittere litem or causam ■ vi- 
tam, fidem, lumina, aspectum, to 
lose. Cic. 

Admittere in cubiculum, to ad- 
mit ; equum immittere, & permit- 
tere, to gallop; delictum in se, to 
commit a fault ; aves non admise- 
runt, have not given a favourable 
omen. Liv. 

Committers: facinus, to commit; 
se allcui or in fidem alicujus, to in- 
trust ; praelium, to engage; exer- 
citum pugnae, rem in casum an- 
cipitis eventus prselii, to risk a bat- 
tle. Liv. iv.27. aliquem cum aliquo, 
homines inter se, to set at variance 
o** by the ears ; rem eo, to bring to 
that pass ; gladiatores, pugiles, Graa- 
cos cum LatTnis, to match or pair ; 
committere, ut, to cause; incom- 
moda sua legibus & judiciis, to seek 
redress by law. 

Compromittere, Candida ti com- 
promiscrunt, H. S. quingenis in sin- 
gulos apud M. Catonem depositis, 
petere ejus arbitratu, ut qui con- 
tra fecisset, ab eo condemnaretur, 
made a compromise or agreement, 

Dimittere exercitum, to disband ; 
uxdrem, & repudiare, nuntium 
or repudium ad earn remittere, to 

Promittere id ei, to promise; 
capillum, barbam. to let groio. Liv. 

Permittere alicui, to alloic ; di- 
vis ccetera, to leave. Horat. se in 
fidem or f.dei ejus ; vela ventis ; 
equum i'j hostem ; rem suffragiis 
populi, o let the people decide; tri- 
bunat an vexandis consulibus, to 
five up, to employ. Lir. 

Remittere animum, to ease; a\ 
ces, tela, to throw back; ex peca- 
nia, de supplicio, tributo, &c. to 
abate; debitum, iras allcui, to give 
up f to forgive; justitium, to discon- 
tinue ; pugnam, to slacken, remit- 
tit explorare, neglects. Sail. 

Submitt^re fasces populo, to 
loicer ; se or animum, to submit, to 
humble ; percussores alicui, to suborn 

Transmittere in Africam, neu*. 
to pass over. 

VERTERE in fugam, to put to 
flight; terga, to fly; ab imo, to 
overthrow ; solum, to go into banish' 
ment; id el vitio, or crimini, fy in 
crimen, to blame ; in superbiam, to 
impute ; Platonem, Latlne Gragca, 
Gra?ca or ex Graecis in Latlnum, to 
translate ; polllcem, to doom a glad- 
iator to death by turning up the 
thumb; terram, to plough; crate 
ram, to empty. Virg. Stilum, io cor 
rect. Horat. Salus or causa in eo 
vertitur, depends; fortuna verterat. 
Liv. Annus vertens, a whole year. 
Nep. Res bene vertat, Di bene 
vertant. prosper. 

Animadvertere id, to observe 
in eum verberibus, morte, &c. to 

Ad vert ere agmen urbi, to bring 
up to. Virg. oras, to arrive at, 
aures, mentes, animum or ammo 
ad all quid, monitis, td^attend to ; in 
aliquem. oftener animadvertere, to 

Antevertere ei, to come before; 
damnationem veneno, to prevent; 
rem rei, to prefer. Plaut. 

Intervertere pecuniam alicu- 
jus, & aliquem pecunia, to embez- 
zle, to cheat ; candelabrum, to steal, 
to pilfer ; promissum & receptum, 
sc. Dolabellae consulatum, interver- 
tit, ad seque transtillit, treacherously 
withheld. Cic. 

Pr^vertere, & -ti, dep. ventoa 
cursu, to outstrip ; desiderium ple- 
bis, to prevent; metum supplicii 
morte voluntaria. Liv. Aliquid all- 
cui rei, to put before. Id. 

SISTERE vadimonium ; se in 



|udicio, to appear in court at one's 
trial; nee sisti posse, nor could the 
state be saved. Liv. 

Assistere ei, to stand by; ad 
fores ; contra, super eum. 

Consistere in digitos, to stand 
on tiptoe; in anchoris, ad ancho- 
rain, to ride at anchor ; frigore, to 
be frozen. Ovid Spes in velis con- 
sistebat, defended on; virtus in ac- 
tione consistit. Cic. 

Insisteke jacentibus, to stand 
upon ; vestigiis ejus ; viam, or via; 
in re all qua, in rem, or rei ; in do- 
los, negotium. Plaut. to insist upon, 
to urge 

Obsistere ei, to stop, to oppose. 

Resistere ei, to resist. 

Subsistere, to stand still ; sump- 
tui. to bear 


SOLVERE pecuniam ei, to pay, 
versura, to pay a debt by borrowing 
from another. Ter. Fidem, to break 
a promise, or, according to others, 
to perform. Ter. And. IV. 1. 19. 
litem ajstiinatam, to pay the fine 
imposed on him. Nep. Votum, to 
discharge ; obsididnem urbis, or ur- 
bem obsidione, to raise a siege; 
navem, e portu, to set sail ; episto- 
lam, or resign are, to break open; 
aliquem legibus, legum, vinculis, to 
free from ; solvltur in somnos. Virg. 
Oratio soluta, i. e. libera, numeris 
non astricta & devincta,/;r<'>^ ; solve 
metus, dismiss. Virg. 

Dissolvere societatem, to break, 

Resolvere vocem, or ora, to 

break silence. Virg. jura, to violate, 

vectlgal, to take off taxes. Tacit 

In pulverem, to reduce to. 


AUDIRE aliquem, aliquid ex or 
ab allquo, to hear from one ; de 
all quo, about one, also from one, 
as, seepe hoc audlvi de patre, for 
ex patre. Cic. Audlre bene or 
male apud socios, ab omnibus, to 
be well spoken of, to have a good 
character ; rexque paterque audisti, 
have been called. Hor. Antigonus 
credit de suo adventu esse audl- 
tum. Nep. 

VENIRE ad finem, aures, pae- 
tionem, certamen, manus, nihilum, 
&c. in suspiciunem, odium, gratiam, 
&c. in jus, to go to laio. Liv. in 
circulum, into a company. Nep. 
Haeredltas ei venit, he has succeed- 
ed, to an estate ; ei usu venit, hap- 
pened. Nep. Quo^ in buccam vene- 
rit. scribito, occurs. Cic. 

Ad venire fy adventare ei, urbem, 
ad urbem, to come to. 

Antevenire aliquem, Sf antever- 
tere, Sail. rei. Plaut. tempus, con- 
silia, <^ itinera, to anticipate. 

Con venire in colloquium, fra- 
trem, to meet with, to speak to ; ego 
et frater conveniemus, copiae con- 
venient, will meet, together ; con ve- 

nit mihi cum fratre de hac re, inter 
me et fratrem, inter nos ; ha?c fra- 
tri mecum conveniunt, / and my 
brother are agreed; stevis inter se 
convenit ursis. Juv. Ipsi secum non 
convenit, or ipse, he is inconsistent ; 
pax convenit, or conventa est, is 
agreed upon; rem conventuram 
putamus. Cic. conditiones non con- 
venerunt ; mores conveniunt, agree; 
calcei pedlbus or ad pedes conve- 
niunt, fit or suit ; hoc in ilium con- 
venit : Catillnam interfectum esse 
convenit, ought to have been slain. 
Cic. Convenire in manum, the usual 
form of marriage, named Coemp- 
tio, whereby women were called ma- 

SENTIRE sonorem, colorem,&c. 
to perceive; cum aliquo, to be of 
one's opinion; bene or male de eo, 
to think well or ill of him. 

Consentire tibi, tecum, inter se ; 
alicui rei, de or in al! qua re ; ad 
aliquid peragendum. to agree. Sc 
dissentire; 4* ab allquo, to disa* 
gree ; ne vita oration i dissentiat 




PROFITER] philosophiam, to 
•profess, to teach publicly ; se can- 
didatum, to declare himself a can- 
didate for an office ; pecunias, agros, 
nomina, &c. apud censorem, to give 
an account of, to declare hoio much 
one has; indicium, to promise to 
make a discovery. 

LOQUI cum aliquo, inter se ; 
sometimes alicui, ad or apud ali- 
quein ; aliquid, de aliqua re. 

SEQUI feras; sectam Ceesaris, 
to be of his party, Cic. Assequi, 
consequi, to overtake; gloriam, to 

attain. Consequi hereditatem, tA 

get. Cic. 

Prosequi aliquem amore, laudi- 
bus, &c. to love, praise, fyc. 

NITI hasta ; in cubitum, to lean, 
ejus consilio, in eo, to depend on, 
ad gloriam, ad or in summam, to 
aim at; in vetltum, in adversurn, 
contra aliquem, pro aliquo, to strive, 
gradlbus, to ascend. 

UTI eo familiariter, to be famil 
iar with one ; ventis adversis, to 
have cross winds ; honore usus, ont 
who has enjoyed a post of honour 


ESSE magni roboris, or -no -re ; 
ejus opinidnis or ea opinione ; in 
maxima spe ; in timore, luctu, opi- 
nione, itinere, &c. ; cum telo, in or 
cum imperio ; magno periculo, or 
in periculo ; in tuto ; apud se, in 
his senses; sui juris, or maneipii, 
sui potens, or in sua potestate, to 
be at his own disposal : Res est in 
vado, is safe. Ter. Est animus, sc. 
mihi, / have a mind. Virg. Est ut, 
cur, quamobrem, quod, quin, &c. 
liter e is cause; bene male est 
mihi, with me; nihil est mihi te- 
cum, I have nothing to do with you : 
Quid est tibi, sc. rei, Wliat is the 
matter with you? Ter. Cernere 
erst, one might see ; religio est 
mihi id facere, J scruple to do it; 
si est, ut facere velit, ut facturus 
sit, ut admiserit, &c. for si velit, 
&c. Ter. Est ut viro vir latius ordi- 
net arbusta sulcis, it happens. Hor. 
Certum est facere, sc. mihi, / am 
resolved. Ter. Non certum est, 
quid faciam, / am uncertain. Id. 
Cassius quaerere solebat, Cui bo- 
no fcerit : Omnibus bono fuit, it 
was of advantage. Cic. 

Adesse pugnae, in pugna, ad 
exercitum, ad tempus, in tempore, 
cum aliquo, to be present; alicui, 
to favour, to assist ; scribe n do, or 
rsse ad ecribendum, to subscribe 

one's name to a decree of the senate. 
Cic. consilio utrlque, to be a conn 
sellor to. Nep. 

Abesse domo, urbe, a domo ab 
signis, to be absent; alicui, or dees- 
se, to be wanting, not to assist; a 
sole, to stand out of the sun ; sump* 
tus funeri defuit, he had not money 
to bury him. Liv. abesse a persona 
principis, to be inconsistent with the 
character. Nep. Pauium or parum 
abfuit quin urbem caperent, quin 
occideretur, &c. they were near 
taking, fyc. Tantum abest ne ener- 
vetur oratio, ut, &c. is so far from 
being, fyc. Cic. Tantum abfuit a 
cupiditate pecuniae, a societate see- 
leris, &c. Nep. 

Interesse convivio, or in con- 
vivio, to be at a feast; anni decern 
interfuerunt, intervened; stulto in- 
telligens quid interest. Ter. Hoc 
dominus & pater interest. Id. Inter 
hominem & bePuam hoc interest 
Cic. differ in this, this is the differ- 
ence; multum interest, utrum, it is 
of great importance. Pons inter 
eos interest, is between. Cic. 

Pr/eesse exercitui, to command, 
comitiis, judicio, quaestioni, to pre- 
side in or at. 

Obesse ei, to hurt, to hinder. 

Suferesse, to be over and above; 
alicui, to survive ; modo vita super 



■it, sc. mihij if I live ; superest, ut, 
it remains, that. 

IRE ad anna, ad saga, to go to 
war ; in jus, to go to law ; pedibus 
in sententiam alicujus, to agree 
with; viam or via ; res bene eunt. 
Cic. Tempus. dies, mensis, it jnisses. 

Abire magistrate, to lay down 
an office; a conspectu, to retire 
from company; in ora hominum, 
to be in every body's month ; ab 
emptione, to retract his bargain; 
decern menses abierunt, have past. 
Ter. Non hoc tibi sic ablbit, i. e. 
non feres hoc iinpune. Ter. Abi in 
malam rem, a form of imprecation. 

Ad i re periculum capitis, to run 
the hazard of one s life. 

Exire vita, e, or de vita, to die; 
sere alieno. Cic. Verbum exit ex 
ore. Id. tela, to avoid. Virg. Tem- 
pus induciarum cum Vejenti popu- 
lo exierat, had expired. Liv. 

In ire magistratum ; suffragium, 
rationem, consilium, pugnam, viam, 
&c. to enter upon, to begin ; gratiam 
ejus, apud eum, cum or ab eo, to 
gain his favoar : Ineunte aestate, 
vere, anno, &c. in the beginning of; 
bat we seldom say, Ineunte die, 
nocte, &c. Ab ineunte agtate, from 
our early years. 

Obire diem edicti, or auctiOnis, 
judicium, vadimonium, to be present 
at; provinciam, domos nostras, to 
visit , to go through. Cic. negotia, 
res, munus, officium, legationem, 
sacra, to perform ; pugnas. Virg. 
mortem, or morte ; diem supre- 
mum, or diem, to die ; 

Prjeire alicui, to go before; ver- 
ba, carmen, or sacramentum alicui, 
to repeat or read over before ; alicui 
voce, quid judicet, to prescribe, or 
direct by crying. Cic. 

Pro dire in publicum,fo go abroad; 
non praeterit te, you are not igno- 
rant. Cic. Dies induciarum praete- 
riit, is past. Nep. 

Re dire in gratiam cum aliquo, 
to become friends again; ad se, to 
come to himself, to recover his senses. 

Sub ire murum or -o, ad montes, 
to come up to ; laborem or -i, onus. 

pcenam, periculum, crimen, to un 
dergo ; spes, tirnor subiit aniinum,. 
came into. 

VELLE all quern, sc. alloqui or 
conventum, to desire to speak with, 
alicui, ejus causa, to wish ones 
good; tibi consukum volo; nihil 
tibi negatum volo, / wish to deny. 
Liv. Quid sibi vult ? What does 
he mean? Volo te hoc facere. 
hoc a te fieri ; si quid rectc cura* 
turn velis ; illos monitos etiam at- 
que etiam volo, sc. esse, / will ad> 
monish them again and again. Cic 
nollem factum, / am sorry it wa$ 
done; nollem hue exitum, sc. esse 
a me, / wish I had not come out 
here. Ter. 

FERRE legem, to propose or 
make; privilegium de alVquo, to 
propose or pass an act of impeach' 
merit against one. Cic. rogatidnem 
ad populum, to bring in a bill ; con- 
ditiones ei, to offer ten'ms; suffragi- 
uir, to vote; sententiam, to give an 
opinion ; centuriam, tribum, to gain 
the vote of; perdere, to lose it; vic- 
toriam ex eo ; omne punctum, om- 
nia suffragia, to gain all the votes , 
repulsam, to be rejected; fructum, 
hoc fructi, to reap. Ter. laetitiam 
de re, to rejoice: prae se, to pretend 
or declare openly; alienam perso- 
nam, to disguise ones self; in ocu- 
lis, to be fond of Ter. manus, in 
prselia. to engage. Virg. acceptum 
et expensum, to mark down as re- 
ceived and spent or lent, as Dr. and 
Cr. Cic. animus, opinio fert, in- 
clines ; tempus, res, causa fert, al- 
lows, req aires. 

Conferre benevolentiam alicui, 
in or erga aJiquem, to sliow ; bene- 
ficia, culpam in eum, to confer, to 
lay; operam, tempus, studium ad 
or in rem, (^ impendere, to apply; 
capita inter se, consilia sua, to lay 
their heads together, to consult ; sig- 
na, arma, manus, to engage; omne 
bellum circa Corinthum. Nep. pe- 
dem, to set foot to foot ; rationes, to 
cast up accounts ; castra castris, to 
encamp over against one another ; 
se in or ad urbem, to go to; tri^ 



buta, to pay; se alicui or cum ali- 
quo, to compare; neminem cum 
illo conferendum pietate puto. Cic. 
Haec conferunt ad aliquid; oratori 
futuro, serve, are useful to. Quinct. 

Deferre situlam or sitellam, to 
bring the ballot-box ; aliquid ad ali- 
quem, to carry word, to tell; rarely 
alicui; causam ad patronos ; ho- 
nores ei ; gubernacula reipubllcae 
in eum ; summam rerum ad eura, 
to confer; in beneficiis ad serari- 
um, to recommend for a public ser- 
vice. Cic. all quern ambitus, de am- 
bitu, nomen alicujus ad praeturem, 
apud magistratum, to accuse of bri- 
bery; primas, sc. partes ei, to give 
him the preference. Cic. 

Di fferre or transferee rem in 
annum ; post bellum, diem solu- 
tionis, to put off; ru mores, to 
spread ; ab all quo, alicui, inter se, 
moribus, to differ in character; 
amore, cupiditate, doloribus, dif- 
ferri, to be distracted or torn asun- 
der. Cic. & Ter. 

Efferre fruges, to produce; ver- 
ba, to utter; verbum de verbo ex- 
pressum, to translate. Ter. pedem 
domo, to go out; corpus amplo 
funere, <^ cum funere, to bury ; ad 
honorem, ad caelum laudibus, to 
praise, to extol; foras peccatum, to 

Inferre bellum patri© ; vim, ma- 
nus, necern alicui, to bring upon; 
signa, se, pedem, to advance ; litem, 
or periculum cap r - ; s alicui or in ali- 
quem, to bring o/u to a trial for his 

Offeree se morfi, ad mortem, 
ID discrlmen, to expose, to present. 

Perferre legem, to carry through , 
fc? pass. 

Pr^eferre facem ei, to carry U 
fore ; salutem reipublicae suis com 
modis fy antefcrre, anteponere, t* 
prefer. Praelatus equo, riding be- 

Proferre imperium, pomceiiuin, 
terminos, to enlarge; in medium 
in apertum, in lucem, to publish , 
nuptias, diem, to delay ; diem Ilio, 
to defer the destruction of Hor. 

Referre alicui, to answer; se, 
gradum, or pedem, to retreat ; gra- 
tiam alicui, to make a requital ; par 
pari. Ter. victoriam ab or ex all- 
quo. 4^ reportare, to gam; institu- 
tum, to renew ; judicia ad Eques- 
trem ordlnem, to restore to the 
Equites the right of judging ; ali- 
quid, de all qua re, ad senatum, ad 
consilium, ad sapientes, ad popu- 
lum, to lay before; aliquid in tabu- 
lam, codicem, album, commenta- 
rium, &c. to mark doion ; aliquid 
acceptum alicui, fy in aeceptum, 
to acknowledge one's self indebted ; 
pecunias acceptas & expensas, nc- 
mina or summas in codicem ac- 
cepti et expensi, to mark down ac- 
counts ; alienos mores ad suos, to 
judge of by; in or inter oerarios, 
to reduce to the lowest class ; in nu- 
merum deorum, in or inter deos, &, 
reponere, to rank among ; pugnas, 
res gestas, to relate; patrem ore, 
to resemble ; amissos colores, to re- 
gain. Hor. 

Transferre rationes in tabulas v 
to post one's books, to state accounts ; 
in Latlnam linguam. to translate, 
verba, to use metaphorically , cui- 
pam in eum, & rejicere, to lay thi 
blame on him. 



A Figure is a manner of speaking different from the ordina- 
ry and plain way, used for the sake of beauty or force. 

The figures of Syntax or Construction may be reduced to 
these three, Ellipsis, Pleonasm, and Hyperbdton. 

The two first respect the constituent part of a sentence , 
the last respects only the arrangement of the words. 


Ellipsis is the want of one or more words to complete 
the sense ; as, Aiunt, ferunt, dicunt, perhibent, scil. homines. 
Aberant bidui, sc. iter or itinere. Quid multa ? sc. dicam. 

When a conjunction is to be supplied, the figure is called 
Asyndeton ; as, Deus optimus maximus, sc. et. 

To this figure may be reduced most of those irregularities 
in Syntax, as they are called, which are variously classed by 
grammarians, under the names of Enallage, i. e. the chang- 
ing of words and their accidents, or the putting of one word 
for another; Antiptosis, i.e. the putting of one case for 
another ; Hellenism or Gr^ecism, i. e. imitating the construc- 
tion of the Greeks; Synesis, i.e. referring the construction, 
not to the grammatical gender or number of the word, but to 
the sense, &,c. ; thus, Samnitium duo millia ccesi, is, Duo millia 
(hominum) Samnitium (fuerunt homines) ccesi. Liv. So Ser- 
vitia immemores. 

When a writer frequently uses the Ellipsis, his stvle is said 
to be elliptical or concise. 


Pleonasm is the addition of a word more than is abso- 
lutely necessary to express the sense ; as, Video oculis, I see 
with my eyes. Sic ore lociita est, Thus she spoke with her 
mouth. Virg. 

When a conjunction is used apparently redundant, the figure 
is called Polysyndeton ; as, Una Eurusque Notusque ruunt. 

when that which is in reality one, is so expressed as if 
there were two, the figure is called Hendiadys ; as, Pateris 
libd^us et auro, for aurcis pateris. Virg. 

When several words are used to express one thing, the 
figure is called Periphrasis ; as, Urbs Trojcz, for Troja. 
Virg. Res voluptatum, for voluptdtes. Plaut. 



Hyperbaton is the transgression of that order or ar- 
rangement of words, which is commonly used in any lan- 
guage. It is chiefly to be met with among the poets. The 
various sorts into which it is divided, are Anastrophe, Hys- 
teron proteron, Hypallage, Synchesis > Tmesis, and Paren- 

1. Anastrophe is an inversion of words, or the placing of 
that word last which should be first; as, Italiam contra; 
His acccnsa super; Spemque metumque inter dubii, for con* 
tra Italiam, super his, inter spent, Sfc. Virg. Terr am solfacit are, 
for are-facit. Lucret. 

2. Hysteron proteron is the placing in the former part 
of the sentence that which, according to the sense, should 
be in the latter; as, Valet atque vivit, for vivit atque valet. 

3. Hypallage is an exchanging of cases ; as, Dare classi- 
bus austros, for dare classes austris. Virg. 

4. Synchesis is a confused and intricate arrangement of 
words; as, Saxa vocant Itdli mediis qua, in jluctibus aras ; 
for Quce saxa in mediis jluctibus Itdli vocant aras. Virg. This 
occurs particularly in violent passion ; as, Per tibi ego huncjuro 
fortem castumque cruorem. Ovid. Fast. ii. 841. 

5. Tmesis is the division of a compound word, and the in- 
terposing of other words betwixt its parts; as, Septem sub- 
jecta trioni gens, for Septentrioni. Virg. Qucb meo cunque am- 
mo libitum est facere, for qucecunque. Ter. 

6. Parenthesis is the inserting of a member into the body 
of a sentence, which is neither necessary to the sense, nor at 
all affects the construction ; as, Tityre, dum redeo, (brevis est 
via,) pasce capellas. Virg. 

in. analysis and translation. 

The difficulty of translating either from English into Latin, 
dy from Latin into English, arises in a great measure from 
the different arrangement of words, which takes place in the 
two languages 

In Latin the var.ous terminations of nouns, and the inflection 
of adjectives and verbs, point out the relation of one word to 
another, in whatever order they are placed. But in English 
the agreement and government of words can only be deter- 
mined from the particular part of the sentence in which they 
stand Thus in Latin, we can either say, Alexander vicit J)& 


rium, or Darium vicit Alexander, or Alexander Darium vicit, or 
Darium Alexander vicit; and in each instance the sense is 
equally obvious : but in English we can only say, Alexander 
conquered Darius. This variety of arrangement in Latin gives 
it a great advantage over the English, not only in point of ener- 
gy and vivacity of expression, but also in point of harmo- 
ny, We sometimes, indeed, for the sake of variety and 
force, imitate in English the inversion of words which takes 
place in Latin; as, Him the Eternal hurl'd. Milton. Whom ye 
ignorantly worship, him declare I unto you. But this is chiefly to 
be used in poetry. 

With regard to the proper order of words to be observed in 
translating from English into Latin, the only certain rule which 
can be given is to imitate the Classics. 

The order of words in sentences is said to be either simple 
or artificial; or, as it is otherwise expressed, either natural or 

The Simple or Natural order is, when the words of a sen- 
tence are placed one after another, according to the natural 
order of syntax. 

Artificial or Oratorial order is, when words are so ar 
ranged, as to render them most striking or most agreeable to 
the ear. 

All Latin writers use an arrangement of words, which ap- 
pears to us more or less artificial, because different from our 
own, although to them it was as natural as ours is to us. In 
order, therefore, to render any Latin author into English, we 
must first reduce the words in Latin to the order of English 
which is called the Analysis, or Resolution of sentences. It 
is only practice that can teach one to do this with readiness. 
However, to a beginner, the observation of the following rule 
may be of advantage. 

Take first the words which serve to introduce the sen- 
tence, or show its dependence on what went before ; next 
the nominative, together with the words which it agrees 
with or governs; then, the verb and adverbs joined with it* 
and lastly, the cases which the verb governs, together with 
the circumstances subjoined, to the end of the sentence ; sup- 
plying through the whole the words which are understood. 

If the sentence is compound, it must be resolved into the 
Beveral sentences of which it is made up ; as, 

Vale igUur, mi Cicero, tibique persudde esse te quidem mihi carissi* 
mum ; scd multo fore cariorem, si tallbus nionumentis praceptisque lata? 
tere. Cic Off. lib. 3. fin. 



1 arewell then, my Cicero, and assure yourself that you are indeed very 
dear to me ; but shall be much dearer, if you shall take delight in such 
writings and instructions. 

This compound sentence may be resolved into these five simple sen- 
tences; 1. Igltur, mi (fili) Cicero, (tu) vale: 2. et (tu) persuade tibi (ipsi) 
tc esse quid£m (filium) carisslmum mihi : 3. sed (tu persuade tibi ipsi te) 
fore (filium) cariorem (mihi in) multo (negotio) : 4. si (tu) l&taberc tali' 
bus monumentis : 5. et (si tu laetabere talibus) prceceptis. 

I . Fare (you) well then, my (son) Cicero : 2. and assure (you) your- 
self that you are indeed (a son) very dear to me : 3. but (assure you 
yourself that you) shall be (a son) much dearer (tome): 4. if you shall 
take delight in such writings : 5. and (if you shall take delight in such) 

It may not be improper here to exemplify Analogical Ana- 
lysis, as it is called, or the analysis of words, from the fore- 
going sentence, Vale igltur, &c. thus, 

Vale, scil. tu; Fare (thou) well: second person singular of the im- 
perative mode, active voice, from the neuter verb, valeo, valere, valui, 
valltum, to be in health, of the second conjugation, not used in the pas- 
sive. Vale agrees in the second person singular with the nominative tu, 
by the third rule of svntax. 

Igltur, then, therefore ; a conjunction, importing some inference drawn 
from what went before. 

Mi, voc. sing. masc. of the adjective pronoun, mens, -a, -um, my ; 
derived from the substantive pronoun Ego, agreeing with Cicero, by 
Rule 2. Cicero, voc. sing, from the nominative Cicero, -onis, a proper 
noun of the third declension. 

Et, and ; a copulative conjunction, which connects the verb persuade 
with the verb vale, by Rule 59. We turn que into et, because que never 
stands by itself. 

Perudde, scil. tu, persuade thou ; second person singular of the im- 
perative active, from the verb persua-deo, -dere, -si, -sum, to persuade; 
compounded of the preposition per, and suadeo, -si, -sum, to advise ; 
used impersonally in the passive ; thus, Persuadetur mihi, I am per 
suaded ; seldom or never Ego persuadeor. We say however, in the third 
person, Hoc persuadetur mihi, I am persuaded of this. 

Tibi, dat. sing, of the personal pronoun tu, thou ; governed by per- 
suade, according to Rule 17. Te, accusative sing, of tu, put before esse, 
according to Rule 4. 

Esse, present of infinitive, from the substantive verb sum, esse, fui 
to be. 

Quidem, indeed ; an adverb, joined with carisslmum or esse. 

Carisslmum, accusative sing. masc. from carisslmus, -a, -urn, very dear 
dearest, superlative degree of the adjective carus, -a, -um, dear : Com- 
parative degree, carior, carius, dearer, more dear ; agreeing with te o? 
filium understood, by Rule 2. and put in the accusative by Rule 5. 

Mihi, to me ; dat. sing, of the substantive pronoun Ego, I ; governed by 
carisslmum, by Rule 12. 

Sed, but; an adversative conjunction, joining esse and/o?*e. 

Fore, the same with esse futurum, to be or to be about to be, infini- 
tive of the defective verb forem, -res, -ret, &c. governed in the same 
manner with the foregoing esse, thus, te fore, Rule 4. or thus, esse sea 
fo~t. See Rule 59. 


Multo, scil. nrgotio, ablat. sing. neut. of the adjective multus, -a, -vm, x 
much, put in the ablative, according to Observation 5. Rule 01. But 
multo here may be taken adverbially in the same manner with much in 

Cariorem, accus. sing. masc. from carior -us, the comparative of 
varus, as before • agreeing with te or filium understood. Rule 2. or 
Rule 5. 

Si, if; a conditional conjunction, joined either with the indicative 
mode, or with the subjunctive, according to the sense, but oftener with 
the latter. See Rule 60. Obs. 2. 

LcBtabere, thou shalt rejoice ; second person singular of the future of 
the indicative, from the deponent verb l&tor, IcEtdtus, laiidri, to rejoice : 
Future, lait-dbor, -dberis or -dbere, -dbitur, &c. 

Talibus, ablat. plur. neut. of the adjective talis, tale, such ; agree- 
ing with monument is 7 the ablat. plur. of the substantive noun monu- 
ment um, -ti, neut. a monument or writing; of the second declension; 
derived from moneo, -ere, -ui, -itum, to admonish ; here put in the abla 
tive, according to Rule 49. Et, a copulative conjunction, as before. 

Prcecepiis, a substantive noun in lue ablative plural, from the nomi- 
native prceceptum, -ti, neut. a precept, an instruction; derived from 
pr&cipio, -cipere, -cepi, -ceptum, to instruct, to order, compounded of the 
preposition pr&, before, and the verb capio, caper e, cepi, captum, t< 
take. The a of the simple is changed into i short : thus pr&clpio, prce 
cipis, &c. 

The learner may in like manner be taught to analyze the words i l 
English, and, in doing so, to mark the different idioms of the t^o 

To this may be subjoined a Praxis, or Exercise on all the differ* nt 
parts of grammar, particularly with regard to the inflection of nouns a ad 
verbs in the form of questions, such as these, Of Cicero? Cicerotis. 
With Cicero ? Cicerone. A dear son ? Cams filius. Of a dear so l ? 
Cart Jiiii. O my dear son? Mi or meus care jili. Of dearer soes? 
Cariorum filiorum, &c. 

Of thee ? or of you ? Tui. With thee or you ? Te. Of you? Vestrjjm 
or vcstri. With you ? Vobis. 

They shall persuade ? Persuadebunt. I can persuade ? Persuadeam. 
or much more frequently possum persuader e. They are persuaded ? 
Persuadetur or persudsum est ill is ; according to the time expressed. 
He is to persuade ? Est persuasurus. He will be persuaded ? Persuade- 
bitur, or persudsum erit Mi. He cannot be persuaded ? No?i potest 
•persuaderi Mi. I know that he cannot be persuaded ? Scio non posse 
persuaderi Mi. That he will be persuaded ? Ei persudsum iri. 

When a learner first begins to translate from the Latin, he 
should keep as strictly to the literal meaning of the words as 
the different idioms of the two languages will permit. But 
after he has made farther progress, something more will be 
requisite. He should then be accustomed, as much as pos- 
sible, to transfuse the beauties of an author from the one 
language into the other. For this purpose it will be neces- 
sary that he be acquainted, not only with the idioms of the 
two languages, but also with the different kinds of styie 
adapted to different sorts of composition, and to different 


subjects ; together with the various turns of thought anc ■ ex 
pression which writers employ, or what are called the figures 
of words and of thought ; or the Figures of Rhetoric. 


The kinds of Style (genera dicendi) are commonly reck- 
oned three ; the low, (humile, submissum, tenue ;) the middle, 
(medium, temperdtum, orndtum, floridum ;) and the sublime, 
(sublime, grande.) 

But besides these, there are various other characters of 
style; as, the diffuse and concise; the feeble and nervous; 
the simple and affected ', &c. 

Tfiere are different kinds of style adapted to different sub- 
jects, and to different kinds of composition ; the style of the 
Pulpit, of the Bar, and of Popular Assemblies ; the style of 
History, and of its various branches, Annals, Memoirs or 
Commentaries, and Lives ; the style of Philosophy, of Dia- 
logue or Colloquial discourse, of Epistles, and Romance, &c. 

There is also a style peculiar to certain writers, called 
their Manner ; as the style of Cicero, of Livy, of Sallust, &c. 

But what deserves particular attention is, the difference 
between the style of poetry and of prose. As the poets in a 
manner paint what they describe, they employ various epi- 
thets, repetitions, and turns of expression, which are not ad- 
mitted in prose. 

The first virtue of style (virtus orationis) is perspicuity, 
or that it be easily understood. This requires, in the choice 
of the words, 1. Purity, in opposition to barbarous, obsolete, 
or new-coined words, and to errors in Syntax : 2. Propriety , 
or the selection of the best expressions, in opposition to vul- 
garisms or low expressions : 3. Precision, in opposition to 
superfluity of words, or a loose style. 

The things chiefly to be attended to in the structure of a 
sentence, or in the disposition of its parts, are, 1. Clearness , 
in opposition to ambiguity and obscurity : 2. Unity and 
Strength, in opposition to an unconnected, intricate and feeble 
sentence : 3. Harmony, or a musical arrangemer t, in opposi- 
tion to harshness of sound. 

The most common defects of style (vitia orationis) are dis- 
tinguished by various names : 

1. A barbarism is the using of a foreign or strange word; 
as, croftus, for agellus ; rigorosus, for rigidus or severus ; 
alterdre, for mutdre, &c. Or, a transgression of the rules (J 


Orthography, Etymology, or Prosody ; as, charus, for cams.' 
stavi, for stcti ; tibxccn, for tibicen. 

2. A solecism is a transgression of the rules of Synu ^ ; 
as, Dicit libros Icctos iri, for ledum iri: We ivas walking, rcr 
we were. A barbarism may consist in one word, but a sole- 
cism requires several words. 

3. An idiotism is the using of a manner of expression pe- 
culiar to one language in another ; as an Anglicism in Latin, 
thus, I am to write, Ego sum scribere, for ego sum scripturus ; 
It is I, Est ego, for Ego sum : Or a Latinism in English, thus, 
Est sapientior me, He is wiser than me ; for than I ; Quern di- 
cunt me esse ? Whom do they say that I am ? for who, Slc. 

4. Tautology is a useless repetition of the same words, 
or of the same sense in different words. 

5. Bombast is the using of high sounding words without 
meaning, or upon a trifling occasion. 

6. Amphibology is when, by the ambiguity of the construc- 
tion, the meaning may be taken in two different senses; as in 
the answer of the oracle to Pyrrhus, Aio te, JEacide, Romdnos 
vincere posse. But the English is not so liable to this as the 


Certain modes of speech are termed Figurative, because 
they convey our meaning under a borrowed form, or in a par- 
ticular dress. 

Figures (figures or schemata) are of two kinds ; figures of 
words (figures verborum,) and figures of thought (Jigurce sen- 
tentidrum.) The former are properly called Tropes; and if 
the word be changed, the figure is lost. 


A Trope (conversio) is an elegant turning of a word from its 
proper signification. 

Tropes take their rise partly from the barrenness of language, but more 
from the influence of the imagination and passions. They are founded 
on the relation which one object bears to another, chiefly that of resem 
Wance or similitude. 

The principal tropes are the Metaphor, Metonymy, Synecdo* 
the, and Irony. 

1. Metaphor (translatio) is when a word is transferred 
from that to which it belongs, to express some h in g 
21 * 


to which it is only applied from similitude or resemblance ; 
as, a hard heart ; a soft temper ; he bridles his anger ; &joyfu 
crop ; ridet ager, the field smiles, &,c. A metaphor is nothing 
else but a short comparison. 

We likewise call that a metaphor, when we substitute one object in 
the place of another, on account of the close resemblance between them ; 
as when, instead of youth, we say, the morning or spring-time of life; 
or when, in speaking of a family connected with a common parent, we 
use the expressions which properly belong to a tree, whose trunk and 
branches are connected with a common root. When this allusion is car- 
ried on through several sentences, or through a whole discourse, and the 
principal subject kept out of view, so that it can only be .discovered by 
its resemblance to the subject described, it is called an Allegory. An 
example of this we have in Horace, book I. ode 14. where the republic is 
described under the allusion of a ship. 

An ALLEGORY is only a continued metaphor. This figure is much 
the same with the Parable, which so often occurs in the sacred scriptures ; 
and with the Fable, such as those of ^Esop. The JEnigma or 
Riddle is also considered as a species of the Allegory ; as likewise 
are many Proverbs (Proverbia or Adagia ;) thus, In silvam ligna ferre. 

Metaphors are improper w T hen they are taken from low objects ; when 
they are forced or far fetched ; when they are mixed or too far pursued ; 
and when they have not a natural and sensible resemblance ; or are not 
adapted to the subject of discourse, or to the kind of composition, whe- 
ther poetry or prose. 

When a word is very much turned from its proper signification, the 
figure is called Catachresis (abusio ;) as, a leaf of paper, of gold, fyc; the 
empire flourished ; parricida, for any murderer. Vir gregis ipse caper. 
Virg. Altum 8edificantc#/?w£. Juv. Hujic vobis deridendum propino, for 
trado. Ter. Eurus per Sicidas equitavit undas. Hor. 

When a word is taken in two senses in the same phrase, the one pro- 
per and the other metaphorical, it is said to be done by Syllepsis, (com- 
prehen^io ;) as. Galatea thymo mihi dulcior Hyblce. Virg. Ego Sardois 
videar tibi amarior herbis. Id. 

2. Metonymy (mutatio normnis) is the putting of one name 
for another. In which sense it includes all other tropes ; but 
it is commonly restricted to the following particulars : 

1. When the cause is put for the effect ; or the author for 
his works; as Bourn labores, for corn; Mars, for war; Ceres^ 
for gram ox bread ; Bacchus, for wine. Virg. Cicero, Virgil, 
and Horace, for their works. 

2. When the effect is put for the cause ; as, Pallida mors, 
pale death, because it makes pale ; atra cura, fyc. 

3. The container for what is contained, and sometimes the 
contrary ; as, Hausit pateram, for vinum. Virg. He loves his 
bottle, for his drink. 

4. The sign for the thing signified : as, The crown, for 
royni authority ; palma or laurus, for victory ; Cedant armn 


toga, that is, as Cicero himself explains it, helium concedat 

5. An abstract for the concrete; as, Scelus, for scelcstus. 
Ter. Audacia, for audax, Cic. Vires, for strong men. Hor. 

6. The parts of the body for certain passions or sentiments, 
which were supposed to reside in them ; thus, cor, for wisdom 
or address ; as, habet cor; vir corddtus, a man of sense. Plaut. 
But with us the heart is put for courage or affection, and the 
head for wisdom ; thus, a stout heart, a warm heart. 

When we put what follows to express what goes before, 
or the contrary, this form of expression is called Mcialepsis, 
(transmutatio ;) thus, desiderdri, to be desired or regretted, 
for to be dead, lost, or absent : So, Fuimus Troes, fy ingens glo~ 
via Dardanice, i. e. are no more. Virg. iEn. ii. 325. 

3. Synecdoche ( comprehensio or conceptio) is a trope by 
which a word is made to signify more or less than in its proper 
sense ; as, 

1. When a genus is put for a species, or a whole for a part, 
and the contrary ; thus, Mortdles, for homines ; summa arbor, 
for summa pars arhoris ; tectum, the roof, for the whole house. 

2. When a singular is put for a plural, and the contrary , 
thus, Hostis, miles, pedes, eques, for hostes, $fc. 

3. When the materials are put for the things made of them , 
as, JEs or argentum, for money ; (Era, for vases of brass, trum- 
pets, arms, &c. ; ferrum, for a sword. 

When a common name is put for a proper name, or the 
contrary, the figure is called Antonomasia ( pronominatio ;) as 
the Philosopher, for Aristotle ; the Orator, for Demosthenes or 
Cicero; the Poet, for Homer ox Virgil; the Wiseman, for >SV 

An Antonomasia is often made by a Periphrasis ; as, Pelopis 
parens, for Tantalus ; Anyti reus, for Socrates ; Trojdni belli 
scriptor, for Homerus ; Chironis alumnus, for Achilles ; Potor 
Rhoddni, for Gallus. Hor. sometimes with the noun added ; as, 
Fatdlis et incestus judex, famosus hospes, for Paris. Hor. 

4. Irony is when one means the contrary of what is said ; 
as, when we say of a bad poet, He is a Virgil ; or of a profli 
gate person, Tertius e ccelo cecidit Cato. 

When any thing is said by way of bitter raillery, or in an 
insulting manner, it is called a Sarcasm ; as, Satia te sanguine t 
Cyre. Justin. Hesperiam metirejacens. Virg. 

When an affirmation is expressed in a negative form, it is 


called Litotes ; as, He is no fool, for he is a man of sense ; Non 
humilis mulier, for nobilis or superba. 

When a word has a meaning contrary to its original sense, 
this contrariety is called Antiphrasis ; as, auri sacra fames, 
for ezecrabilis. Virg. Pontus Euxini falso nomine dictus, i. e. 
liospitdlis. Ovid. 

When any thing sad or offensive is expressed in more gen- 
tle terms, the figure is called Euphemismus ; as, Vita functus, 
for mortuus ; conclamdre suos, to give up for lost. Liv. Valeant, 
for aheant ; mactdre or ferlre, for occidere ; Fecerunt id servi 
Milonis, quod suos quisque servos in tali re facere voluisset, i. e. 
Clodium interfecerunt. Cic. This figure is often the same with 
the Periphrasis. 

The Periphrasis, or Circumlocution, is when several words 
are employed to express what might be expressed in fewer. 
This is done either from necessity, as in translating from one 
language into another ; or to explain what is obscure, as in de- 
finitions ; or for the sake of ornament, particularly in poetry, 
as in the descriptions of evening and morning, &,c. 

When, after explaining an obscure word or sentence by a 
periphrasis, one enlarges on the thought of the author, the 
figure is called a Paraphrase. 

When a word imitates the sound of the thing signified, 
this imitation is called Onomatopoeia, (nommis jictio ;) as, the 
whistling of winds, purling of streams, buzz and hum of insects, 
hiss of serpents, Slc. But this figure is not properly a trope- 
It is sometimes difficult to ascertain to which of the above- 
mentioned tropes certain expressions ought to be referred. 
But in such cases minute exactness is needless. It is sufficient 
io know, in general, that the expression is figurative. 

There are a great many tropes peculiar to every language, 
which cannot be literally expressed in any other. These, 
therefore, if possible, must be rendered by other figurative ex- 
pressions equivalent : and if this cannot be done, their mean- 
ing should be conveyed in simple language ; thus, Interiort 
notd Falerni, with a glass of old Falernian wine : Adumbiltcum 
dncere, to bring to a conclusion. Horat. These, and other 
guch figurative expressions, cannot be properly exphined 
without understanding the particular customs to which the| 



Various repetitions of words are employed for the sake of 
elegance or force, and are therefore also called Figw^es of words. 
Rhetoricians have distinguished them by different names, accord- 
ing to the part of the sentence in which they take place. 

When the same word is repeated in the beginning of any member of a 
sentence, it is called Anaphora ; as, JYikilne te nocturnum presidium 
valatii, nihil urbis vigilice, tyc. Cic. Te dulcis conjux, te solo in littore 
security Te veniente die, te decedente canehat. Virg. 

When the repetition is made in the end of* the member, it is called 
Episti.ophe, or Conversion as, Pcenos Populus Romdnus justitid vicit f 
armis vicit, liber alitdte vicit. Cic. Sometimes both the former occur in 
the same sentence, and then it is called Symploce, or Complexio ; as, 
Quis legem tulit? Rullus. Quis, SfC Rullus. Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in the beginning of the first clause 
of a sentence, and in the end of the latter, it is called Epanalepsis ; as, 
Vidimus victorittm tuam prceliorvm exUu termindtum; gladium vao-md 
vacuum in urbe non vidimus. Cic. pro Marcello. 

The reverse of the former is called Anadiplosis, or Reduplicatio ; as, 
Hie tumen vivit : vivit! imo in sendtum venit. Cic. 

When that, which is placed first in the foregoing member, is repeated 
last in the following, and the contrary, it is called Epanodos, or Regres- 
sio ; as, Crudelis tu quoque mater ; Crudelis mater mag is an puer im- 
probus Me ? Improbus Me puer, crudelis tu quoque mater. Virg. 

The passionate repetition of the same word in any part of a sentence, 
is called Epizeuxis ; as, Excitdte, excitdte eum ab inferis. Cic. Fait, 
fait ista virtus, tyc. Id. Me. me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite fer- 
rum. Virg. Bella, horrlda bella. Id. Iblmus, ibimus. Hor. 

When we proceed from one thing to another, so as to connect by the 
same word the subsequent part of a sentence with the preceding, it is 
called Climax, or Gradatio ; as, Jifricdno virtutem industria, virtus 
gloriam, gloria aimulos compardvit. Cic. 

When the same word is repeated in various cases, moods, genders, 
numbers, &c. it is called Polyptoton ; as, Pleni sunt omncs libri, plenai 
sapientum voces, plena cxeiuvlorum vetustas. Cic. Littdra littorlbus cou- 
traria, fluctibus undas imprtcor, arma armis. Virg. 

To this is usually referred what is called Synonymia, or the using of 
woids of the same import, to express a thing more strongly ; as, Aon 
feram, non patiar, non shiam. Cic. Promitto, recipio,spondeo. Id. And 
also Expositio, which repeats the same thought in different lights. 

When a word is repeated the same in sound, but not in sense, it ia 
called Antanaclasis ; as, Jimdri jucundum est, si curctur ne quid insit 
avtdri. Cic. But this is reckoned a defect in style, rather than a beauty. 
Nearly allied to this figure is the Paronomasia, or Agnominatio, when 
the words only resemble one another in sound ; as, Civem bondrum 
arlium, bondrum partiurn ; Consul pravo anlmo ^ parvo : de oratore 
ardtor f actus. Cic. Amantcs sunt amentes. Ter. This is also called a 

When two or more words are joined in pny part of a sentence in the 
name cases or tenses, it is called Homoio roTON, i. e similiter cadens ' 
*&y Pollet auctoritdte, circumjlait oplbas, abundat amicis. Cic. If % he 


words have only a similar termination, it is called Homoioteleuton, i. e 
similiter dcslnens ; as. JVon ejusdem est facere fortlter, fy vivere tut' 
pltcr. Cic. 


it is not easy to reduce figures of thought to distinct classes, 
because the same figure is employed for several different pur- 
poses. The principal are the Hyperbole, Prosopopoeia , Apos- 
trophe, Simile, Antithesis, $fc. 

1. Hyperbole is the magnifying of a thing above the 
truth ; as, when Virgil, speaking of Polyphemus, says, Ipse 
arduus, altaque pulsat sidera. So, Contracta pisces cequbra sen- 
tiunt. Hor. When an object is diminished below the truth, 
it is called Tapcinosis. The use of extravagant Hyperboles 
forms what is called Bombast. 

2. Prosopopceia, or Personification, is a figure by which we 
ascribe life, sentiments, or actions, to inanimate beings, or to 
abstract qualities ; as, Qua (patria) tecum, Catilina, sic agit, 
Sfc. Cic. Virtus sumit aut ponit secures. Hor. Arbor e nunc 
aquas culpante. Id. 

3. Apostrophe, or Address, is when the speaker breaks off 
from the series of his discourse, and addresses himself to some 
person present or absent, living or dead, or to inanimate na- 
ture, as if endowed with sense and reason. This figure is 
nearly allied to the former, and therefore often joined with it, 
as, Trojdque nunc stares, Priamique arx alt a maneres. Virg. 

4. Simile, or Comparison, is a figure by which one thing is 
illustrated or heightened by comparing it to another : as, Alex- 
ander was as bold as a lion. 

5. Antithesis, or Opposition, is a figure by which things 
contrary or different are contrasted, to make them appear in 
the most striking light ; as, Hannibal was cunning, but Fabius 
was cautious. Ccesar beneficiis ac munificentid magnus habebdtur f 
integritdte vitce Cato, fyc. Sail. Cat. 54. 

6. Interrogation, (Graec. Erotesis,) is a figure whereby 
we do not simply ask a question, but express some strong 
feeling or affection of the mind in that form ; as, Quousque 
tandem, fyc. Cic. Creditis avectos hostes ? Virg. Heu ! quce 
me cequora possunt accipere. Id. Sometimes an answer is re- 
turned, in which case it is called Subjectio ; as, Quid ergo? 
audacissimus ego ex omnibus ? mintme. Cic. Nearly allied to 
this is Expostulation, when a person pleads with olienders to 
return to their duty. 


7. Exclamation (Ecphonesis) is a sudden expression of 
some passion or emotion ; as, O nomen dulce libertdtis, &,c. 
Cic. O tempora^ O mores ! Id. O patria! O IJivum uomus 
Ilium ! &,c. Virg. 

8. Description, or Imagery ,( Hypotyposis,) is the painting 
of any thii\g in a lively manner, as if done before our eyes. 
Hence it is also called Vision ; as, Videor mihi hanc urbem 
videre, &/C. Cic. in Cat. iv. 6. Videre magnosjam videor duces, 
Non indecoro pulvere sordidos. Hor. Here a change of tense 
is often used, as the present for the past, and conjunctions 
omitted, &,c. Virg. xi. 637, &c. 

9. Emphasis is a particular stress of voice laid on some 
word in a sentence ; as Hannibal peto pacem. Liv. Proh ! 
Jupiter ibit hic ' i. e. ^Eneas. Virg. 

10. Epanorthosis, or Correction, is the recalling or cor- 
recting by the speaker of what he last said ; as, Filium habui, 
ah ! quid dixi habere me ? imo habui. Ter. 

11. Paralepsis, or Omission, i? the pretending to omit, or 
pass by, what one at the same time declares. 

12. Aparithmesis, or Enumeration, is the branching out 
into several parts of what might be expressed in fewer words. 

13. Synathroismus, or Coacervatio, is the crowding of 
many particulars together ; as, 

Faces in castra tulissem, 

Implessemqueforos flammis, natumque, patremque 
Cum genere extinxim, memet super ipsa dedissem. Virg. 

14. Incrementum, or Climax in sense, is the rising of one 
member above another to the highest ; as, Facinus est vincire 
civem Romdnum, scelus verberdre, parricidium necdre. Cic. 

When all the circumstances of an object or action are art- 
fully exaggerated, it is called Auxesis, or Amplification. But 
this is properly not one figure, but the skilful employment of 
several, chiefly of the Simile and the Climax. 

15. Transition (Metabdsis) is an abrupt introduction of a 
speech ; or the passing of a writer suddenly from one subject 
to another; as, Hor. Od. ii. 13. 13. In strong passion, a 
change of person is sometimes used; as, Virg. ^En. iv. 365, 
&c. xi, 406, &c. 

16. Suspensio, or Sustentatio, is the keeping of the mind 
of the hearer long in suspense ; to which the Latin inversion 
of words is often made subservient. 

17. Concessio is the yielding of one thing to obtain ano- 
ther ; as, Sit fur, sit sacrilegus, &c. at est bonus imperdtor, 
Cic. in Verrem, v. 1. 


Prolepsis, Prevention or Anticipation, is the starting and 
answering of an objection. 

Anacoinosis, or Communication, is when the speaker delibe» 
rates with the judges or hearers ; which is also called Diapo* 
resis or Addubitatio. 

Licentia, or the pretending to assume more freedom than 
is proper, is used for the sake of admonishing, rebuking, and 
also nattering ; as, Vide quam non reformidem, &,c. Cic. pro 

Apcsiopesis, or Concealment, leaves the sense incomplete ; 
as, Quos ego sed prcestat motos componere fluctus. Virg. 

18. Sententia (Gnome) a sentiment, is a general maxim 
concerning life or manners, which is expressed in various 
forms ; as, Otium sine Uteris mors est. Seneca. Adeb in teneris 
assuescereniultum est. Virg. Pr obit as lauddtur et alget ; Miser a 
est magni custodia census ; NobiUtas sola est atque unica virtus. 

As most of these figures are used by orators, and some of 
them only in certain parts of their speeches, it will be proper 
for the learner to know the parts into which a regular, formal 
oration is commonly divided. These are, 1. The Introduction, 
the Exordium, or Prooemium, to gain the good will and atten- 
tion of the hearers : 2. The Narration or Explication : 3. The 
argumentative part, which includes Confirmation or proof, and 
Confutation, or refuting the objections and arguments of an ad- 
versary. The sources from which arguments are drawn are 
called Loci, topics ; and are either intrinsic or extrinsic ; com- 
mon or peculiar. 4. The Peroration, Epilogue, or Conclusion 


1 Prosody is t. at part of grammar which teaches tins 
proper accent and quantity of syllables, the right pronuncia- 
tion of words, and the structure of verses. 

2. Accent is a peculiar stress of the voice on some syllable 
in a word, to distinguish it from the others. 

3. The quantity of a syllable is the space of time used 't\ 
pronouncing it. 

4. Syllables, with respect to their quantity, are either long 
short, or common. 

5. A long syllable in pronouncing requires double the time 
of a short one ; as, tendere. 

6. A syllable that is sometimes long, and sometimes short, 
is common ; as the second syllable in volucris. 

7. A vowel is said to be long or short by nature, which is 
always so by custom, or by the use of the poets. 

8. In polysyllables, or long words, the last syllable except 
one is called the Penultima, or, by contraction, the Penult; 
and the last syllable except two, the Antepcnultima, or Ante- 

9. When the quantity of a syllable is not fixed by some 
particular rule, it is said to be long or short by authority ; 
that is, according to the usage of the poets. Thus le in lego 
is said to be short by authority, because it is always made 
short by the Latin poets. 

In most Latin words of one or two syllables, according to our manner 
of pronouncing, we can hardly distinguish by the ear a long syllable 
from a short. Thus le in lego and Ugi seem to be sounded equally long , 
but when we pronounce them in composition, the difference is obvious, 
thus, perlego, perlegi ; religo, -ire ; reUgo, -are, ^-c. 




The rules of quantity are either General or Special. The 
former apply to all syllables, the latter only to some certain 


m I. A vowel before another vowel is short ; as, 

Meus, alius : so nihil; h in verse being considered only as a 

breathing. In like manner in English, create, behave. 

Exc. 1. lis long in fio, fiebam, &e. unless when followed 
by r ; as, fieri, fierem , thus 

Omnia jam f lent, fieri quas posse negabam Ovid. 

Exc. 2. E, having an i before and after it, in the fifth de- 
clension, is long ; as, speciei. So is the first syllable in der, 
dius, eheu, and the penultima in auldi, terrdi, fyc. in Pompei 
Cdi, and such like words ; but we sometimes find Pompei in 
two syllables, Hor. Od. ii. 7. 5. 

Exc. 3. The first syllable in ohe and Diana is common ; 
so likewise is the penult of genitives in ins ; as, illius, unius, 
uUius, nullias, 8fc. to be read long in prose. Alius, in the genit. 
is always long, as being contracted for aliius ; alterius, short. 

In Greek words, when a vowel comes before another, no 
certain rule concerning its quantity can be given. 

Sometimes it is short; as, Danae, Idea, Sophia. Symphonia, Simois, 
Hyades, Phaon, Deucalion, Pygmalion, Thebais, &c. 

Of ten it is long ; as, Lyeaon, Machaon, Didymaon ; Amphlon, Arlon, 
Jxlon, Pandlon; Nais, Lais, AchaYa ; Briseis, Cadmeis ; Latous §> Latois, 
Myrtdus, Nerei'us, Priameius ; AcheloTus, MinoTus ; Archelaus, Menelaus, 
Amphiaraus; iEneas, Peneus, Epeus, Acrisioneus, Adamanteus, Phoa 
beus, Giganteus ; Darius, Basillus, Eugenlus, Bacchius ; Cassiopea, 
Ctesarea, Choeronea, Cytherea, Galatea, Laodicea, Medea, Panthea, 
Penelopea ; Clio, Enyo, Elegla, Iphigenla. Alexandria, Thalia, Antiochla, 
idololatrla. litanla, politia, &c. Laertes, Deiphobus, Deianlra, Troes, 
he rues, &c. 

Sometimes it is common, as, Chorea, platea, Malea, Nereides, can©- 
peum, Orion. Geryon, Eos, eous, &c. So in foreign words, Michael 
Israel, Raphael, Abra.bam, &c. 

The accusative of nouns in eus is usually short; as, Orphea, Salmonea, 
Cavharea, &c. but sometimes long; as, Momenta, Ilionca. Virg. Instead 
of Elegla, Cytherea, we find Elegeia, Cytherela. Ovid. But the quantity 
of Greek words cannot properly be understood without the knowledge 
of Greek. 

In English, a vowel before another is also sometimes lengthened ; a*, 
science, idea. 


II. A vowel before two consonants, or before a double 
consonant, is long (by position, as it is called ;) as, 
arma, f alio, axis, gaza, major ; the compounds of jugum ex- 
cepted ; as, bijugus, quadrijugus, Sfc. 

When the foregoing word ends in a short vowel, and the following 
begins with two consonants or a double ®ne, that vowel is sometimes 
lengthened by position ; as, 

Ferte citiflammas, date tela, scandite muros. Virg. 

A short vowel at the end of a word, when followed by a word begin- 
ning with sc, sp, sq, st, is usually lengthened. 

1f A vowel before a mute and a liquid is common ; 
as the middle syllable in volucris, tenebrcD ; thus, 

Et primo similis voliicri, mox vera volucris. Ovid. 
Nox tenebras profert, Phoebus fugat inde tenebras. Id. 

But in prose these words are pronounced short. So peragro, pharetra, 
podagra, chiragra, Celebris, latebrce, fyc. 

To make this rule hold, three things are requisite. 1. The vowel must 
oe naturally short ; 2. the mute must go before the liquid ; and, 3. be in 
the same syllable with it. Thus a in patris is made common in verse, 
because a in pater is naturally short, or always so by custom : but a in 
matris, acris, is always long, because long by nature or custom in mater 
and acer. In like manner the penult in salubris, ambulacrum, is always 
long; because they are derived from salus, salatis, and ambulatum. 
So a in arte, abluo, fyc. is long by position, because the mute and the 
liquid are in different syllables. 

L and r only are considered as liquids in Latin words ; m 
and n do not take place except in Greek words. 

III. A contracted syllable is long ; as, 

Nil, for nihil; mi, for milii ; cogo, for codgo ; alius, for aliius ; 
tibicen, for tibiicen ; it, for lit ; sddes, for si audes ; nolo, for non 
volo ; bigce, for bijugce ; scilicet, for scire licet, fyc. 

IV. A diphthong is always long ; as, 

Aurum, Ccesar, Euboea, fyc. Only prce in composition before 
a vowel is commonly short ; as, prceire, prceustus ; thus, 

Nee tota. tamen ille prior praeeunte carina. Virg. M. 5, 186. 
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusque praeustis. lb. 7, 524. 

But it is sometimes lengthened ; as, 

cum vacuus doramo preslret Arlon. Theb. 6, 519. 



Preterites and Supines of two Syllables. 

V. Preterites of two syllables lengthen the forme syl 
l&ble ; as, Veni, vldi, vici. 

Except bibi, scidi from scindo , f idi from findo, tuli 9 dedi f axu\ 
steti, which are shortened. 

VI. Supines of two syllables lengthen the former sylla- 
ble ; as, Visum, cdsum, motum. 

Except sdtum, from sero ; citum, from cieo ; Uturn, from lino ; 
sttum, from sino ; stdtum, from sisto ; itum, from eo ; datum, 
from do ; rutum, from the compounds of ruo ; quitum, from 
queo; rdtus, from reor. 

Preterites which double the first Syllable. 

VII. Preterites which double the first syllable, have both 
the first syllables short ; as, 

Cecidi, tetigi, pepuli, peperi, dtdici, tutudi : except cecidi, 
from ccedo ; pepedi, from pedo ; and when two consonants in- 
tervene ; &s,fefelli,tetendi,pependi,mdmordi, &c. 

Other verbs of two syllables in the preterite and supine retain the 
quantity of the present ; except posui, pdsitvm, from pono ; potui, from 
possum ; solutum and voiutum, from solvo and volvo. 


A noun is said to increase, when it has more syllables in 
any of the oblique cases than in the nominative ; as, rex 9 regis ; 
sermo, sei*monis ; interpres, interpretis. Here re, mo, pre, is 
each called the increase or crement, and so through all the other 
cases. The last syllable is never esteemed a crement. 

Some nouns have a double increase, that is, increase by 
more syllables than one ; as, iter, itineris ; anceps, ancipitis. 

A noun in the plural is said to increase, when in any case 
it has more syllables than the genitive singular ; as, gener, 
generi ; generbrum ; regibus, sermonibus, &zc. 

Except nouns of the first, fourth, and fifth declensions, which 
do not increase in the singular number, unless when one vowel 
comes before another; &s,fructus 9 fructui; res,rei; and falls 
under Rule I. These nouns are considered as increasing in 
the plural, and come under Rule IX. 


Nouns of the second declension which increase, snarten 
the crement; as, tener, teneri; vir, viri ; duumvir , -viri; satur^ 
batuin ; except Iber, a Spaniard, Iberi ; and its compound CcU 


VIII. Nouns of the third declension which increase, 
make a and o long ; e, i, and u short ; as, 

Pietdtis, honoris; mulieris, lapidis, murmuris 

The chief exceptions from this rule are marked under the 
formation of the genitive of the third declension. But here 
perhaps it may be proper to be more particular. 

Nouns in A shorten atis, in the genitive ; as, dogma, -atis ; poBma, 


shortens mis, but lengthens enis and onis ; as, Cardo, -mis ; Virgo, 
-inis; Anio, -enis; Cicero, -onis. Gentile or patrial nouns vary their 
quantity. Most of them shorten the genitive; as, Macedo, -onis ; Saxo 7 
'dnis. So,, Senones, Teutones, or -oni, Vangwnes, Vascones. 
Some are long ; as, Suessiones, Vettones. Brittones is common ; it ia 
shortened by Juvenal, 15, 124, and lengthened by Martial, 11, 21, 9. 

I. C. D. L. 

1 shortens itis ; as, Hydromeli, -itis. Ec lengthens ecis ; as, Halec, 

Nouns in D shorten the crement; as, David, -Wis; Bogud, -udis. — 
Ecclesiastical poets often lengthen Davidis. 

Masculines in AL shorten alls; as, Sal, sdlis ; Hannibal, -alis ; Has- 
drubal, -alis ; but neuters lengthen it ; as, animal, -alis. 

Sdlis from sol is long; also Hebrew words in el; as, Michael, -elis 
Other nouns in L shorten the crement ; as Vigil, -His ; consul, -ulis. 

Nouns in ON vary the crement. Some lengthen it ; as, Helicon, 
ynis; Chiron, -onis. Some shorten it; as, Memnon, -onis; Act&on, 
onis. i 

EN shortens inis ; as, flumen, -inis ; tibicen, -Inis. Other nouns in N 
lengthen the penult. AN dnis ; as, Titan, -dnis : EN enis ; as, Siren, 
inis : IN inis; as, delphin, -inis: YN ynis ; as, Phorcyn, -ynis. 


1. Neuters in AR lengthen aris ; as, calcar, -dris. Except the follow- 
ing : bacchar, -dris ; jubar, -dris ; nectar, -dris : Also the adjective par, 
pdris, and its compounds, impar, -dris, dispar, -dris, &c. 

2. The following nouns in R lengthen the genitive ; Nar, A'dris, the 
name of a river; fur, furis ; ver, veris : Also Recimer, -eris Byzer, 
-eris, proper names; and Ser, Seris ; Iber, -eris, names of people or 

3. Greek nouns in TER lengthen teris ; as, crater, -eris; cJtaracter 9 
•Cris. Except (Ether, -eris. 

22 * 


4. OR lengthens oris ; as, amor, -Oris. Except neuter nouns as 
marmor, -oris; mquor, -oris: Greek nouns in tor; as, Hector, tiiis, 
Actor, -oris ; rhetor, -oris. Also, arbor, -oris, and memor. -oris. 

5. Other nouns in R shorten the genitive ; AR dris, masc; as, C&sar 
'dris ; Hamilcar, -dris ; lar, laris. ER eris of any gender; as, a&r 
aeris ; mulier, -eris ; cadaver, -eris ; iter, anciently itiner, itineris ; ver- 
beris, from the obsolete verier. UR uris; as, vultur , -uris ; murmur 
•uris. YR yris ; as Martyr, -yris. 


1. Nouns in AS, which have atis, lengthen the crement ; as, pietas, 
~atis ; Maecenas, -atis. Except anas, -dtis. 

2. Other nouns in AS shorten the crement ; as Greek nouns having 
the genitive in ddis, dtis, and anis ; thus Pallas, -ddis ; artocreas, -edtis ; 
Jtfelas, -dnib, the name of a river. So vas, vddis ; mas, maris. But vas, 
vdsis is long. 


ES shortens the crement ; as, miles, -itis ; Ceres, -eris ; pes,p$dis. 
Except locuples, -etis ; quies, -etis ; mansues, -etis ; hares, -edis ; mer 
tes, -edis : also Greek nouns ; as, lebes, -etis ; Thales, -etis. 


Ncuns in IS shorten the crement; as, lapis, -idis ; sanguis, -Inis; 
Phyllis, -Idis ; cinis, cineris. 

Except Glis, gliris ; and Latin nouns which have Itis; as, lis, litis ; 
dis, ditis ; Quiris, -itis; Samnis, -itis. But Charis, a Greek noun, has 

The following also lengthen the crement : Crenis, -idis, Psophis, -idis, 
Nesis, -idis, proper names. And Greek nouns in is, which have also in, 
as, Saldmis or -in, Salamlnis. 


Nouns in OS lengthen the crement; as, nepos, -dtis; flos,fldris. 
Except Bos, bovis ; compos, -otis ; and impos, -otis. 

US shortens the crement; as, tempus, -oris ; vellus, -eris; tripus,-bdii< 
Except nouns which have udis, uris, and utis; as, incus, -udis ; jus f 

juris ; salus, -utis. But Ligus has Liguris ; the obsolete pecus, pecudis; 

and intercus, -utis. 

The neuter of the comparative has oris ; as, melius, -oris. 


YS shortens ydis or ydos ; as, chlamys, -ydis or -fidos ; and lengthens 
ifnis; as, Trachys, -ynis. 

BS. PS. MS. 

Nouns in S, with a consonant going before, shorten the penult of the 
genitive; as caelebs, -Ibis; inops,-6pis; hiems, hiemis ; auceps, aucupis; 
Dolops, -bpis ; also anceps, ancipitis ; biceps, bicipitis ; and similar com* 
pounds of caput. 

Except Cyclops, -opis; seps, sepis; gryps, gryphis ; Cercops, -opis 
flebs, plebis; hydrops, -opis 


T shortens the crement ; as, caput, -Hi* : so sirmput, -itis, 



1 Nouns in X, which have the genitive in gis, shorten the element; 
ks, conjux, -ugis; remcx, -igis ; Allobrox, -ogis ; Fhryx, Phrygis. But 
lex, Ugis ; and rex, regis, are long; and likewise frugis. 

2. EX shortens ids ; vertex, -Icis : except vibex or vibix, -ids. 

3. Other nouns in X lengthen the crement; as, pax, pacts; radix, 
Icis ; vox, vocis ; lux, liicis ; Pollux, -ucis, &c. 

Except fdcis, necis, vicis, precis, calicis, cilicis, jricis, fornlcis, nlvis : 
Cappadocis, duds, nucis, crucis, trucis, onjfchis, Erycis, tiiaslyx, -ychis, 
Ihe resin of the lentiscus, or mastich tree ; and many others, the quantity 
of which can only be ascertained by authority. 

4. Some nouns vary the crement; as, Syphax, -dcis, or -dcis ; Sandyz, 
Kris, or -ids ; Bebryx, -yds, or -yds. 

Increase of the Plural Number. 

IX. Nouns of the plural number which increase, make 
A, E, and 0, long; but shorten /and U ; as, 

musdrum, rerum, dominorum ; regibus, portubus ; except bobus 
or bubus, contracted for bovibus. 


A verb is said to increase, when any part has more syl- 
lables than the second person singular of the present of the 
indicative active ; as, amas, amdmus, where the second syl- 
lable ma is the increase or crement : for the last syllable is 
never called by that name. 

A verb often increases by several syllables ; as, amas, amd- 
bdnvini; in which case it is said to have a first, second, or 
third increase. 

X. In the increase of verbs, a, e, and o, are long ; i and 
d short ; as, 

Amdre, docere, amutbte; legimus, sumus, volumus. 

The poets sometimes shorten dederunt and steterunt ; and lengthen 

rlmus and ritis, in the future of the subjunctive; as transicrltis 

aquas. Ovid. DO, with its compounds, is the only verb of the first 
conjugation that shortens the first crement, but not the second ; as, 
dare, ddmus, dabam, &c. circumddre, -amus, -atis, -dbam, -dbdmus, -dbo 9 
•arsm ; -dris, -dtur, &c. All the other exceptions from this rule are 
marked in the formation of the verb. 

The first or middle syllables of words which do not come 
Under any of the foregoing rules, are said to be long or short 
oy authority ; and their quantity can only be discovered 
from the usage of the poets, which is the most certain of all 


Remarks on the Quantity of the Penult of Words, 

1. Patronymics in IDES or ADES usually shorten the 
penult; as, Priamides, Atlantiddes, &c. Unless they come 
from nouns in eus ; as, P elides, Tydides, &c. 

2. Patronymics, and similar words, in AIS, EIS, ITIS, 
OIS, O TIS, INE, and ONE commonly lengthen the penult ; 
as, Achats, Ptolemdis, Chryseis, Auneis, Memphitis, Latois, 
Icariotis, Nerine, Acrisidne. Except Thebdis, and Phocdis ; 
and Nereis, which is common. 

3. Adjectives in A CUS, ICUS, ID US, and I3IUS, for the 
most part shorten the penult ; as, A^gyptidcus, academicus, 
lepidus, legitimus ; also superlatives ; as, fortissimus, &,c. Ex- 
cept opdcus, amicus, apricus, pudicus, mendicus, anticus, pos- 
ticus, fidus, infidus, (but perfidus, of per and fides, is short,) 
bimus, quadrimus, patrimus, matrlmus, opimus; and two super- 
latives, inius, primus. 

4. Adjectives in ALIS, ANUS, ARUS, IVUS, OR US, 
OSUS, lengthen the penult; z.s,dotdlis,urbdnus, avdrus, asti- 
vus, decorus, arenosus. Except barbarous, opipdrus. 

5. Verbal adjectives in ILIS shorten the penult ; as, agilis, 
facilis, &c. But derivatives from nouns usually lengthen it; 
as, anilis, civilis, herilis, &,c. To these add, exilis, subtilis ; and 
names of months, Aprilis, Quinctilis, Sextilis : Except 
humilis, parilis ; and also simtlis. But all adjectives in otitis 
are short ; as, versdtilis, volatilis, umbratilis, plicatilis, fluvia- 
tilis, saxatilis, &c. 

6. Adjectives in INUS, derived from inanimate things, as 
plants, stones, &,c. also from adverbs of time, commonly shorten 
the penult; as, amaracznus, crocinus, cedrinus, faginus, 
oleaginus ; adamantinus, crystallinus, crastinus, pristhius, pe- 
rendinus, carinus, annotinus, &/C 

Other adjectives in INUS are long ; as, agninus, caninus 
leporinus, binus, trinus, quinus, austrinus, clandestinus , Latinus 
marinus, supinus, vespertinus, &c. 

7. Diminutives in OLUS, OLA, OLUM; and ULUS, 
ULA, UL UM, always shorten the penult ; Rs,urcedlus,fliola 3 
vtusaeolum ; lectulus, ratiuncula, corculum, &c. 

8. Adverbs in TIM lengthen the penult ; as, oppiddtim, 
viritim, tributim. Except affdtim, perpetim, and stdtim. 

9. Desideratives in URIO shorten the antepenultima, which 
in the second and third person is the penult ; as, esurio, esuris i 
esiirit. But other verbs in urio lengthen that syllable ; as, 
ligurioy liguris ; scaturio, scaturis, &c. 



Tlie following proper names Lengthen the penult: Abdera, Abydus, 
Adonis, iEsopus, iEtolus, Ahala, Alarlcus, Alcldes, Amyclae, Andronicus, 
Anubis, Archimedes, Ariarathes, Ariobarzanes, Aristldes, Aristobulus, 
Aristoj/jton, Arplnurn, Artabanus; Brachmanes, Buslris, Buthrotus; Ce- 
thegns, Chalcedon, Cleobulus, Cyrene, Cythera, Curetes ; Darici, De- 
monlcus, Diomedes, Diores, Dioscari; Ebades, Eriphyle, Eubulus. Eu- 
clldes, Euphrates, Eumedes, Euiipus, Euxlnus ; Garganus, (xnetulua, 
Granlcus; Heliogabalus, Henricas, fleraclldes, Heraclltus, Hippfmax, 
Hispanus; Irene; Lacydas. Latona, Leucata, Lugdunum, Lycdras ; 
Mandane, Mausolus, Maximlnus, Meleager, Messala, Messana, Miletus ; 
Nasica, Nicanor, Nicetas ; Pachynus, Pandora, Peloris ty -us, Pharsalus, 
Pnoenlce, Polites, Polycletus, Polynjces, Priapus ; Sardanapalus, Sarpedon, 
Serapis, Sinope, Stratonice, Suffetes ; Tigranes, Thessa'onlca ; Verona, 

The following are short: Amathus, Amphipolis, Anabasis, Anticyra, 
Antigonus «^ ~ ne > Antilochus, Antiochus, Antiopa, Antlpas, Antipater, 
Antiplianes, Antiphates, Antiphila, Antiphon, Anytus, Apulus, Areo- 
pagus, Arimlnum, Arinenus, Athesis, Attalus, Attica ; Biturix, Bructeri *, 
Calaber, Callicrates, Callistratus, Candace, Cantaber, Carneades, Cheri- 
lus, Chrysostomus. Cleombrotus, Cleomenes, Corycos. Constantinopolis 
Craterus, Cratylus, Cremera, Crustumeri, Cybele, Cyclades, Cyzicus 
Dalmatae, Damocles, Dardanus, Dejoces, Dejotarus, Democrltus, Demi- 
pho, Didymus, Diogenes, Drep&num, Dumnorix ; Empedecles, Ephesus, 
Evergetes, Eumenes, Eurymedon, Enripylus ; Fucmus ; Gerydnes, Gy- 
arus ; Hecyra, Heliopolis, Hermione, Herodotus, Hesiodus, Hesione, 
Hippocrates, Hippotamos, Hypata, Hypanis ; Icarus, Icetas, lilyris, 
Iphltus, Ismarus, Ithaca; Laodice, Laomedon, Lampsacus, Lamyrus, 
Lapitha?, Lucretilis, Libanus, Lipare or -a, Lysimachus, Longimanus ; 
Marathon, Mamalus, Marmafica, Massagetss, Matrona, Megara, Me- 
litus <§/• -ta, Metropolis, Mutina, Myconus; Neocles, Neritos, Nori- 
cum ; Omphale ; Patara, Pegasu?, Pharnaces, Pisistratus, Polydamus, 
Polyxena, Porsena or Poisenna, Praxiteles, Puteoli, Pylades, Pythago- 
ras; Sarmatge, Sarsina, Semele, Semiramis, Sequani fy -a, Sisyphus, Si 
coris, Socrates, Sodoma, Sotades, Spartacus, Sporades, Strongyle. Stym 
phalus, Sybaris ; Taygetus. Telegonus, Telemachus, Tenedos, Tarraco 
Theophanes, Theophllus, Tomyris; Urbicus ; Veneti, Vologesus, Vo- 
lusus ; Xenocrates ; Zoilus, Zopyrus. 

The penult of several words is doubtful; thus, Batavi. Lucan. Ba 
tarn. Juv. & Mart. Fortuitus. Hor. Fortuitas. Martial. Some make 
fortuitus of three syllables, but it may be shortened Like gratuitus. Stat 
Patrimus. matjimus, pj-cestolor, &c. are by some lengthened, and by some 
shortened ; but for their quantity there is no certain authority. 

XL A in the end of a word declined by cases is short; 
rs, Musa, templa, Tydca, lamjjada. 

Exc. The ablative of the first declension is long; as, 
Musd, jEned; and the vocative of Greek nouns in as; as, O 
sEned, O Palld 


A in the end of a word not declined by cases is long j 
as, Ama,frustra, prceterea, ergd ; intra. 

Exc. ltd, quid, ejd, posted, putd, (adv.), are short; and 
sometimes, though more rarely, the prepositions contra, ultra, 
and the compounds of ginta; as, trigintd, &c. Contra and 
ultra, when ad^ erbs, are always long. 


XII. E in the end of a word is short ; as, 
Nate, sedile, ipse, curre, posse, nempe, ante. 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables are long; as, me, te, se; except 
these enclitic conjunctions, que, ve, ne; and these syllabical 
adjections, pte, ce, te ; as, suapte, hujusce^ tute; but these may 
oe comprehended under the general rule, as they never stand by 

Exc. 2. Nouns of the first and fifth declensions are long; 
as, Calliope, Anchise, fide. So, re and die, with their com- 
pounds, quart, hodie, pridie, postridie, quotidie: Also Greek 
nouns which want the singular, Ccte, mele, Tempi; and the 
second person singular of the imperative of the second con- 
jugation ; as, Doce, marie ; but cave, vale, and vide, are some- 
times short. 

Exc, 3. Adverbs derived from adjectives of the first and 
second declension are long ; as, placide, pidchre, valde, con- 
tracted for valule : To these add ferme, fere, and ohe ; also 
all adverbs of the superlative degree ; as, doctissime, fortisswie: 
But bene and male, infcrne, superne, are short. 


XIII. J final is long ; as, Domini, patri, docert. 

Exc. 1. Greek vocatives are short ; as, Alert, AmarylU. 

Exc. 2. The dative of Greeks nouns of the third declen- 
sion, which increase, is common ; as, Pallddi, Minoidi. 

31ihi, tibi, sibi, are also common : So likewise are ibi, nisi % 
\kbi J quasi ; and cut, when a dissyllable, which is seldom the 
case. Sicuti, sicubi, and necubi, are always short. 


XIV. O final is common ; as, Virgo, amo, quando. 

Exc. 1. Monosyllables in o are long ; as, 6, do, sto, pro 
The dative and ablative singular of the second declension are 


long ; as, libro, domino : Also Greek nouns, as Dido, Sajyphd, 
and At/id the genitive of Athos ; and adverbs derived from 
nouns ; as, certo, falso, paulo. To these add quo, co, and their 
compounds, quovis, quocunque, adeo, ideo ; likewise Mo, idcir- 
co, citro, retro, ultro. 

Exc. 2. The following words are short ; Ego, scio, cedo y 
a defective verb, homo, cito, UUco, immo, duo, ambo, mode, 
with its compounds, quumodo^ dummodo, postmodo : but some 
of these are also found long. 

Exc. 3. The gerund in DO m Virgil is long; in other 
poets it is short. Ergo, on account of, is long ; ergo, there- 
fore, is doubtful. 

U and Y. 

XV. U final is long ; Y final is short ; as, Vultu ; Moly* 

B, D, L, 31, R, T 

XVI. B, D, L, R, and T, in the end of a word, are 
short ; as, ab, apud, semel, precor, caput. 

The following words are long ; sal, sol, nil, par and its 
compounds, impar, dispar, &,c. ; far, lar, Nar, cur, fur ; also 
nouns in er which have eris in the genitive ; as, Crater, ver, 
Iber; likewise aer, cether : to which add Hebrew names; as, 
Job, Daniel; but David, Bogud, &c. are common. 

M final anciently made the foregoing vowel short; as, Militum octo 
Ennius. But, by later poets, m in the end of a word is always cut off 
when the next word begins with a vowel ; thus, miltf octo ; except in 
compound words ; as, circumago, circurneo. 

C, N. 

XVII. C and N, in the end of a word, are long ; as, 
dc, sic, iliac; splen, en, non, &c. 

So Greek nouns in n ; as, Titan, Siren, Salamin ; sEnedn, 
Anchisen, Circen; LaccdcBindn, &x. 

The following words are short ; nee and donee : Forsitan, 
in,forsan, tamen, an, viden ; likewise nouns in en which have 
mis in the genitive ; as carmen, crimen ; also the noin. and 
accus. sing, of Greek nouns in on, when written with a small 
o (o fxix^ov), as, Ilion, Pylon, Erotion ; and the accusative, if 
the termination of the nominative be short; as, Maian, AZgi 
nan, Orphean, Alexin, Ibin, ckelijn : so the dative plural in sin 
%s, Arcasin, Troasin. 

The pronoun Jdc and the verb/ac are common 


AS, ES, OS. 

XVIII. AS, ES, and OS, in the end of a word, are long , 

as, Mas, quies, bonds. 

The following words are short; anas, es, from sum, and 
penes; 6s, having ossis in the genitive, compos, and impos ; 
also a great many Greek nouns of all these three termina- 
tions; as, Areas and Arcadas, her das, Phryges, Arcddos, 
Tenedds, Melds, &c. and Latin nouns in es, having the pe- 
nult of the genitive increasing short ; as, Ales, hebes, obses. 
But Ceres, paries, arils, abies, and pes with its compounds, 
are long. 

IS, US, YS. 

XIX. IS, US, and YS, in the end of a word, are 
short ; as, 

Turns, legzs, legimus, annus, Capys. 

Exc, 1. Plural cases in is and us are long ; as, Pcnnis, 
librls, nobis, omnis, for omnes, frucius, mantis ; also the gen- 
itive singular of the fourth declension ; &$,portus. But bus in 
the dat. and abl. plur. is short ; as, fiortbus ,fructibus , rebus. 

Exc. 2. Nouns in is are long, which have the genitive 
in itis, inis, or entis ; as, lis, Samnis, Salamis, Simois : To 
these add the adverbs gratis and foris ; the noun glis, and 
vis, whether it be a noun or a verb ; also is in the second 
person singular, when the plural has Itis ; as, audis, abis, 
possis. His in the future of the subjunctive is lengthened by 
Ovid, Fast. 1, 17. but it is always shortened by Horace, Od. 4, 
7, 20. Sat. 1, 4, 41. 2, 3, 220. 2, 6, 39. Art. 47. 

Exc. 3. Monosyllables in us are long ; as, grus, sus : 
also nouns which in the genitive have uris, udis, litis, untis, 
or ddis ; as, tellus, incus, virtus, Amathus, tripiis. To these 
add the genitive of Greek nouns of the third declension end- 
ing in o; as, Clius, Sapphus, Mantus ; also nouns which 
have u in the vocative; as, Panihus: — so lesus. 

Exo. 4. Tethys is sometimes long, and nouns in ys, which ■ 
have likewise yn in the nominative; as, Phorcys or Plorcyn, 
and Trachys or Trachyn. 

11 The last syllable of every verse is common ; 

Or, as some think, necessarily long, on account of the pa>pse 
or suspension of the voice, which usually follows it in p enun- 





XX. Derivatives follow 

the 4uantity 


their ] 


lives; as, 




ilecoro, from 




auctio, -onis. 


exul, - 



auctor, -oris. 









auspex, -Icis. 





caupo, -onis. 









cornix, -icis. 




custos, -odirf 

Legebam, <^c. 



decor, oris 

Legeram, tyc. 



1 Long from Short. 
D6ni, from decern. Suspicio,/ro?7i susplcor. Mobilis, from moveo. 
Fomes, foveo. Sedes, sedeo. Humor, humus. 

Humanus, homo. Secius, secus. Jumentum, juvo. 

Regula, rego. Penuria, penus. Vox, vocis, voco, fyc. 

2. Short from Long. 
Arena and arista, from areo. Lucerna, from luceo. 

Nota and noto, notus. Dux, -ucis, duco. 

Vadum, vado. Stabilis, stabam. 

Fides, fido. Dltio, dis, ditis. 

Sopor, sopio. Quasillus, qualus, <^c. 


XXI. Compounds follow the quantity of the simple 
words which compose them ; as, 

Deduco, of de and duco. So profero, antefero, consohr 
denoto, depeculor, deprdvo, despero, despumo, desquamo, end- 
do, erudio, exsudo, exdro, expdvco, incero, inhumo, investigo, 
pragravo, pramdto, regelo, appdro, appdrco, concdvus, pro* 
gravis, desolo, suffoco &, suffoco; diffldit from diffindo, and 
diffidit from diffido ; indico, -are, and indico, -ere; permdnct 
from permdnco, and permdnct from pcrmdno ; effodit in the 
present, and effodit in the perfect; so, credit and exedit; 
devenit and devenit ; devenimus and dcvenimus ; reperimus and 
reperimus ; effugit and effugit, &,c. 

The change of a vowel or diphthong in the compound does 
not alter the quantity ; as, incido from in and eddo ; incido 9 
from in and ccedo ; suffoco, from sub and faux, faucis. Un* 


less the letter following make it fall under some general rule: 
as, ddmitto, percello, deosculor, prohibeo. 

Exc. Agnitum,, cognitum, dejero, pejero, innuba, pronuba, 
maledicus, veridicus, nihilum, semisopitus ; from noius, juro, 
nubo, dico, hilum, and sdpio ; ambitus, a participle from am* 
bio, is long ; but the substantives ambitus and ambitio are short, 
Connubium has the second syllable common. 

Obs. L. The preposition PRO in Greek words, for ante t 
before, is short; as, propheta, prologus : PRO in Latin 
words is long ; as, prodo, promitto, &c. but it is short in the 
following words : profundus, profugio, profiigus, pronepos, 
proneptis, profestus, profdri, profiteer, pr of anus, prof ecto, pro- 
cella,pr6tcrvus, and propdgo, a lineage; pro in propdgo, a vine- 
stock, or shoot, is long. Pro in the following words is doubt- 
ful ; propdgo, to propagate ; propino, prof undo , prop ello ,propul- 
so, procure, and Proserpina. 

Obs. 2. The inseparable prepositions 8E and DI are 
long ; as, sepdro, dlvello ; except dirimo, disertus. Re is 
short ; as, remitto, refero : except in the impersonal verb 
refert, compounded of res and fero. 

Obs. 3. / and O, in the end of the former compounding 
word, are usually shortened ; as, Capricornus, ommpotens, 
agncola, sigmfico, biformis, aliger, Trivia, tubicen, vaticinor 
architectus, bimeier, trimeter, &c. duodecim. liodie, sacrosanctus, 
Arctophylax, Argonauta, bibliotheca, philosophus, &,c. But 
from each of these there are many exceptions. Thus i is 
long when ; ' is varied by cases; as, quidam,, quivis, tanti- 
dem, eidem, &c. And when the compounding words may 
oe taken separately ; as, ludimagister, lucrlfacio, siquis, &c. 
— or when a contraction is made by Crasis or Syncope; as, 
trig a, for trijugce ; ilicet, for ire licet, &c. — So in the com- 
pounds of dies, as, biduum, triduum, mcridies, pridie, postri- 
dic ; but the second syllable is sometimes shortened in 
quotidie &, quotididnus. Idem in the masc. is long, (in the neu- 
ter short;) also ubique, ibidem. But in ubivis and ubicunque^ 
the i is doubtful. 

O is lengthened in the compounds of intro, retro, contrrj, 
and quando ; as, introduco, intromitto, retrocedo, retrogrddus, 
controversies, controversia, quandoque, quando cunque ; but quan- 
doquidem has the second syllable short. O is also long in alio- 
quin, ccbterbquin, utrobique : So likewise in Greek words, writ- 
ten with a large o, or w \^iy<x ; a.s,gedmetra, Minotaurus, lagopus. 

Obs. 4. A in the former compounding part (fa word is long; a& 


qudre, qndpropter, qudcunque ; So, trddo, trdduco, trdno, for transno, &c 
Eddem is short, except in the abl. sing, cddem. 

E is short ; as, nefas, nefastus, nefa/idus, n&farius, rilque, nVqueo , 
tredecim, trecenti, equidcm, seiibra, va/edlco, madefacio, tvpefacio, pate- 
facio, tfcc. hujuscemodi, ejuscemodi — Except sedecim, semodius, nequis, 
nequam, nequitia, nequando, nemo, credo, me~rnet, me cum t tecum, secum ; 
veneflcus, videlicet. 

U also is short; as, ducenti, dupondium ; quadrupes, centupJum, TYo- 
jugeiia, cornupeta ; but jiidico is long. — Y likewise in Greek words i» 
short ; as, Polydorus, Polyddmas, Polyphemus, Doryph6)us. 


A Verse is a certain number of long and short syllables dis- 
posed according to rule. 

It is so called, because when the number of syllables requi- 
site is completed, we always turn back to the beginning of «t 
new line. 

The parts into which we divide a verse, to see if it have iti \ 
just number of syllables, are called Feet. 

A verse is divided into different feet, both to ascertain it J 
measure or number of syllables, and to regulate its pronur - 


Poetic feet are either of two, three, or four syllable 
When a single syllable is taken by itself, it is called a Cce\ u* 
ra, which is commonly a long syllable. 

1. Feet of two Syllables. 
Spondeus, consists of two long ; as, omnes. 
Pyrrhichius, two short ; as, deus. 

Iambus, a short ind a long ; as, dmdns. 

Trochceus or Choreus, a long a. id a short ; as, servus. 

2. Feet of three Syllables. 
Dactylus, a long and two short ; as, scribere. 
Anapcestus, two short and a long ; as, pietds. 
Amphimacer, a long, a short, and a long ; as chdritas. 
Tribrachys, three short ; as, domtnus. 

The following are not so much used • 

Molossns, delectdnt. Dispondeus, oratores. 

Amphibrachys, honors. Dijambus, amcenltas. 

Bacchlus, dc/ores. Choriambus, pontifice~s. 

Antibacchlus, peluntur. Dichoreus, Cantilena. 

o r. * j* r c n ii Antisnastus, Alexander. 

3. Feet of four Syllables. ^^ minm> pr5p g r mnt. 

Proceleusmatlcus, hdminibus. Ionicus major, calcdrlbits. 


PfKon primus, tempdribus. Epitrttus primus, v6luptdUs 

Paeon e^cundus, potentla. Epitritus secundus, pcenittnUs 

Pffion tertius, dnzmdtus. Epitritus tertius, discordlds. 

Paeon quartus, celeritds. Epitritus quartus, fdrtundtus. 


The measuring of verse, or the resolving of it into the seve* 
ral feet of which it is composed, is called Scanning. 

When a verse has just the number of feet requisite, it is called Versus 
Acatalcctus or Acatatecticus , an Acatalectic verse : if a syllable be want- 
ing, it is called Catalecticus : if there be a syllable too much, Hypercatu- 
lecticusj or Hyper meter. 

The ascertaining whether the verse be complete, defective, or redun* 
dant, is called Depositio or Clausula. 



The Hexameter or heroic verse consists of six feet. Of 
these the fifth is a dactyle, and the sixth a spondee ; all the 
rest may be either dactyles or spondees; as, 

Lildere I quae vel- | lem cala- I mo per- I mlsit a- I grgstl. Virg. 
Infan- | dum Re- j glna ju- | bes reno- | vare do- | lorem. Id. 

A regular Hexameter line cannot have more than seven- 
teen syllables, or fewer than thirteen. 

Sometimes a spondee is found in the fifth place, whence the 
verse is called Spondaic; as, 

Cara De- | urn sobo- | les ma- | gnum Jovis | Incre- | mentum. Virg. 

This verse is used when any thing grave, slow, large, 
sad, or the like, is expresse i. It commonly has a dactyle 
in the fourth place, and a word of four syllables in the end. 

Sometimes there remains a superfluous syllable at the end. But this 
syllable must either terminate in a vowel, or in the consonant m, with a 
vowel before it ; so as to be joined with the following verse, which in the 
present case must always begin with a vowel ; as, 

Omnia | Mercuri- | o simi- | lis vo- | cemque co- | loremque. 
Et flavos crines 

Those Hexameter verses sound best, which have dactyles 
and spondees alternately ; as, 

Ludere, quo? vellem, calamo permisit agresti. Virg. 
Pinguis et ingratse premeretur caseus urbi. Id. 

O r which have more dactyles than spondees ; as, 

Tityre, tu patulse recubans sub tegmine fagi. Vitg 


It is esteemed a great beauty in a hexameter verse, when, 
by the use of dactyles and spondees, the souna is adapted to 
Hie sense ; as, 

Quadrupedante pntrein sonitu quatit ungula campum. Virg. 
I Hi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt. Id. 

Moiistrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. Id. 
Accipiunt inimicum imbrem, rimisque fatiscunt. Id. 

But what deserves particular attention, in scanning hex- 
ameter verse, is the CAESURA. 

Ccesura is when, after a foot is completed, there remains a 
syllable at the end of a word to begin a new foot ; as, 

At re-glna gra-vl jam-dudum, &c. 

The ccesura is variously named, according to the different 
parts of the hexameter verse in which it is found. When 
it comes after the first foot, or falls on the third half-foot, 
it is called by a Greek name, Triemimeris : when on the 
fifth half-footj or the syllable after the second foot, it is 
called Penthemimeris : when it happens on the first syllable 
of the fourth foot, or the seventh half-foot, it is called Hephthe- 
mimeris : and when on the ninth half-foot, or the first syllable 
of the fifth foot, it is called Enne'emimeris. 

All these different species of the ccesura sometimes occur in 
the same verse; as, 

1116 la-tus nive-um rnol-li ful-tus hya-clntho. Virg. 

But the most common and beautiful ccesura is the pen- 
themim ; on which some lay a particular accent or stress of 
the voice, in reading a hexameter verse thus composed ; 
whence they call it the ccesural pause ; as, 

Tityre, dum rede-O, brevis est via, pasce capellas. Virg. 

When the ccesura falls on a syllable naturally short, it 
renders it long; as, the last syllable of fultus in the foregoing 

The chief melody of a hexameter verse in a great measure 
depends on the proper disposition of the ccesura. Without 
this, a line consisting of the number of feet requisite will be 
little else than mere prose ; as, 

Romae moenia terruit ImpTger Hannibal armls. Ennius. 

The ancient Romans, in pronouncing verse, paid a particular attention 
to its melody. They observed not only the quantity and accent of the 
several syllables, but also the different stops and pauses which the par- 
ticular turn of the verse required. In modern times we do not fully 
perceive the melody of Latin verse, because we have now lost the just 



pronunciation of that language, the people of every country pronouncing 
it in a manner similar to their own. In reading Latin verse, therefore, 
we are directed by the same rules which take place with respect to 
English verse, as has been befi re observed. 

The tone of the voice oug it to be chiefly regulated by the sense. 
All the words should be pronounced fully ; and the cadence of the 
verse ought only to be observed, so far as it corresponds with the natural 
expression of the words. At the end of each line there should be no fall 
of the voice, unless the sense requires it; but a small pause, half of thai 
which we usually make at a comma. 


The Pentameter verse consists of five feet. Of these the 
two first are either dactyles or spondees ; the third, always a 
spondee ; and the fourth and fifth, an anapaestus ; as, 

Natu- | rae sequi- | tur se- | mina quls- | que siise. Proyert. 
Carmini- | bus vl- | ves tern- | pus in om- | ne mels. Ovid. 

But this verse is more properly divided into two hemisticks 
or halves; the former of which consists of two feet, either dac- 
tyles or spondees, and a caesura; the latter, always of two 
dactyles and another caesura; thus, 

Natu- | rae sequi- | tur | semlna | qulsque sii- | ae. 
Carmini- | bus vl- | ves | tempus in | omne me- | Is. 

The Pentameter usually ends with a dissyllable, but some* 
times also with a polysyllable. 


The Asclepiadean verse consists of four feet ; namely, a 
spondee, twice a choriambus, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Maece- | nas atavls | edite re- | gibus. Hor. Od. 1, 1, 1. 

But this verse may be more properly measured thus : In 
the first place, a spondee ; in the second, a dactyle ; then a 
caesura ; and after that two dactyles ; thus, 

Masce- | nas ata- | vis [ edite | regTbus. 


The Glyconian verse has three feet, a spondee, a choriam 
bus, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Navls | qua? tibi ere- | ditum. Hor. Od. 1, 3, 5. 

Or it tiay be divided into a spondee and two dactyles 

Navl3 | quae tibi | crfiditura 


The Sapphic verse has five feet, viz. a trochee, a spondee, 
a dactyle, and two trochees ; thus, 

IntS- | ger vi- | tse, scSle- | risque' | purus. Hor. Od. 1, 22, 1. 
An Adonian, or Adonic verse consists only of a dactyle and a 
spondee ; as, 

Jupiter | urget. Hor. ibid. v. 20. 

The Pherecratian verse consists of three feet, a spondee, * 
dactyle, and a spondee ; thus, 

Nigris | eequora ' Otitis. Hor. Od. 1, 5, 7. 

The Phaleucian verse consists of five feet, namely, a spon 
dee, a dactyle, and three trochees ; as, 

Summum | ngc me'tu- | as di- | era, nee | optes. Martial, 10, 47. f. 

The greater Alcaic, called likewise Dactylic, consists of 
four feet, a spondee or iambus, iambus and caesura, then two 
dactvles ; as, 

Virtus | repul- | sae I ngscia | sordid© 

Inta- | mina- | tis | fillget ho- | noribus. Hor. Od. 3, 2, 17. 

The Archilochian Iambic verse consists of four feet. In 
the first and third place, it has either a spondee or an iam- 
bus ; in the second and fourth, always an iambus ; and in the 
end, a caesura; as, 

Nee sa- | mit, aut | ponit | secu- | res. Hor. ibid. 

The lesser Dactylic Alcaic consists of four feet, namely, 
two dactyles and two trochees ; as, 

Arbitri- | o popii- | lans | aurae. Ibid. 

Of the above kinds of verse, the first two take their names 
from the number of feet of which they consist. All the rest 
derive their names from those by whom they were either first 
invented, or frequently used. 

There are several other kinds of verse, which are named 


from the feet by which they are most commonly measured 
such as the dactylic, trochaic, anapestic, and iambic. The 
last of these is most frequently used. 

11. IAMBIC. 

Of Iambic verse there are two kinds. The one consists of 
r our feet, and is called by a Greek name Dimeter; the other 
consists of six feet, and is called Trimeter. The reason of 
these names is, that among the Greeks two feet were consid- 
ered only as one measure in iambic verse ; whereas the Latins 
measured it by single feet, and therefore called the dimeter 
quaternarius, and the trimeter senanus. 

Originally this kind of verse was purely iambic, i. e. ad- 
mitted of no other feet but the iambus ; thus, 

Dimeter, Jnar- | sit se- | stuo- | si'us. Hot. 

Trimeter, Suis j et i- | psa Ro- | ma vi- | ribus | ruit. Id. 

But afterwards, both for the sake of ease and variety, dif- 
ferent feet were admitted into the uneven or odd places ; 
that is, in the first, third, and fifth places, instead of an iam- 
bus, they used a spondee, a dactyle, or an anapsestus, and 
sometimes a tribrachys. We also find a tribrachys in the even 
places, i. e. in the second place, and in the fourth ; for the last 
foot must always be an iambus ; thus, 

Dimeter, Cani'di- | a trac- | tavit | dapes. Hor. 

Vide- | re prope- I rantes | domum. Id. 
Trimeter, Quoquo | sceles- | ti rui- | tis aut | cur dex- | teris. Id. 

Pavidum- | que lepo- | r' aut ad- j venam | laqueo I gruem. Id. 

Aliti- | bus at- | que cani- | bus homi- | eld' Hec- ( torem. Id. 

In comic writers we sometimes find an iambic verse con- 
sisting of eight feet, therefore called Tetrameter or Octo- 


The several changes made upon words, to adapt them to the 
verse, are called Figures in Scanning. The chief of these are 
the Synalcepha, Ecthlipsis, Synceresis, Diceresis, Systole, and 

1. Synalcepha is the cutting off of a vowel or diphthong, 
when the next word begins with a vowel ; as, 

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant. Virg. 
o be scanned thus, 

Conticu- | er' om- | nes In- | tentl- | qu' ora te- | nebant. 


The Synalaepha is sometimes neglected ; and seldom take? 
place in the interjections, 6, lieu, ah, proh, vcb, vah, hei ; as, 
O pater, 6 hominum, Divflrnque eeterna potestas. Virg. 

Long vowels and diphthongs, when not cut off, are sometimes 
shortened ; as, 

Insulee Ionio in magno, quas dira Celaeno. Virg. 
Credhnus? an, qui amant, ipsi sibi somnia fingunt. Id. 
Victor apud rapidum Simoenta sub llio alto. Id. 
Ter sunt conati imponere Pelio Ossam. Id. 
Glauco et Panopeae, et Inoo Melicertae. Id. 

2. Ecthlipsis is the cutting off of m, with the vowel before 
it, in the end of a word, because the following word begins 
with a vowel ; as, 

O curas hominum ! O quantum est in rebus inane ! Pers. 

O cu- | rashonu- | n', o quan- | t' est In | rebus in- | anS. 

Sometimes the Synalaepha and Ecthlipsis are found at the end 
of the verse ; as, 

Sternitur infelix alieno vulnere, ccelumque 
Adspicit, et duices moriens reminiscitur Argos. Virg. 
Jamque iteremensi, turres ac tecta Latinorum 
Ardua cernebant juvenes, murosque subibant. Id. 

These verses are called Hypermetri, because a syllable re- 
mains to be carried to the beginning of the next line ; thus, 
qu s Adspicit; r' Ardua. 

3. Svnjeresis is the contraction of two syllables into one, 
which is likewise called Crasis ; as, Phcethon for Phaethon. 
So ei in Thesei, Orphei, deinde, Pompei ; ui in huic, cut ; oi iu 
proinde ; ed in aured ; thus, 

Notus amor Phaedrae, nota est injuria Thesei. Ovid. 
Proinde tonaeloquio, solitum tibi — Virg. 

Filius huic contra, torquetqui sidera mundi. Id. 

Aurea percussum virga, versumque venenis. Id. 

So in anteJiac, eadem, alvearia, deest, deerit, vehemens, anteit 
tddem, alveo, graveolentis, omnia, seiniaritmis, semilwmo , fluvifr 
rum, totius, promontorium, &,c. as, 

Una eademque via sanguis animusque sequuntur. Virg. 

Seu lento fuerint alvearia vimine texta. Id. 

Vilis arcicorum est annona, bonis ubi quid deest. Hot. 

Divitis uber agri, TrojaRque opulentia deerit. Virg. 

Vehemens et liquidus puroque sirnillimus amni. Hor. 

Te semper anteit dira necessitas. Alcaic. Hor. Od. 1, 35, 17. 

Uno eodemque igni, sic nostro Daphnis amore. Virg. 


Cum refluit campis, et jam se condidit alveo. Virg, 
Inde ubi venere ad fauces graveolentis Averni. Id. 
Bis patriae cecidere manus : quin protinus omnia. Id. 
Caedit semianimis Rutulorum calcibus arva. Id. 
Semihominis Caci facies quam dira tenebat. Id. 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes. Id. 
Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ex oidine gentis. Id. 
Inde legit Capreas, promontoriumque Minervae. Ovid. 

T) this figure may be referred the changing of i and u 
into j and v, or pronouncing them in the same syllabla 
with the following vowel ; as, in genva, ienvis, arjetat, ten* 
via, abjete, pitvita, parjetibus, Nasidjenus ; for genua, it* 
nuts, &c. ; as, 

Propterea quia corpus aquae naturaque tenvis. Lucr. 
Gcnva labant, gelido concrevit frigore sanguis. Virg 
Arjetat in portas et duros objice postes. Id. 
Velleraque ut foliis depectant tenvia Seres. Id. 
iEdificant, sectaque intexunt abjete costas. Id. 
Praecipue sanus, nisi cum pitvita molesta est. Hor. 
Parjetibusque premunt arctis, et quatuor addunt. Virg, 
Ut Nasidjeni juvit te ccena beati ? Hor. 

4 Diuresis divides one syllable into two; as, aulai, 
for aulce ; Tro'ia, for Trojce ; Perseus , for Perseus ; miluus, 
for milvus ; soluit, for solvit ; voluit, for volvit ; aquce, sti- 
etus, suasit, Suevos, relanguit, reliquas, for aqua, suetus, 
&c. ; as, 

Aula! in medio libabant pocula Bacchi. Virg. 
Stamina non ulli dissolaenda Deo. Pentam. Tibullus. 
Debuerant fusos evolilisse suos. Id. Ovid. 
Quae calidum faciunt aqOae tactum atque vaporem. Lucr. 
Cum mihi non tantum furesque feraeque stletae. Hor. 
Atque alios alii inrident, Veneremque suadent. Lucr. 
Fundat ao extremo flavos Aquilone Saevos. Lucan. 
Imposito fratri moribunda relanguit ore. Ovid. 
Reliquas tamen esse vias in mente patenteis. Lucr. 

6. Systole makes a long syllable short ; as, the penult in 
tulerunt ; thus, 

Matri longa decern tulerunt fastidia menses. Virg. E. 4. 61. 

6. Diastole makes a short syllable long ; as, the last syllabi© 
of amor in the following verse : 

Considant, si tantus amor, et moenia condant. Virg. JE. 11. 323. 

To the above may be added the following, which, though 


chiefly used by the poets, often occur in prose; and are 


1. Prosthesis* prefixes a letter 01 syllable ; as, gnavus for 
navus. In Latin there are but few examples of this, but in 
Greek they abound ; as, %si<xs for slrfs, o£w£<x for wgoc. 

2. Epenthesisi inserts something in the middle ; as, rettulit 
for retulit, /xa^so'o'a|xsvo^ for fxa^stfa/xsvos. 

3. Paragoge\ adds to the end ; as, dicier for did, tomtov} for 

4. Aphceresis^ takes away from the beginning ; as, coma for 
ciconia. Of this, also, examples are rare in Latin, but fre- 
quent in Greek ; as, ^ for &p*]. 27. 1. 219. 

5. Syncope\\ takes out something from the middle ; as, 
peccdsse for peccavisse, ££ctv for escrow. 

6. ^pocopefl" takes from the end ; as peculi for peculii, <$£ 
for &jjuux. H. 1. 426. 

7. Metathesis** transposes letters ; as pisiris for pristis^ 
'sdgaxov for &$afxov, 2. a. o/*<5s£xw. 

8. Antithesis^ changes one letter for another ; as faciun- 
durn for faciendum, olli for illi, %uv for tfov. 


Any work composed in verse is called a Poem (Poema or Carmen.) 
Poems are called by various names, from their subject, their form, the 
manner of treating the subject, and their style. 

1. A poem on the celebration of a marriage is called an Epitha- 
amium ; on a mournful subject, an Elegy or Lamentation; in praise 

of the Supreme Being, a Hymn ; in praise of any person or thing, a 
Panegyric or Encomium ; on the vices of any one, a Satire or Invec- 
tive ; a poem to be inscribed on a tomb, an Epitaph, &c. 

2. A short poem, adapted to the lyre or harp, is called an Ode, 
whence such compositions are called Lyric poems : a poem in the form 
of a letter is called an Epistle ; a short witty poem playing on the 
fancies or conceits which arise from anv subject, is called an Epigram; 
as those of Catullus and Martial. A sharp, unexpected, lively turn of 
wit in the end of an epigram is called its Point. A poem expressing 

* Tlp6ffde<rig, adjectio ; irpoarWrjui, addo, to prefix. 

f 'EnivOeat g, insertio ; inevriBriyLi, insiro in medium, to insert. 

\ Hapayu)-/}), productio ; jrapdyw, prodiico, to lengtnen out. 

§ 'A<patpe<ris, ablatio; acpaiptu, aufiro, to take away 

J Swytofff), from vvyicdnTu), concido, to cut out. 

ITATroKOTTr), amputatio ; aTTOKdnrta, amputo, to cut off. 

** Meradecrig, transpositio ; the change of places. 

ft From fori, instead of, and Tidijpi, to place. 


the moral of any device or picture, is called an Emblem. A poeu 
containing an obscure question to be explained, is called an ^Enigma of 

When a character is described so that the first letters of each verse 
and sometimes the middle and final letters, express the name of the 'per- 
son or thing described, it is called an Acrostic ; as the following oa jur 
Saviour : 

I nter cuacta micans I gniti sidera cad I, 
E xpellit tenebras E toto Phoebus ut orb E ; 
S ic ccBcas removet JES VS caliginis umbra S, 
V ivificansque simul V ero prcecordia mot V, 
S ohm justitice S ese probat esse beati S. 

3. From the manner of treating a subject, a poem is either Exegetit^ 
Dramatic, or Mixt. 

The Exegetic, where the poet always speaks himself, is of three kinds, 
Historical, Didactic or Instructive, (as the Satire or Epistle,) and De- 

Of the Dramatic, the chief kinds are COMEDY, representing the ac- 
tions of ordinary life, generally with a happy issue; and TRAGEDY, 
representing the actions and distresses of illustrious personages, com- 
monly with an unhappy issue ; to which may be added Pastorat Poems, 
or Bucolics, representing the actions and conversations of shepherds; 
as most uf the eclogues of Virgil. 

The Mixt kind is where the poet sometimes speaks in his own person, 
and sometimes makes other characters to speak. Of this kind is chiefly 
the EPIC or HEROIC poem, which treats of some one great transaction 
of some great, illustrious person, with its various circumstances ; as the 
wrath of Achilles in the Iliad of Homer ; the settlement of iEneas in 
Italy in the JEncid of Virgil ; the fall of man in the Paradise Lost of 
Milton, <Slc 

4. The style of poetry, as of prose, is of three kinds, the simple, ornate, 
and sublime. 


In long poems there is commonly but oue kind of verse 
used. Thus Virgil, Lucretius, Horace in his Satires and 
Epistles, Ovid in his Metamorphoses, Lucan, Silius Itallcus< 
Valerius Flaccus, Juvenal, &,c. always use the Hexametev 
verse : Plautus, Terence, and other writers o* Comedy, gene- 
rally use the Iambic, and sometimes the Trochaic. It it 
chiefly in shorter poems, particularly those which are caked 
Lyric poems, as the Odes of Horace and the Psalms of Bucha- 
nan, that various kinds of verse are combined. 

A poem, which has only one kind of verse, is called by a 
Greek name, Monocolon, sc. poema or carmen; or Mono- 
colos, sc. ode; that which has two kinds, Dicolon; and 
that which has three kinds of verse, Tricolon. 

If the same sort of verse return after the second line, it is 


called Dicolon Distrophon ;* as when a single Pentame- 
ter is alternately placed after an Hexameter ; which is nam- 
ed Elegiac verse, (carmen Eleglacum,) because it was first 
applied to mournful subjects ; thus, 

Flebilis indignos, Elegeia, solve capillos; 
Ah i nimis ex vero, nunc tibi nomen erit. Ovid. 

This kind of verse is used by Ovid in all his other works 
except the Metamorphoses ; and also for the most part by Ti- 
bullus, Propertius, &,c. 

When a poem consists of two kinds of verse, and after three 
lines returns to the first, it is called Dicolon Tristrophon ; when 
after four lines, Dicolon Tetrastrophon ; as, 

Auream quisquis mediocritatem 
Diligit, tutus caret obsoleti 
Sordibus tecti ; caret invidenda 

Sobrius aula. Horat. 

When a poem consists of three kinds of verse, and after 
three lines always returns to the first, it is called Tricblon 
Tristrophon; but if it returns after four lines, it is called Tri- 
colon Tetrastrophon ; as, when after two greater dactylic Alcaic 
verses are subjoined an Archilochian iambic and a lesser dac- 
tylic Alcaic, which is named Carmen Horatidnum, or Horatian 
verse, because it is frequently used by Horace ; thus, 

Virtus recludens immeritis mori 
Coelum, negata tentat iter via ; 
Caetusque vulgares, et udam 
Spernit humum fugiente penna. 


Horace uses twenty different species of metre, combining 
them in nineteen different ways, and of course forming nine 
teen different stanzas. These are as follow, arranged accord- 
ing to the order of preference given them by the poet : — 

No 1. The stanza of four lines. The first two are greater 
Alcaic ,f measured thus : a spondee or iambus, an iambus with 
a caesura, then two dactyles ; as, 

Vides ut alta stet nive candldiim. 

in i 

* A Strophe or Stanza includes as many lines as are necessary to show 
all the different kinds of measure in an ode. It is called Strophe, which 
in Greek literally means a turning, because at the end of it, you turn 
Dack to the same kind of verse with which you began. 

t From Mccms, a famous poet of Lesbos, whom Horace frequently 



The third line is Archilochian* measured thus: the first and 
third feet are spondees or iambi . the second and fourth, iambi, 
with a caesura remaining; as, 

Sllvae laboranefcs geluque. 
The fourth line is lesser Alcaic, measured by two dactyles and 
v vo trochees ; as, 

Fhlmina eonsliterlnt acuto. 
I I I 

Tliis is called the Horatian stanza, because Horace delighted 
in it above all others. More than one third of his odes are in this 

No. 2. The stanza of four lines. The first three lines are 
Sapphic, f measured by a trochee, spondee, dactyle, and then 
two trochees ; as, 

Jam satis terris nivis atque dirae. 

! I ] I 

The fourth line is Adonic, consisting of a dactyle and spon- 
^ea ; as, 

Terruit urbem. 
No. 3. The stanza of two lines. The fiist is Glyconic,\ 
measured by a spondee, choriambus, and p.yrrhichius ; as, 

Sic te Diva potent Cjrpri. 

The second is Asclepiadean,^ consisting of a spoadse, two 
chorisrmbi, and a pyrrhicbius ; as, 

£»Ic fratres Helenae lucida sider*. 
I I I 

Or thu<?, 

Sic fratres Helenae lucida sldera, 

No. 4. The stanza of two lines. The fVst has s'x\ i^i^ibi- 
the second has four. But sometimes a spondee, dactyle* ana- 
paest, or tribrachyp, is admitted into the odd places ; that is. 
in the first, third and fifth. A tribrachys is also found in the 
even places. The first ten epodes are in this stanza. 

No. 5. The stanza of four lines; three Asclepiads and one 
Glyconic. See No. 3. 

* Invented by Archil 6 chits, a poet of Paros. 

\ Invented by Sappho, the celebrated poetess of Lesbos. 

t From Giyoon, the inventor. § From Jlsclepias, tbe inventor. 


No. G. The stanza of four lines. The first two are AscU* 
piadean, the third is Flier ecratian, consisting of a spondee, 
dactyle, and spondee; as, 

Grato Pyrrha sub antro. 

The fourth line is Glyconic, No. 3. 

No. 7. The stanza of one line. Asclepiadean, measured by 
a spondee, two choriambi, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Maecenas atavls edite regibus. 

i I I 

No. 8. The stanza of two lines. A hexameter , and the last 
four feet of a hexameter ; as, 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon aut Mitylenen. 

Aut Ephesum bimarlsve Corlnthi. 
I I I 

No. 9. The stanza of one line, measured by a spondee, 
three choriambi, and a pyrrhichius ; as, 

Ta ne" quaesieris sclrg neTas qu6m mihi quern tibi. 
I I I I 

No. 10. The stanza of two lines. The first is hexameter ; 
the second has four iambi, and sometimes spondees, &c. in the 
odd places. 

No. 11. The stanza of one line, containing six iambi, or 
other feet in the odd places. 

No. 12. The stanza of two lines. The first is measured by 
a choriambus and bacchlus; the second, by three choriambi 
and a bacchlus. 

Lydia die per omnes, 

Te D8os oro S^barln cur properes amando. 

I i i 

Observe, however, in the second line, that the first choriam 
bus is imperfect, having its third syllable long instead of 

No. 13. The stanza of two linps ; the first line hexameter, 
the second containing six iambi, admitting other feet in the 
odd places. 

* Attilius, a learned grammarian, remarks, that Horace was guilty of 
this error from being inexpert in this kind of measure, and that, having 
once brgun it, he chose to persevere in it to the end. Some, however ; 
call the first foot an Epitrltus, others divide it into a trochee and 



No. 14 The stanza of two lines ; the first a hexameter, the 
second has two dactyles and a caesura ; as, 

Arboribusque comae. 
I I 

No. 15. The stanza of three lines. The first is a hexame- 
ter ; the second has four iambi, admitting spondees in the odd 
places; and the third line has two dactyles and a caesura, as 
in the preceding No. 

No. 16. The stanza of three lines ; the first having six 
iambi, and the third having four, admitting spondees, &c. as 
before ; the middle line has two dactyles and a caesura. 

No. 17. The stanza of two lines. The first line contains 
seven feet, of which the first four are either dactyles or spon- 
dees ; the last three are trochees ; as, 

Solvitur acns hiems grata vice veris et Favoni. 

The second line has five iambi and a remaining syllable, 
admitting spondees as before ; as, 

TrahuntquS slccas machmae carinas. 
I I I I I 

No. 18. The stanza of two lines. The first has three 
iambi, preceded by a long syllable ; as, 

Non ebur ngque' aureum. 


The second line has five Iambi and a caesura, admitting 
spondees in the odd places. 

No. 19. The stanza of three lines. The first two contain 
three ionics ; the third contains fo\.r ; as, 

MTse'rarum' est neque' amori darg ludum. 



^Eli vetusto No. 1 

iEquam memento 1 

Albi ne doleas 5 

Altera jam teritur 13 

Angustam amici 1 

At O deomm 4 

Audivere Lyce 6 

Bacchum in remotis No. 1 

Beatus ille , . . . . 4 

Coelo supinas 1 

Caelo tonantem ] 

Cum tu Lydia 3 

Cnr me querelis 1 

DelSeta majorum . t 



Descende coelo No. 1 

Dianam tenerae 6 

Diffugere nives 14 

Dive quern proles 2 

Divis orte bonis 5 

Donarem pateras .... 7 

Donee gratus eram , . . . . 3 

Eheu fugaces 1 

Est mihi nonurn 2 

Et thure et fidibus 3 

Exegi monumentum 7 

Extremum Tanaim 5 

Faune nympharum 2 

Festo quid potius die 3 

Herculis ritu 2 

Horrida tempestas 15 

Ibis Liburnis 4 

Icci beatis 1 

Hie et nefasto 1 

Impios parrae 2 

lnclusam Danaen 5 

Intactis opulentior 3 

Integer vitae 2 

Inter missa Venus diu 3 

Jam jam efficaci 11 

Jam pauca aratro 1 

Jam satis terris 2 

Jam veris comites 5 

Justum et tenacem 1 

Laudabunt alii 8 

Lupis et agnis 4 

Lydia die per omnes 12 

Maecenas atavis 7 

Mala soluta 4 

Martiis coelebs 2 

Mater saeva Cupidinum 3 

Mercuri facunde 2 

Mercuri nam te 2 

Miserarum est 19 

Mollis inertia 10 

Montium custos 2 

Motum ex Metello 1 

Musis amicus 1 

Natis in usum 1 

Ne forte credas 1 

Ne sit ancillae 2 

Nolis longa ferae , 5 

Nondum subacta 1 

Non ebur neque aureum 18 

Non semper imbres 1 

Non usitaca 1 

Non viues quanto 2 

Nox erat 10 

Nullam Vare sacra 9 


Nullus argento No 3 

Nunc est bibendum 1 

O crudelis adhuc 9 

O Diva gratum 1 

O fons Blandusiae b 

O matre pulchra 1 

O nata mecum I 

O navis referent 6 

O saepe mecum X 

O Venus regina g 

Odi profanum 1 

Otiurn Divos 2 

Parcius junctas 2 

Parcus Deorum 1 

Parentis olim 4 

Pastor quum traheret 5 

Persicos odi puer 2 

Petti nihil me 16 

Phoebe, silvarumque 2 

Phoebus volentem 1 

Pindarum quisquis 2 

Poscimur siquid 2 

Quae cura patrum 1 

Qualem ministrum 1 

Quando repostum 4 

Quantum distet ab Inacho .... 3 

Quern tu Melpomene 3 

Quern virum aut heroa 2 

Quid bellicosus 1 

Quid dedicatum 1 

Quid fles Asterie 6 

Quid immerentes 4 

Quid obseratis 11 

Quid tibi vis 8 

Quis desiderio 5 

Quis multa gracilis 6 

Quo me Bacche 3 

Quo, quo scelesti ruitis 4 

Rectius vives 3 

Rogare longo 4 

Scriberis Vario 5 

Septimi Gades 2 

Sic te Diva potens 3 

Solvitur acris hiems . . . « 17 

Te maris et terras 8 

Tu ne quaesieris 9 

Tyrrhena regum 1 

Ulla si juris 2 

Uxor pauperis Ibyci 3 

Velox amoenum 1 

Vides ut alta 1 

Vile potabis 2 

Vitas hinnuleo 6 

Vixi choreis ' 


Of Punctuation ; Capitals ; Abbreviations ; Division of the Ro* 
man Months ; Tables of Roman Coins, Weights, and Meas> 
ures ; Golden, Silver, and Brazen Ages of Roman Literature. 

The different divisions of discourse are marked by certain 
characters called Points. 

The points employed for this purpose are the Comma (,), 
Semicolon (;), Colon (:), Period, Punctum, or fall stop (.). 

Their names are taken from the different parts of the sen- 
tence which they are employed to distinguish. 

The Period is a whole sentence complete by itself. The Colon, or 
member, is a chief constructive part, or greater division of a sentence. 
The Semicolon, or half member, is a less constructive part, or subdivi 
sion, of a sentence or member. The Comma, or segment, is the least 
constructive part of a sentence, in this way of considering it ; for the next 
subdivision of a sentence would be the resolution of it into Phrases and 

To these points may be added the Semiperiod, or less point, followed 
by a small letter. But this is of much the same use with the Colon, and 
occurs only in Latin books. 

A simple sentence admits only of a full point at the end ; because its 
general meaning cannot be distinguished into parts. It is only in com- 
pound sentences that all the different points are to be found. 

Points likewise express the different pauses which should be observed 
in a just pronunciation of discourse. The precise duration of each pause, 
or note, cannot be denned. It varies according to the different subjects 
of discourse, and the different turns of human passion and thought. The 
period requires a pause in duration double of the colon ; the colon double 
of the semicolon ; and the semicolon double of the comma. 

There are other points, which, together with a certain pause, 
also denote a different modulation of the voice in correspond- 
ence with the sense. These are the Interrogation point (?) 
the Exclamation or Admiration point (!), and the Parenthesis (). 
The first two generally mark an elevation of the voice, and a 
pause equai to that of a semicolon, a colon, or a period, as the 
sense requires. The Parenthesis usually requires a moderate 
depression of the voice, with a pause somewhat greater than 
i comma. But these rules are liable to many exceptions. 


The modulation of the voice in reading, and the various 
pauses, must always be regulated by the sense. 

Besides the points, there are several other marks made use 
of in books, to denote references and different distinctions, or 
to point out something remarkable or defective, &,c. These 
are the Apostrophe ( ' ) ; Asterisk ( * ) ; Hyphen ( - ) ; Obelisk 
( t ) ; Double Obelisk ( J ) ; Parallel Lines ( || ); Paragraph 
( ff ) ; Section ( § ) Quotation ( " " ) ; Crotchets [ ] ; Brace 
( <{ ); Ellipsis ( ... or — ) ; Caret (a ) ; which last is only 
used in writing. 

References are often marked by letters and figures. 

Capitals, or large letters, are used at the beginning of sen- 
tences, of verses, and of proper names. Some use them at 
the beginning of every substantive noun. Adjectives, verbs, 
and other parts of speech, unless they be emphatical, com- 
monly begin with a small letter. 

Capitals, with a point after them, are often put for whole 
words ; thus, A. marks Aulus, C. Caius, D. Decius, or Decimus, 
L. Lucius, M. Marcus, P. Publius, Q,. Quintus 9 or Quinctius, 
T. Titus. So F. stands for Filius, and N. for Nepos ; as M. F. 
Marci Filius, M. N. Marci Nepos. In like manner, P. C. 
marks Patres Conscripti ; S. C. Sendtus Consultum ; P. R. 
Populus Romdnus; S. P. Q,. R. Sendtus Populusque Romdr 
nus; U. C. Urbs Condita ; S. P. D. Salutem plurwiam dicit; 
D. D. D. Dat, dicat, dedicat ; D. D. C. Q. Dot, dicat, conse- 
cratque ; H. S. written corruptly for L. L. S. Sestertius, equal 
in value to two pounds of brass and a half; the two pounds 
being marked by L. L. Libra, Libra, and the half by S. Semis. 
So in modern books A. D. marks Anno Domini, A. M. Artium 
Magister, Master of Arts ; M. D. Medicines Doctor ;* LL. D. 
Legum Doctor ; N. B. Nota bene, &lc. 

Sometimes a small letter or two is added to the capital ; as, 
Etc. Et ccetera ; Ap. Appius ; Cn. Cneius ; Op. Opiter ; Sp. 
Spurius; Ti. Tiberius; Sex. Sextus ; Cos. Consul; Coss. 
Consules ; Imp. Lmperdtor ; Impp. Lmperatdres. 

In like manner, in English, Esq. Esquire; Dr. Debtor or 
Doctor ; Acct. Account ; MS. Manuscript ; MSS. Manuscripts; 
Do. Ditto; Rt. Hon. Right Honourable, &,c. 

Small letters are likewise often put as abbreviations of a 
word; as, i. e. id est ; h. e. hoc est, that is ; e. g. exempli gratia , 
for example , v. g-. verbi gratia. 

■ ■ ' ' " w *~" 

* Two capitals in this way denote the plural number ; as, L. D. LegU 
Doctor; LL. D. Legum Doctor 


Division of the Roman Months. 
The Romans divided their months into three parts, by *Ka* 
lends, Nones, and Ides. The first day ot every month wag 
called the Kalends ; the fifth day was called the Nones ; and 
the thirteenth day was called the Ides ; except in the months 
of March, May, July, and October, in which the nones fell 
upon the seventh day, and the ides on the fifteenth. 

In reckoning the days of their months, they counted back- 
wards. Thus, the first day of January was marked Kalendis 
Januariis or Januarii, or, by contraction, Kal. Jan. The last 
day of December, Pridie Kalendas Januarias, or Januarii, scil. 
ante. The day before that, or the 30th day of December, 
Tertio Kal. Jan. scil. die ante ; or Ante diem tertium Kal. Jan. 
The twenty-ninth day of December, Quarto Kal. Jan. And 
so on, till they came back to the thirteenth day of December, 
or to the ides, which were marked Idtbus Decembribus, or Z>c- 
cembris : the day before the ides, Pridie Idus Dec. scil. ante : 
the day before that, Tertio Id. Dec. and so back to the nones, 
or the fifth day of the month, which was marked Nonis Decem- 
bribus, or Decembris : the day before the nones, Pridie Non. 
Dec. &LC. and thus through all the months of the year. 

Junius, Aprilis, SEPTEMque, NovEMque tricenos ; 

Unum plus reliqui; Februus tenet octo viginti ; 

At si bissextus fuerit, superadditur unus. 

Tu primam mensis lucem die esse kalendas. 

Sex Maius, nonas October, Julius, et Mars, 

Qaatuor at reliqui ; dabit idus quilibet octo. 

Omnes post idus luces die esse kalendas, 

Nomen sortiri debent a mense sequenti. 

Thus, the 14th day of April, June, September, and November, 
was marked XVIII. Kal. of the following month ; the 15th, 
XVII. Kal. &lc. The 14th day of January, August, and Dc~ 
cember, XIX. Kal. &,c. So the 16th day of March, May, July, 
and October, was marked XVII. Kal. &,c. And the 14th day 
of February, XVI. Kal. Martii or Martias. The names of all 
the mon.hs are used as Substantives or Adjectives, except 
Aprilis, which is used only as a Substantive. 

In Leap year, that is, when February has twenty-nine days, 
which happens every fourth year, both the 24th and the 25th 
days of that month were marked, Sexto Kalendas Martii, or 
Martias; and hence this year is called Bissextilis. 

* Kalends, or Calends, is derived from Colo, -are, to call. In the int> Cj of Rome, a 
priest summoned the people together in the Capitol, on the first day of the month, or of the 
new moon, and called over the days that intervened between that and the Nones. In 
later times the Fasti, or Calendar, used to be put up in public places. 

The -Nones [Nonce] are so called, because they are nine days from the Ides. Ides, [Jdus\ 
from the v,t>solete verb Iduare, to divide, because they divide tho month r„earlj equally. 





Mar. Mai. 
Jul. Oct. 

Jan. Aug. 

Apr. Jun. 
Sep. Nov. 







«5° Nonas. 

4° Nonas. 

4° Nonas. 

4° Nonas. 


5 Nonas. 

3 Nonas. 

3 Nonas. 

3 Nonas 


4 Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas. 

Pridie Nonas. 


3 Nonas. 





Pridie Nonas. 

8° Idus. 

8° Idus. 

8° Idus. 



7 Idus. 

7 Idus. 

7 Idus. 


8° Idus. 

6 Idus, 

6 Idus. 

6 Idus. 


7 Idus. 

5 Idus. 

5 Idus. 

5 Idus. 


6 Idus. 

4 Idus. 

4 Idus. 

4 Idus. 


5 Idus. 

3 Idus. 

3 Idus. 

3 Idus. 


4 Idas. 

Pridie Idus. 

Pridie Idus. 

Pridie Idus. 


3 Idus. 





Pridie Idus. 

19° Kaiendas. 

18° Kaiendas. 

16° Kaiendas. 



18 Kal. 

17 Kal. 

15 Kal. 


17° Kaiendas. 

17 Kal 

16 Kal. 

14 Kal. 


16 Kal. 

16 Kal. 

15 Kal. 

13 Kal. 


15 Kal. 

15 Kal. 

14 Kal. 

12 Kal. 


14 Kal 

14 Kal. 

13 Kal. 

11 Kal. 


13 Kal. 

13 Kal. 

12 Kal. 

10 Kal. 


12 Kal. 

12 Kal. 

11 Kal. 

9 Kal. 


11 Kal. 

11 Kal. 

10 Kal. 

8 Kal. 


10 Kal. 

10 Kal. 

9 Kal. 

7 Kal. 


9 Kal. 

9 Kal. 

8 Kal. 

6 Kal. 


8 Kal. 

8 Kal. 

7 Kal. 

5 Kal. 


7 Kal. 

7 Kal. 

6 Kal. 

4 Kal. 


6 Kal. 

6 Kal. 

5 Kal. 

3 Kal. 


5 Kal. 

5 Kal. 

4 Kal. 

Pridie Kaleiidas. 


4 Kal. 

4 Kal. 

3 Kal. 


3 Kal. 

3 Kal. 

Pridie Kaiendas. 


Pridie Kaiendas. 

Pridie Kaiendas. 


The Romans, counting in the day on which they dated, 
called the second day before the Kalends, Nones or Ides, tcrtio, 
and so on. And, as the Kalends are not the last day A the 
current month, but the first day of the month following ; we 
must take this additional day into consideration in accommo- 
dating our calendar to their dates; according to the following 
method : 

Rule. Add one to the number of the Nones and Ides, and 
two to the number of days in the month for the Kalends ; then 
subtract the number of the day : e. g. to find the Roman date 
of the 21st July; to 31, add 2,=33 ; from this take 21, the 
tlay of the month, and the remainder, 12, is the Roman date, 
12mo. Kal. Aug. 




The golden age is generally computed from the time of the 
second Punic war to the latter end of the reign of Augustas 
CcBsar, and comprehends the oldest authors in the Latin tongue 
now extant, excepting the fragments of Livius Andronicus ; 
though, for a considerable time after the commencement of 
this period, the language was but yet forming, and by gradual 
improvements afterwards arrived at its most perfect state under 

The silver age is reckoned to have commenced on the death 
of Augustus, and continued to the end of Trajan's reign. 

The brazen age began at the death of Trajan, and lasted till 
the time that Rome was taken by the Goths, about four hun- 
dred and ten years after the birth of Christ. 

The iron age commenced from the sacking of Rome above 
mentioned ; after which, the purity and beauty of the Latin 
tongue declined very much, and many base words were intro- 
duced into the language, especially by the ecclesiastical and 
medical writers, the use of which ought to be caiefully avoided 
by all persons studious of writing in a good Latin style ; th<3 
surest way of obtaining which is carefully to read, make ob 
servations upon, and imitate, the purest Latin writers, espe- 
cially those who come the nearest to Cicero, to whose valuable 
writings this language is very much indebted. 


Arranged according to the Ages in ichich they jlourished. 
The golden age begins at the time of the second Punic war, 
and extends to the latter end of the reign of Augustus ; extend- 
ing from the 514th to the 767th year after the foundation of 
Rome, or the 14th year of our Lord. 



Writers of the GOLDEN AGE.* 

P. Nigidius Figulus. 
0. Decius Laberius. 
M. Verriu3 Flaccus. 
P. Syrus. 

M. Accius Plautus. 
P. Terentius Afer. 
M. Portius Cato. 
T. Lucretius Cams. 
C. Valerius Catullus. 
C. Julius Caesar. 
Cornelius Nepos. 
M. Tullius Cicero. 
Sex. Aurelius Propertius. 
C. Sallustius Crispus. 
M. Terentius Varro. 
Albius Tibullus. 
Publius Vhgilius Maro. 

T. Livius. 

M. Manilius. 

P. Ovidius Naso. 

Q Horatius Flaccus. 

C. Pedo Albinovanus. 

Gratius Faliscus. 

T. Phaedrus. 

C. Cornificius. 

Aulus Hirtius, or Oppius [One 
of whom completed the 
Commentaries of Caesar.] 

P. Cornelius Severu3. [He 
lived during the reign cf 
Augustus, but the poetry at- 
tributed to him is said by 
critics to have been written 
by a certain Maximianus, a 
man of a weak mind.] 

Fragments only of the following lawyers remain in trie 


Q. Mutius Scsevola. 
AMenus Varus. 

Writers of the 
Cornelius Celsus. 
M. Fabius Quintilianus. 
P. Velleius Paterculus. 
M. Ann33us Seneca. 
L. Annaeus Seneca. . - 
M. Annaeus Lucanus. 
T. Petronius Arbiter. 
C. Plinius Secundus. 
C. Silius Italicus. 
C. Valerius Flaccus. 

M. Antistius Labeo. 
Masurius Sablnus. 


M. Valerius Martialis. 

C. Julius Sollnus. 

D. Junius Juvenalis. 
D. Papinius Statius. 
Sex. Julius Frontinus. 
C. Cornelius Tacitus. 

C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus. 

L. Annaeus Florus. 

C. Suetonius Tranquillus. 

Of an uncertain Age. 

Q. Curtius Rufus. Scribonius Largus. 

Val. Probus, [a grammarian.^ L. Fenestella. 

Sulpitia, [a noble Roman po- 
etess, whose satire against 
Domitian is still extant.] 

* Of the following only fragments remain. 

Livius Andronlcus. L. Attilius. 

C. Nsevius. C. Lucilius. 

Statius Caecilius. L. Afranius. 

Q. Ennius. L. Cornelius Sisenna. 

M. Pacuvius. 
These authors are ranked among the writers of the golden age, but 
rather on account of their antiquity than their elegance. Their writings 
contain much wisdom and instruction, but are often deficient in the quali- 
ties of a finished style. 


Noltenius ranks among the writers of the Silver Age, 

Phsedrus, [who perhaps more Justlnus. 

properly belongs to this than Aulus Gellius. 

to the golden age.] iEmilius Macer. 

Valerius Maximus. Terentianus MauruB. 
Palladius Rutilius Taurus. 

Writers of the BRAZEN AGE. 

Aulus Gellius. iElius Donatus. 

L. Apuleius. Commodianus. 

Q. Septimius Tertullianus. C. Vettus Juvencus. 

Q. Serenus Sammonicus. D. Hilarius. 

Censorinus. Julius Firmicus. 

Ceecilius Cyprianus. Fab. Marius Victorinus. 

T. Junius Calpurnius. Sextus Rufus. 

M. Aurelius Nemesianus. Festus Historicus. 

jElius Spartianus. Ammianus Marcelllnus. 

Julius Capitolirms. Fl. Vegetius Renatus. 

iElius Lampridius. Aurel. Theod. Macrobius. 

Vulcatius Gallicanus. Q. Aurelius Symmachus 

Trebellius Pollio. Dec. Magnus Ausonius. 

Flavins Vopiscus. Sex. Aurelius Victor. 

Ccelius Aurelianus. D. Ambrosius. 

Flavius Eutropius. Aur. Prudentius Clemens. 

Rhemnius Fannius. CI. Claudianus. 

Arnobius Afer. Marcellus Empiricus. 

L. Caslius Lactantius. Proba Falconia. 

Lawyers, fragments of whose writings remain in the Digests 

Licinius Proculus Callistratus. 

Ner^ lius Priscus. iEmilius Papilianus. 

P. Juvencius Celsus. Julius Paulus. 

Priscus Jabo 7 enus. Sextius Pomponius. 

Domitius Ulpianus. Venuleius Saturnlnus. 

Herennius Modestinus iElius Marcianus. 

Salvius Julianus. iElius Gallus, and others 
Julius Cams. 

Laurentius Valla praises exceedingly the pure Latin ity of these art 
Uxors, and affirms, that the Latin language, if it had perished, could be 
revived by means of the writings of the ancient lawyers alone. 

The following are of a somewhat uncertain age. 

Valerius Maximus. Terentianus Maurus- 

Justinus. Minutius Felix 

test. Avianus or Avienus. Sosipater Charisius. 




$ cts. 
A Quadrans,f or teruncius, is equal to 00,35 of a cent. 

A Triens ,47 « 

A Semissis, or semi-aes .... . ,71 u 
An As, or aes 1,43 " 


A Teruncius is equal to ,35 of a cen< 

A Sembella ,71 " 

A LibeJIa 1,43 

A Sestertius, or Nummus, marked L. L. S. H 

or IIS, commonly written HS. . . . 3,57 " 

A Quinarius, or Victoriatus, marked V. . 7,17 " 

A Denarius, marked X 14,35 u 


An Aureus, or aureus nummus ... $3 58,79 of a cent. 

The gold is reckoned at £4 sterling, ($17 77£) and the silvei 

at 5 shillings, (f 1 ll£) an ounce. 









An Obolus is equal to 2,39 of a cent. 

A Drachma 14,35 

A Tetradrachma or -um 57,40 " 

according to Livy, 43,05 

A Mina $14 35,18 

ATalentum $861 ll£ 

The Romans usually computed sums of money by sestertii, 
or sestertia. Sestertium is the name of a sum, not of a coin. 
When a numeral adjective is joined with sestertii, it means 
just so many sesterces ; thus, decern sestertii — ten sesterces . 
but when it is joined with sestertia, it means so many thou- 
sand sestertii; thus, decern sestertia = 10,000 sesterces. 

* These numbers show how many of each denomination it takes to 
make one of the next following, nearly. 

f Quadrans signifies a quarter of the as; triens, a third ; teruncius, three uncius 
2 C brass, (12 of which made an as,) or a silver coin of that value ; lihella, a diminu- 
tive of libra, being equivalent to the as, which originally weighed a pound, sembella, 
semi-libella ; sestertius, semis tertius, 01 three asses less a half{ after the Greek idiom 
\imcrv rpirov. for tilo fifxicv) \ quinarius, foe asses, called also victoriatu*, from the 
txnage of Victory, its usual device ; denarius, ten asses. 



If a numeral adjective of another case is joined with the 
genitive plural, it denotes so many thousand ; as, decern sester- 
tium, 10,000 sestertii. If a numeral adverb is joined, it de- 
notes so many hundred thousand ; as, decies sestertium, ten 
hundred thousand sestertii. If the numeral adverb stands by 
itself, the signification is the same. 


Eng. Paces. Ft. In. Dec. 
4 1 Hordeigranum, or barley corn, is equal to 0,181^ 
l£ I Digitus transversus, or finger's breadth ,725£ 

3 1 Uncia, thumb's breadth, or inch ..000 ,967 

4 1 Palmus minor, or hand's breadth ..002 ,901 
l£ 1 Pes, or foot 11 ,604 

1 \ 1 Palmipes, a foot and hand's breadth 12 ,505 
if 1 Cubitus 015 ,406 

2 1 Gradus 025 ,010 

125 1 Passus, or pace 4 10 ,020 

8 1 Stadium, or furlong 120 4 4 ,5 

1 Milliare, mille passus or passuum . 967 ,0 


100 Square Roman feet equal . . 1 Scrupulum of land 

4 Scrupula ........ 1 Sextiilus. 

\\ Sextulus 1 Actus. 

6 Sextuli, or 5 Actus . . . . . 1 Uncia of land. 

6 Uncise .1 Square Actus. 

2 Square Actus 1 Jugerum. 

3 Jugera 1 heredium. 

100 Heredia 1 Centuria. 


Gal. Pts, Sol.In. Dec. 

1 Ligiila is equal to ^ ,117^ 

1 Cyathus . ^ ,469$ 

1 Acetabulum . . £ ,704| 

1 Quartarius \ 1 ,409 

1 Hemina £ 2 ,818 

1 Sextarius 01 5 ,636 

1 Congius 07 4 ,942 

1 Urna 3 4£ 5 ,33 

1 AmphSra 7 1 10 ,66 

1 Culeus 143 3 11 ,095 







The quadrantal is the same with the amphora ; congiarius, 
dolium, and cadus mean no certain measure, but a cask or keg. 

The Romans divided the sextarius, as well as the libra, into 
twelve equal parts, called cyathi; and therefore they called 
their caltces either sextantes, quadrantes, or trientes ; according 
to the number of cyathi they contained. 

The cydthus corresponded, in use and size, nearly to our 
wine glass. 


Pk. Gal. Pt. Sol.In.Dee 

4 1 Ligula is equal to 0^ ,01 

1} 1 Cyathus 0^ ,04 

4 1 Acetabulum 0| ,06 

2 1 Hemina o| ,24 

8 1 Sextarius ........ 1 ,48 

2 1 Semi-modius 10 3 ,8A 

1 Modius 10 7 ,68 


lbs. oz. dwts. giB. 
4 1 Lens is equal to ...... 

3 1 Siliqua 

2 1 Obolus 

3 1 Scriptulum 

1£ 1 Drachma 

]| 1 Sextula 

1 £ 1 Sicilicus or -um 

3 1 Duella 

12 1 Uncia 

1 Libra 10 18 13^ 


In the preceding tables of money the authority of Dr. 
Adam, as given in his " Roman Antiquities," has been followed. 
And perhaps no one could in general be followed with more 
safetv. But on some few points he differs from writers of 
great respectability. Forcellinus and Eckhel agree in re- 
solving HS, not into LLS, but into IIS ; that is, two asses and a 
half; giving the letters or lines II their Usual numerical pow- 
er This solution seems much more satisfactory than the 
















former, and is supported by strong probabilities. We find, foi 
example, on ancient coins, HVIR, for Duumvir ; and an X 
standing for ten, has sometimes a mark drawn across it thus, 
~; as it is frequently found on the denarius, where it evi« 
dently stands for ten asses 

The following account of the Roman mode of reckoning 
by sesterces is taken from a treatise on the subject by Mr 
Raper, in the Philosophical Transactions, vol. LXI. 

" The Romans reckoned by Asses before they coined silver, 
after which they kept their accounts in Sesterces. The 
word Sestertius is an adjective, and signifies two and a half 
of any substantive to which it refers. In money matters its 
substantive is either As, or pondus ; and Sestertius As is two 
Asses and a half; Sestertium pondus, two pondtra and a half 
[of silver], or 250 Denarii. 

" When the Denarius passed for ten Asses, the Sesterce of 
2£ Asses was a quarter of it ; and the Romans continued to 
keep their accounts in these Sesterces long after the Dena- 
rius passed for sixteen Asses; till, growing rich, they found 
it more convenient to reckon by quarters of the Denarius, 
which they called Nummi, and used the words Nummus and 
Sestertius, indifferently, as synonymous terms, and sometimes 
both together, as, Sestertius nummus ; in which case, the 
word Sestertius, having lost its original signification, was used 
as a substantive ; for Sestertius nummus was not two Nummi and 
a half, but a single Nummus of four Asses. 

" They called any sum under 2000 Sesterces so many Ses- 
tertii, in the masculine gender ; 2000 Sesterces they called 
duo or bina Sestertia, in the neuter ; so many quarters making 
500 Denarii, which was twice the Sestertium; and they said 
dena vicena, foe. Sester-tia, till the sum amounted to a thousand 
Sestertia, which was a million of Sesterces. But, to avoid 
ambiguity, they did not use the neuter Sestertium in the singu- 
lar number, when the whole sum amounted to no more than 
1000 Sesterces, or one Sestertium. 

" They called a million of Sesterces Decies nummum, or 
Decies Sestertium, for Decies centena millia nummorum, or 
Sestertiorum (in the masculine gender), omitting centena 
millia, for the sake of brevity ; they likewise called the 
same sum Decies Sestertium (in the neuter gender), for Decies 
ccntics Sestertium, omitti ig Ceniies for the reason above men- 
tioned ; or simply Decie , omitting centena millia SestertiutK, 


or centics Sesiertium; and with the numeral adverbs Decies, 
Vicics, Centics, Millies, and the like, either centena millia, or 
centies, was always understood." 

The learned, while they agree as to the substance of the 
foregoing rules, and arrive at the same results in apply : ng 
them to sums of money mentioned in the classics, yet differ 
widely with respect to the grammatical construction of the 
word sestertius, Forcellinus* contends, that sestertium is al- 
ways the contracted genitive plural of the masculine sester- 
tius ; that the use of sestertia in the neuter, is confined to the 
poets, who form the word by a metaplasm, for the sake of the 
metre ; and that, where it is found in printed editions of prose 
writers, it has been arbitrarily substituted for the sign HS 
in the original manuscript, which sign stands in every such 
instance for sestertium, the genitive plural of sestertius. 

Eckhelf considers the numeral adverbs decies, &,c. as taking 
the nature of neuter substantives, as in the expressions hoc 
decies, decies plenum, &c. which occur in ancient authors ; 
and since sestertius is in its nature an adjective (e. g. sester- 
tius pes, sestertius nummus), he regards decies sestertium, decies 
'plenum, Slc. as phrases of similar construction. Hence we 
find the adjective sestertius varied through almost all the cases, 
as in the following examples : Decern arbusculdrum umbram tri- 
ties sestertii summd compenses. Val. Max. His et vicies millies 
sestertium donationibus Nero effuderat. Tsc. Sexagies sestertio 
margaritam meredtus es. Sueton. 
. . , 1 i ■ ■ ■ ■ > <* > 

* Totius Latinitatis Lexicon. 

t Doctrina Numorum Veterum, vol, 7. p. 25. 





Rule I. Construe the nominative case first (with the 
words thereto belonging, if any;) then the verb; then the 
word or words governed of the verb ; lastly the preposition, 
(if any,) with the word depending on it. 

II. A genitive case is usually construed after another 
noun, or a verbal adjective. 

III. An infinitive mode is generally construed after another 
verb, or a participle. 

IV. An adjective or participle, if no other word depend on 
it, must be construed before its substantive. 

V. If an adjective or participle govern a word after it, it 
must be construed after its substantive. 

VI. In an ablative absolute, construe the participle or ad- 
jective last, i. e. after the substantive or word with which it 

VII. If two adjectives or participles agree with the same sub- 
stantive, they must not be construed one before, and the other 
after mat substantive ; but either both before, by Rule IV. or 
both after, by Rule V. 

VIII. Let the relative and its clause be construed as sooa 
as possible after the antecedent. 

The following Rules are from Lyne's Latin Primer 


IX. Certain adverbs and conjunctions are construed before 
the nominative case and verb ; i. e. they are construed first in 
their own clause or sentence : so is the relative qui ; and so 
are quis the interrogative, quantus, quicunque, and such like 
words, (with their accompaniments, ) in whatever case. 

X. When a question is asked, construe the nominative 
case (unless it he the interrogative quis, quotus, quantus, uter, 
fyc.) after the verb, or else between the English verb and its 
auxiliary, expressing the auxiliary first. 

XI. After the verb sum, a verb passive, and a verb neuter, 
a nominative case is sometimes construed ; but then there is 
usually another nominative case, expressed or implied, to come 

XII. An adverb is not to be construed with a substantive, 
but rather with a verb, or an adjective, or participle. 

XIII. After a preposition, constantly look for an accusative, 
or ablative case. 

XIV. The word governed must be construed after (gener- 
ally immediately after) that word which governs it ; except 
such words as Rule IX. specifies; and even they must be 
construed after prepositions. 

XV. When in a sentence there is no finite verb, but only 
an infinitive, with a nominative case, expressed or understood, 
construe such an infinitive like an indicative, or some other 
finite mode, the nominative being construed in its proper 

XVI. When there occur an accusative case and an infini- 
tive mode, quod or ut being left out, construe the accusative 
first, with the word that before it, because it is there virtually - 
a nominative, and should therefore, with its adjuncts, be con- 
strued like a nominative before the verb. 

XVII. Words in apposition must be construed as near to 
each other as possible. 

XVIII. All correspondent words must be construed as near 
to each other as possible. 


XIX. Generally construe every word in any clause you 
have entered on after the nominative case, before you proceed 
to another clause ; beginning each clause, as you pass from one 
to another, with the nominative case and verb, if there be such 
in it, and finishing it according to Rule I. 

XX. An oblique case, unless it be an adjunct to the nom- 
inative, should be construed after the verb ; and when more 
obliques than one depend on the same word, construe accusa- 
tives before datives, datives before ablatives, and genitives im- 
mediately after the words which govern them. 

XXI. When sum is put for habeo, the English nominative 
is expressed in Latin by a dative, and the accusative by a 
nominative : in this case construe the dative first, like a nomina- 
tive ; then the verb, as if declined from habeo ; and then the 
nominative after the verb, like an accusative. 

XXII. By a very common ellipsis, the verb sum may be 
understood in any mode or tense ; when it is so, it must be 
supplied in construing, as the sense requires. 

XXIII. By a most elegant ellipsis, any finite verb may be 
understood, and inferred by reflection from another verb of like 
import, actually expressed within the period. 

XXIV. Adjectives are often elegantly used as aaverbsi 
and are then joined with verbs in the construction, arid render 
* I adverbially. 





The great mystery of the position of words in the Latin 
tongue lies principally in these two points, viz. 

1. That the word governed be placed before the vi&rd which 
governs it. 

2. That the word agreeing be placed after the word with which 
it agrees 

These two may be termed the maxims of position ; and 
from them result various rules, which may be conveniently 
divided into two classes, viz. 

1. Rules resulting from the government of words. 

2. Rules resulting from the agreement of words. 
To which add a third class, viz. 

3. Miscellaneous rules, not reducible to either of the two 
classes foregoing. 



Rule I. A verb in the infinitive mode (if it be governed) 
is usually placed before the word which governs it. 


II. A noun in an oblique case is commonly placed before 
the word which governs it ; whether that word be a verb, or 
another noun-substantive, adjective, or participle. 

III. Dependent clauses, as well as single words, are placed 
before the principal finite verb, on which such clauses do 
mainly depend. 

IV. The finite verb is commonly placed last in its own 

V. Prepositions usually precede the cases governed by 



VI. First Concord, The finite verb is usually placed aAei 
its nominative case, sometimes at the distance of many words, 

VII. Second Concord. The adjective or participle is com- 
monly placed after the substantive with which it agrees. 

VIII. Tliird Concord. The relative is commonly placed 
after the antecedent with which it agrees. 

IX. Third Concord. The relative is placed as near to the 
antecedent as possible. 



X. Adverbs. Adverbs are placed before rather than after 
the words to which they belong. 

XI. Adverbs. Adverbs are in general placed immediately 
before the words to which they belong; no extraneous words 
coming between. 

XII. Igitur, autem, enim, etiam, are very seldom placed 
first in a clause or sentence. The enclitics, que, ne, ve, are 
never placed first. 


XIII Tamen k ery often and elegantly placed after the 
first, second, or third word of the clause in which it stands. 

XIV. Connected words should go together ; that is, they 
may not be separated from one another by words that are 
extraneous, and have no relation to them. 

XV. Cadence. The cadence, or concluding part of a 
clause or sentence, should very seldom consist of monosyl- 

XVI. So far as other rules and perspicuity will allow, in 
the arrangement and choice of words, when the foregoing ends 
with a vowel, let the next begin with a consonant ; and vice 


XVII. In general a redundancy of short words must be 

XVIII. In general a redundancy of long words must be 

XIX. In general there must be no redundancy of long 

XX. In general there must be no redundancy of short 

XXI. The last syllables of the foregoing word must not be 
the same as the first syllables of the word following. 

XXII. Many words, which bear the same quantity, which 
begin alike or end alike, or which have the sama character* 
istic letter in declension or conjugation, (many such words,) 
may not come together. 





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